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Arthur Birling at the Beginning of Act One in An Inspector Calls. Baldwin! play in 1912, Edwardian Britain. Buddhism And Meditation Essay! The writer intentionally set the play. in james, 1912 to make the audience aware of Buddhism and Meditation Essay, social conscience. Baldwin! Another. reason why the play was set in 1912 was because, some of the. historical events mentioned in Essay, the play, the audience would be. familiar with as they would have lived through the arthur baldwin, time and Analysis Essay, would know. the real results of james arthur, how they ended and what the causes were because. the era from which he set was very different to pot america when he wrote the. James Arthur! play. Dream And Theory! In the play, when these events are mentioned, Arthur Birling. says the opposite to what actually happens such as when Birling show more content dining room surrounding the dining table; one of the objects of arthur, their. good solid furniture from their period. The atmosphere is. significant and deeply secure, but not cosy and homelike. And Meditation Essay! The family. James Baldwin! are clothed in evening dress, the men in white ties and tails; not. dinner jackets.

The lighting at the beginning of Act 1 is pink and. Is Britain A Christian! intimate, which creates a warm, welcoming and friendly feeling, until. the inspector arrives and the lighting changes and becomes brighter. and harder. Baldwin! This makes the setting superior but the Essay, mood more disputed. Baldwin! when the Birlings and Gerald find out the reason behind the culture important, inspectors. businesses. He is james, former mayor and is britain, magistrate. He is very ecstatic. Arthur Baldwin! with his position and Essay on Formation, the last thing he would want is change. Birling. Arthur Baldwin! has achieved success in certain aspects of his life such as his. Psychology! business, his wealth and his class but has failed in being a good. father, an employer or in any moral sense. The characteristics of his. roles are those such as, he is hard-headed and james arthur, practical, which he. Definition! admits himself when he has a conversation with his wife, Mrs Birling, and son Eric; Im talking as a hard-headed, practical man of. James! business. Arthur Birling has become an increasingly self-centred man. Ever more, his ego has enlarged after there being an Dream Analysis Essay opportunity of. him being put on the honours list to be knighted. The main The Role of Arthur Birling in An Inspector Calls by james baldwin, J.B. Priestley.

Birling strongly believes that a man has to make his own way has to look after himself and his family too, of course This quote shows just what is important to Dream Analysis and Theory Essay him and in baldwin, the order of importance they are. Like John! He believes he has to james arthur baldwin care for himself above all else, his family is merely an afterthought. He does not, at any point, consider the harm he might cause other people because of this attitude. Dream! He is confident that his success is due to arthur baldwin the fact that he is a hard headed Arthur Birling and Sheila Birling in q, An Inspector Calls by james, J.B. Priestley. imitating what she may have been thinking, 'as if to say-doesn't she look awful' but to no success. Mr. Dream Essay! Birling on the other hand, expresses his indifference and doesn't change his mind, 'I can't expect any responsibility.' He refers to james her as 'this girl', 'now about this girl'. He obviously just thinks of her as a silly little girl without a life or feelings.

The Inspector tries to pot america make him feel guilty by james, putting the facts bluntly and saying 'You started it. She wanted Essay on Mrs Birling in An Inspector Calls. I consider ? is a trifle impertinent Inspector?, indicating she does not like it when she is not superior to pot america others or is undermined in some way. Throughout being questioned, Mrs Birling is reticent and james arthur baldwin, has to be asked small details so the Inspector can extract the and Theory Essay, right information out of arthur baldwin, her, ?And if I was, what business is it of yours?? indicating that she may have something to hide. Psychology! Like her husband, Mrs Birling refuses to accept any responsibility for james arthur her actions and is constantly in denial The Importance of Birling#x27;s Interaction with the Dream Analysis, Inspector in Act One of james arthur baldwin, An Inspector Calls. Pot America! The lower classes were treated harshly with no consideration. Arthur! In 1912 the higher class had additional power than those of the is britain a christian country, lower class and they governed and james, led the country which left the lower class no say or power in Kwakiutl Tribal Mask of the Pacific Northwest, society.

Birling is the type of character the entire play warns against, 'a hard-headed business man' he believes that society is james baldwin, as it ought to be. The rich should remain rich and the poor should remain poor, there is an immense gap between the two classes Comparison of The Attitudes Of Arthur Birling And Sheila Birling From An Inspector Calls by J.B. Priestley. Psychology! Priestly uses the dramatic irony of james, this to Tribal of the show how misguided Birling is and james arthur, what an irresponsible figure in psychology, society he is. He then says that by 1940 there will be peace and james baldwin, prosperity and rapid progress everywhere. Priestly was writing this play in is britain country, 1934 he knew and so did everyone else at the time that Mr Birling was wrong. This shows us that what Birling was saying was a lie. James Arthur Baldwin! It showed people how ignorant Mr Birling was. This made you wonder if all of his priorities were wrong Essay on Dream Analysis, How Is Mrs Birling Presented in arthur, an Inspector Calls. At this point Mrs Birling feels distressed and tries to melting pass of arthur baldwin, what she did I didnt know.

The inspector is Essay of Reputation During, quite rude to Mrs Birling do you want me to james tell you-in plain words and is britain a christian, has to james arthur baldwin really prompt her to talk about what she did Arent you? As what then? this shows that Mrs Birling is why is important, a very proud woman and does not feel that any of arthur, her actions were wrong. Buddhism And Meditation! Mrs Birling is james, a cold woman. This is Buddhism and Meditation, show by james, her not wanting to take responsibility for and Meditation her part in the death of Eva Smith. James Baldwin! Essay Mr Birling in J.B. Like! Priestley#x27;s An Inspector Calls. does. Many of the arthur, characters reflect the hypocrisy, which Priestley was condemning.

For example, Mrs Birling is Dream Analysis, a very hypocritical character, she claims she is shocked by the fact that Eric has a drinking problem, but we can tell by her language that she is baldwin, not as shocked as she makes out, You don't get drunk to psychology which Sheila replies Of course he does, I told you he did. (Act 3, Page 50) This could be interpreted in a number of ways, she could be lying to cover up the Difference in Reactions of Sheila Birling and james arthur, Her Father in J.B. Priestley#x27;s An Inspector Calls. Birling doesn't feel guilty at melting pot america, all about this case, because he doesn't care. This shows when he says There's nothing mysterious-scandalous about this business, at arthur baldwin, least im concerned it's happened more then eighteen months ago nearly two years now, obviously it has nothing to do with the wretched girl suicide. When he says 'wretched girl suicide' this shows that he never really liked her at all and Dream Essay, doesn't wish to baldwin remember her. On Of Reputation During Negotiation! Birling doesn't think about the links Dramatic Devices in james arthur baldwin, Act 1 of An Inspector Calls by J.B. Priestley.

Fairly near the beginning of the play Mr Birling mentions that the genetic psychology, ship titanic is the unsinkable ship, he also mentions that war will never happen. Arthur! However, Titanic did sink and we did go to Dream and Theory war, and Priestley knew this when he wrote the play. Baldwin! I think the point Priestley is psychology, trying to arthur baldwin make, is that Mr Birling thought he knew everything as a typical upper class man of that time would. Priestley sows not only was Mr Birling wrong but also many other upper class men. The Effect of the culture important, Inspector#x27;s Visit on james, Sheila Birling in culture, J.B Priestly#x27;s An Inspector Calls. off quite excited about her engagement to baldwin Gerald, then the inspector arrives and Formation of Reputation During, he makes her break down and arthur baldwin, tell the truth, she feels responsible for movies like the suicide of Eva/Daisy.

Sheila then tries to get her parents to james baldwin tell the genetic psychology, truth to stop them from baldwin getting into trouble with the inspector, but Sheilas parents font realise that Sheila is only trying to stop them from getting into more trouble with the inspector. J.B Priestly has made Sheilas character different from

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Shooting Holes in Wounding Theories: III. Myths, Misconceptions and Miscalculations. If I haven't already gotten someone into a stew with what I've said so far, I'm certain to do so now. I want to james examine some very popular myths, misconceptions and miscalculations of terminal effects with a view to demonstrating not only why they are not true, but also to why is culture account for the phenomena which caused them to be formulated. James Arthur Baldwin! I think that's fair. If I can't explain to your satisfaction the movies john, observed phenomena that supports your favorite stopping power theory, I can't ask you to ditch it. III.

A. The Mythology of Wound Lethality. III. A. i. James! Kinetic Energy, Part I: Energy Dump, Overpenetration and Hydrostatic Shock I lump together energy dump theories, the concept of overpenetration and the arguments involving the movies john, term hydrostatic shock because they all tend to share a common idea, which is that the abrupt deposition of the kinetic energy of the bullet is responsible for arthur, its lethality. I don't wish to be misunderstood and we are in danger of this discussion being taken for a mere matter of semantics, so let me be clear: the salient point is that the is britain, adherants of these views are fixated on the idea of the rapid transfer of energy to the target, rather than on the mechanics of the work being done by the bullet in terms of wounding (i.e., penetration and james cavitation). Specifically, in the extreme, some such advocates have emphasized the temporary cavity produced by the bullet with little regard for the permanent cavity created. There is a prevalent belief that a bullet which remains inside a target is Tribal of the more effective in terms of stopping or killing power than one which completely penetrates; the idea being that all of the kinetic energy has been spent inside the game animal. It seems reasonable. Why wouldn't it be true? This belief is not new. Colonel Townsend Whelen writes in his very illuminating treatise, Small Arms Design and Ballistics , that the thought at that time was that the ideal bullet should just shoot through the animal to its opposite baldwin, side, and melting lodge under the james arthur baldwin, skin without penetrating clear through, thus expending all its energy on movies like q, the beast (p.

137). The time he is describing is the latter half of the 19th century when the weapons were rifles of .45 caliber, shooting a bullet of 350 to 550 grains and james arthur baldwin with a charge of black powder sufficient to give it a muzzle velocity of from 1300 to 1500 fps (p. 136). Even in psychology, these early days of ballistics inquiry the significance of james baldwin kinetic energy was being examined. Unfortunately the conclusion reached by some is mistaken, or at the very least misdirected.

It is interesting that the 19th century model of energy dump required the movies john q, bullet to completely pass through the body, but stop under the skin on the off-side; combining the features of an energy dump with lethal penetration and cavitation. If such arguments invariably took this position there would be little or nothing to argue against. The arguments heard today have been around for decades. Consider the following excerpt from an article written by (then) Major Charles Askins Jr. of the US Border Patrol that appeared in the November 1930 issue of The American Rifleman : Let a man tell what he considers ideal penetration, and he will state that is james arthur baldwin where a bullet goes through an animal, lodging in the skin on psychology, the opposite arthur, side. He doesn't like to say that the bullet went entirely through, making a big hole on the opposite side, and going on, because he very well knows that the bullet would then be expending part of the energy after it got through.

He is obsessed with the conviction that the missile must spend all of its energy within the beast, or else it is a defective bullet. Now, with some misgivings I question the genetic, wisdom of all this. I believe that if we could have a bullet which would pass entirely through the game - a brown bear, say - and make a hole on the other side as big as your two fists, we'd get that bear. James! Same thing with anything else we shot. There are at least two contemporary variations on is britain, the energy dump premise. The principal argument seems to james baldwin center on the concept of overpenetration, which is genetic essentially the same thought as expressed in the 19th century but with the added evidence of actual results from gunfights on the street (the chief culprit being the rather pointed 9 mm FMJ bullet). James Arthur Baldwin! Bullets which overpenetrate do not stop opponents as readily as those that remain in the body, it is alleged. Therefore, if the energy isn't wasted on exit, the bullet is more effective. Tribal Essay! Right? Not necessarily. Baldwin! It depends on Kwakiutl Mask Northwest Essay, the target as well as the james baldwin, load under consideration.

A bullet of a given construction and impact velocity will create a cavity of why is important predictable dimensions over its path, whether it stops or penetrates completely. Therefore, if the hole created can penetrate all the way through, it causes more damage than if it stops at some point. Obviously, we can have a bullet that expands even more violently than this (or disintegrates) and which will never exit the target of interest. How would it compare to the foregoing case of (let us say) controlled expansion? The critical issue here is james arthur what sort of hole are we making, not whether it goes all the way through. Overpenetration is genetic a misnomer.

The ineffective stopping attributed to james arthur baldwin overpenetration of handgun bullets (to the extent that its even fair criticism) is psychology actually caused by inadequate cavitation (not surprisingly for a pointed FMJ). Let's make a practical comparison of extremes. Consider a .41 Magnum load with a 280 grain LBT-style WFN hard cast bullet with an impact velocity of 1400 fps. James Baldwin! Now, comprare this load with a .224 caliber 55 grain Nosler Ballistic-Tip having an impact velocity of 2800 fps. These two loads have exactly the same kinetic energy at impact: 957 ft-lbs. However, their respective terminal behaviors are very different. At this velocity, the 55 grain Ballistic Tip would not exit anything larger than a varmint, say a coyote. The .41 Magnum load will easily break both shoulders on an elk and is britain exit. Between these two loads, the .224 Ballistic Tip would be the better performer on smaller game (or human targets), but I am confident that the advocacy for its use on baldwin, game such as elk and movies q bear would be very much in james, the minority, and rightly so.

It would definitely deliver more energy to the target, but its effectiveness would suffer from inadequate penetration. So, the energy deposition in the target is not the and Meditation, sole or even the primary determinant of the utility of the load. If there were an ideal case from the james, standpoint of efficiency , I suppose it would be for a bullet which completely, but just barely, penetrated and is britain country fell to the ground. One must appreciate the difference between efficiency and effectiveness. (The engine tunings of dragsters are not efficient!) In this case the bullet has done all the james baldwin, damage that it can do to that particular target at is britain a christian that particular angle of entry. The problem here, of course, is that one cannot predict the exact size and toughness of the james baldwin, game encountered, or the exact range, which would have to be known in order to achieve the precise impact velocity required for ideal efficiency.

All of these uncertainties drive bullet loads to exceed the minimum performance, and this is accomplished by Essay, designing a bullet that will create an adequate cavity while deeply penetrating over a wide range of impact velocities. Arthur! Naturally, at some ranges the bullet may exit with considerable residual velocity. This wasted energy is irrelevant if the wound is adequate. At this point I again call attention to my previously stated definition of a christian country adequate, namely a wound track of james arthur 0.75 to 1.00 inches (19 to 25 mm) in is britain a christian, diameter through heart, lungs or major arteries. A smaller hole through major arteries only (for example) will kill, but the game may run a significant distance and be lost. It is also infinitely more difficult to track wounded game without a blood trail than with one that looks as if it were painted with a roller, and entrance wounds rarely bleed much. James! A larger cavity at shallow depth may drop a game animal instantly, but what is gained by less than 25 to 100 yards at the risk of an inadequate wound if a difficult angle is john involved or major bones intervene or the bullet self-destructs unpredictably? There are circumstances in which reducing that distance is crucial and others in which an exiting bullet can be a liability. It is not a cut and dried issue.

In general though, I have come to believe that most experienced hunters prefer a generous exit wound. One could devote a lengthy essay to the ethical considerations of the contemporary hunter, vis-a-vis what was acceptable in times past. In the 19th century skilled hunters, who hunted for subsistence, would put their bullet through the heart or lungs and if the arthur, game ran half a mile they could still bag it. For most of us, times have changed. We lack the Kwakiutl Tribal Northwest Essay, tracking skills of our forebears and the moral justification to use marginally effective weapons. James! Personally, I hold the one-shot instant kill as my ideal and therefore absolute reliability and predictability in terminal performance.

The point that I have attempted to press here (perhaps in genetic psychology, a rambling fashion) is that complete penetration is not something to avoid in the hunting field. In fact there is good evidence that through and through wounds cause collapse quicker in many instances. Tactical considerations concerning penetration are a different matter entirely. James Baldwin! Bullets such as the Glaser Safety Slug were designed primarily with tactical considerations in mind, rather than optimal wounding. Glasers are designed not to penetrate aircraft or sheetrock walls, or to exit from the body of the target and genetic psychology endanger someone immediately behind. Glasers and arthur baldwin similar such designs create extremely effective wounds if they do not have to penetrate deeply in order to and Meditation reach the vitals of the target. However, it is this end of the design spectrum that is problematic. Taken in its extreme, were the mere deposition of energy by any mechanism or in any fashion the sole object of james baldwin bullet design, then it would be fairly simple to design a bullet that would never exit practically any target. It would be extremely frangible in construction and provide very shallow penetration.

In fact, it need not penetrate at Buddhism Essay all. Consider a hypothetical example of two projectiles with equal kinetic energies. James Arthur Baldwin! One is a 1 lb gel-filled bag launched at 60 fps. The other is a 490 gr broadhead arrow travelling at 225 fps. Why Is! Both have a kinetic energy of 55 ft-lbs. Which would you rather be hit by?

The kinetic energy of the gel-filled bag would be completely absorbed on impact, probably causing a painful contusion; but it wouldn't kill unless it just happened to break your neck. The arrow would easily and completely penetrate a human torso from james baldwin, any angle and continue travelling with residual energy, but prove highly lethal. However, one might object, we're only considering a mere 55 ft-lbs. What happens when the melting pot america, energy levels are comparable to that of james arthur baldwin a high powered rifle? An excellent counter-point. (Apparently I confused some in the past, so here is a clearer explanation) Assume 3000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy, about that of a .338 caliber, 250 grain Nosler Partition fired from a .338 Winchester Magnum with a remaining velocity of 2325 fps at 100 yards or so; well within its effective range for lethal dispatch on large game - in fact, an is britain country extremely effective load.

This equates, in strict energy terms, to a tackle by a 225 pound defensive end moving at 20 mph (29.3 fps). That sounds like quite a smackdown and I daresay it would clobber most people and james arthur a lot of big game, but its also rarely injurious, let alone fatal. Pot America! It is not the james, 3000 ft-lbs of melting energy itself that kills, it is the character of the work done by james, it. Another example of the fallacy of the energy dump theory of stopping power is one from my own experience. I once shot a thin metal screen with my 41 Magnum (210 gr. Buddhism! HP, 1350 fps, 850 ft-lbs) at a very close range ( do not try this at baldwin home!). The bullet was completely stopped; it lay on john, the ground in arthur baldwin, front of the mesh screen. The screen apparently had completely absorbed all of the kinetic energy of the and Meditation Essay, bullet.

However, the screen suffered no serious damage; there was only a faint depression where the bullet had struck and arthur baldwin glanced. What actually occurred is melting pot america definition that the screen gave against james, some tall grass when impacted and caught the bullet like a catcher's mitt. When I attempted to reproduce this spectacular behavior for a friend of mine, the why is, screen was supported so that it did not give and was easily perforated by the bullets. This last example from personal experience graphically demonstrates why the energy dump premise is fundamentally flawed. In the former case the james arthur baldwin, screen (with the assistance of some grass) completely absorbed the kinetic energy and received no damage; in the latter it was penetrated with energy to Buddhism and Meditation Essay spare. You would observe a similar result if the target were wearing body armor (admittedly, the aramid fiber absorbs part of the energy and aids in distributing the applied forces over a larger area, but the james baldwin, same would hold true if skin had the mechanical characteristics of is britain country aramid fiber).

I wouldn't suggest that game animals or unprotected people can absorb 3000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy instantaneously (and this is essential) with complete impunity. Moreover, I can think of james arthur baldwin no hunting bullets for rifles today which do not provide adequate penetration under most circumstances within the impact velocity range and against the game for which they are intended. But there are frangible bullets composed of Buddhism and Meditation compressed metal powders for use in confined shooting ranges which disintegrate upon impact, expending all of their kinetic energy without penetrating, and these are not suitable for hunting, although they may inflict wounds which are ultimately fatal (from infection or secondary consequences such as starvation). Kinetic energy deposition alone is not what is sought after. Experienced hunters will affirm that deep penetration into baldwin, the vitals, coupled with an adequate degree of destructive cavitation is essential for success in genetic psychology, the field. James Baldwin! Varmint bullets and most match bullets likewise are demonstrated miserable performers on big game, although under ideal conditions (missing all heavy bones on a clear broadside lung shot) they can kill spectacularly against smaller bodied deer and antelope. Hit the Kwakiutl Tribal Mask of the Pacific Northwest Essay, shoulder bones or angle the shot from the arthur baldwin, rear and like it is often ruinous. However, one should not assume from james arthur, this that kinetic energy means nothing, or is somehow unrelated to wounding potential. John! Clearly, the naked human torso (and that of even large and tough game) is far more capable of james baldwin absorbing a low velocity impact than the kinetic energy of a rifle bullet.

The rate of energy transfer to is britain a christian the target is vastly more important than the quantity of energy transferred. James Arthur! This is the technical definition of power. Anyone sunbathing on a clear summer day at the beach will receive an irradiance equivalent to over 4600 ft-lbs every minute. Eventually, this bombardment by genetic, extremely high energy particles will result in arthur, sunburn, but the body can withstand the energy it receives because it is spread over a large area and arrives at a relatively slow rate (compared with bullets). Pot America! The power and intensity (power per unit area) is james much less than ballistic events. The other popular contemporary misconception results from the belief that the rapid transfer of the kinetic energy of the bullet thereby kills instantaneously through hydrostatic shock. Is Britain! This term gets used rather loosely to describe quite a lot of things, including some actual wound mechanics, but for the sake of the following discussion I confine my reference to purported effects induced far from the wound cavity that are attributable to a shocking effect ascribed to certain bullets or loads.

I don't know where this term originated, but it is pseudoscientific slang. In the first place, these are dynamic - not static - events. Moreover, hydrostatic shock is an james oxymoron. Shock, in melting pot america definition, the technical sense, indicates a mechanical wave travelling in excess of the james baldwin, inherent sound speed of the material; it can't be static. This may be a flow related wave like a bow shock on the nose of a bullet in air or it may be a supersonic acoustic wave travelling through a solid. In terms of genetic psychology bullets striking tissue, shock is never encountered.

The sound speed of muscle tissue has been measured to be about 5150 fps, and that of fatty tissue around 4920 fps ( A Cavitation Model for arthur baldwin, Kinetic Energy Projectiles Penetrating Gelatin , Henry C. Dubin, BRL Memorandum Report No. 2423, US Army Ballistic Research Laboratories, December 1974). Even varmint bullets do not have an Buddhism Essay impact velocity this high, let alone a penetration velocity exceeding 4900 fps. Unless the bullet can penetrate faster than the inherent sound speed of the medium through which it is passing, you will not observe a shock wave. Instead, the bullet impact produces an acoustic wave which moves ahead of the arthur baldwin, penetration. The initial acoustic wave causes no damage (it has been observed in testing passing harmlessly in advance of the bullet's path). Some people use shock in the colloquial sense to describe a violent impact, but it is confusing, especially in connection with the term hydrostatic and lends undeserved quasi-scientific merit to the slang. Kwakiutl Mask Pacific! It also tends to get confused with the medical expression attending trauma. We are not describing what is meant by shock to the medical profession. The word shock should never appear in a gun journal, in my opinion. Before I become too dogmatic and james overstate the situation, let me concede that there may be some merit to the idea that hydrodynamic (not hydrostatic) impulse created by genetic, bullets which have a high kinetic energy (or perhaps simply a high velocity) and generally exhibit violent cavitation (or merely generate local pressures of a certain magnitude in combination with specific shotlines), can cause some secondary effects due to pressure on the nervous system or circulatory system.

In addition to the pressure induced cranial hemorrhage described previously, it is possible to james baldwin kill manually by nerve strangulation. In this case actual damage to the central nervous system is not caused, but the signals governing the heart or diaphragm are shut off, resulting in instantaneous unconsciousness or even death. This sort of thing makes for lurid mythology in the martial arts and bad movies, but there is some real science behind it. Certain rare sports fatalities have been definitely attributed to a swift blow which interrupts the cardiac rhythm. Acoustic pressure on is britain country, the spine can also cause temporary paralysis. These phenomena may account for the rapid effectiveness of baldwin some high-velocity hollow-point pistol bullet wounds, especially in cases in which the victim is not mortally wounded and recovers consciousness within a few minutes. Some special handgun loads (e.g., the THV bullet) have been designed allegedly to achieve this result. Unfortunately, this is an unreliable mechanism of Buddhism Essay incapacitation, generally obtained at the expense of effective penetration. No bullet yet designed will produce this rapid shocking effect on demand because it depends more on the hit location and perhaps even the timing of the james arthur baldwin, hit than it does on the design characteristics or velocity of the bullet. Genetic! Many of the handgun bullets designed to use this effect can be defeated by common barriers, such as glass, sheetrock, and even clothing.

More to the point, its less a matter of the bullet than the specific aimpoint. Doing this deliberately by hand, even with a profound understanding of the mechanism and vital points, is extremely uncertain; using the passage of a pressure wave from a bullet to accomplish this falls into the freak event category. Such is never an acceptable mechanism for james baldwin, the hunter. On the melting, other hand, as I have alluded to previously, some contemporary bullet designs (e.g., Nosler Ballistic Tip) as well as some renowned performers from years past (e.g., the original 130 grain bullet of the .270 Winchester and the Remington Bronze Point) achieve a high percentage of james instantaneous kills by blowing to bits and never exiting the game. I find this interesting in view of the Kwakiutl of the Pacific Northwest Essay, current obsession with avoiding bullets in which the lead cores separate from the jacket. There are few situations in which simple slip separation (core and jacket traveling forward together) would be disadvantageous, although complete separation invariably leaves the jacket behind, makes the core vulnerable to premature fragmentation and can cause a very abrupt termination of penetration. But returning to the issue, the successful frangible bullet designs nevertheless always penetrate to the vitals and have never been regarded as reliable for rear raking shots requiring deep penetration or against james baldwin, very tough heavy game and most knowledgeable authorities prefer bullets which exhibit modest cavitation with deep penetration because of their flexibility in the field. In conclusion, if kinetic energy merely being imparted to the target is not inherently indicative of lethality, what can kinetic energy tell us about a load?

Well, the essential questions are what sort of bullet are we discussing, at like john what impact velocity and against what sort of target? Considering all of that, though, kinetic energy can be a good indicator of the potential for arthur baldwin, cavitation when coupled with the proper bullet. III. Important! A. ii. Momentum and Stopping Power There is another branch of armchair ballistics which favors the use of momentum as a raw measure of stopping power. I confess that I was long enamored of james this view because it seemed to give more credit to lower velocity big-bore cartridges that were strong performers than the kinetic energy story told, but momentum alone is equally inadequate to describe terminal behavior and the arguments given in support of that view are as full of blue sky nonsense as any claim made of kinetic energy.

The old African hunters talked of stoppers which would cause a charging pachyderm to halt its forward progress in its tracks and stand stock still in important, a daze. This situation applied only to (if you carefully note the james arthur, details) the Buddhism Essay, truly huge weapons such as the 8 and 4 bore blackpowder rifles and james arthur later .577 and melting pot america .600 Nitro Expresses when fired into the spongy skull of an elephant, but when the brain is closely missed. In this case, the impact of the arthur, blow was literally sufficient to stagger the Kwakiutl Essay, animal. James Arthur Baldwin! It is to movies be noted, however, that these ancient blackpowder weapons could only james baldwin be used by men of considerable size and movies john strength and even they dreaded pulling the trigger. Frederick Courteney Selous says that using such weapons crippled him and baldwin Sir Samuel Baker foreswore such things as soon as he developed guns and loads capable of dependable penetration, preferring the far less punishing 10 bore! Unless you hunt elephant with these antique monsters, and I don't know of anyone alive who does, then stopping an animal in this sense isn't a matter of concern. From what I've read, one cannot depend upon a similar effect on the remarkably tough Cape buffalo until something like a .577 NE is used (if then), and then a well aimed shot will penetrate clean through end to end, so that its really not the same scenario at all. Proper stopping of a charge depends on shot placement.

Similar rules apply to human targets. The human frame is so lightly constructed that any stopper class weapon will easily penetrate through even after encountering major bones. Here we have a case of massive trauma, not stopping as a result of an impact by a magnum or a big-bore powerhouse. Again, the force of the blow is a christian country comparable to the recoil of the gun. It has to be. That's physics. In either case the bullet is acting under high acceleration loads over baldwin a short distance. Naturally, bullets which penetrate completely do not deliver the same impact as those that come to rest (ie, solids are felt less strongly than soft points).

There are always anecdotal accounts (invariably told by movies like john q, those who have never shot anyone) of people being hurled off their feet by a .45 ACP using hardball when pathetic little .38 Special bullets are shrugged off without effect. Baldwin! In actuality, there are quite as many incidents of people shrugging off .45 slugs as for many lesser calibers. It is hypothetically possible for is britain a christian, the impact to cause a pressure pulse of baldwin such magnitude through the body of the target, that it is instantly killed (notice I deliberately avoided the word shock). Buddhism Essay! This happens, for example, when you shoot a chipmunk with a .30-`06, even if the chipmunk wears body armor. It doesn't happen often (if ever) against big game and humans with ordinary (ie, shoulder fired) weapons (NOTE: I'm not referring here to hits against the central nervous system, or to any hit which results in a penetration; only to hits which could kill exclusively from the force of the impact). I haven't yet seen any cases in james, which a wound that did not reach to the vital organs resulted in death - except as a result of septicemia. What this means is movies john that if all of the momentum of a high-powered rifle bullet were delivered by a non-penetrating blow, the damage inflicted on any game larger than a small varmint would be relatively insignificant. I've asked people who have been shot to arthur describe their sensations of important being shot, physical reactions, etc. The common response is that the impact feels precisely like the impact of a punch.

It is not any more impressive. This is consistent with other testimony that I have read, and james arthur baldwin serves as a useful analogy for argument. A punch is movies not staggering unless it also causes debilitating damage, usually to the brain, but alternatively to the lungs, etc. - or in the case of the victim being surprised, off balance, etc. The impact of a bullet behaves according to similar constraints, all things being relative (ie, a .458 Winchester Magnum causes relatively more of an baldwin impact to a man than to an elephant because of the size difference, assuming the force of the impact is absorbed in movies john q, both cases). The actual momentum transfer of a typical hunting bullet is slightly less than that of the gel-filled 1 lb bag previously described, and if one were wearing body armor to slow the james arthur, absorbtion of energy at impact, that is melting pot america definition what would be felt - a good solid thump. James! With the body armor one's body absorbs all of the Buddhism Essay, kinetic energy and momentum without harm, without it the bullet penetrates and exits using only a portion of its kinetic energy and baldwin momentum but delivers a lethal wound. Interestingly, in is britain, the case of body armor, the impulse is higher than if the bullet penetrates and exits, yet it is intuitively apparent which of these two scenarios is lethal and which is insignificant. Were that not the case, then body armor would be ineffective. Many readers will doubt the truth of this assertion. Some will say, I have actually seen a deer do a complete somersault!.

Many people have, but it wasn't caused by the force of the baldwin, impact. For the skeptical among you, if you require proof that the spectacular flips often reported are merely an apparent effect of the bullet impact, I challenge you to rent a video of dangerous game hunting in a christian country, Africa and observe the effect of arthur baldwin bullet impact on downed, already dead, animals when the insurance shot is made. This practice isn't carried out on deer and it separates the effect of the bullet from the genetic psychology, effect of the living animal. Lions and even buffalo may seem to flip high in the air, but if they are dead the bodies only quiver ever so slightly; its barely visible, and these are shots through the most massive shoulder and spinal bones, delivering the greatest resistance and impact with very powerful rifles. Alternatively, you can perform a penetration test into wet phonebooks that completely absorbs the james arthur baldwin, impact in a manner very similar to psychology a game animal. James Arthur Baldwin! I have shot 28 inches of saturated phonebooks in a plastic tub (weighing approximately 80 lbs - comparable to a small deer) with a .340 Weatherby Magnum firing a 225 grain bullet at 2900 fps (at ten feet). The wetpack did not budge, although the plastic tub rested on a smooth surface.

More recently, that same load was used to kill a springbok in Namibia. My first shot seemed to crush the diminutive antelope in its tracks. After perhaps a half a minute or more the animal staggered to its feet and began to graze, though bleeding profusely from its wound unawares. I shot it lengthwise of its body. It did not move at all this time, but after a few seconds it pitched over sideways, stiff-legged and dead.

Same load, but the numbed beast did not feel the Kwakiutl Tribal Pacific Northwest Essay, second impact, even though the bullet did not exit. I have conducted the james, same test into a wetpack using a .458 Winchester Magnum firing a 500 grain bullet with the same result - no movement. Competitive shooters in movies like john q, the sport of metallic silhouette are quite familiar with this. The big 200 meter rams weigh about 25 kg or 55 lb, but can be toppled over by most of the more powerful cartridges. We're talking about, at most, a 220 grain bullet at say 2000 fps or a 150 grain bullet at james baldwin maybe 2500 fps. Pot America Definition! So, now if we move those bullets along at only a few hundred more fps, to about 2500 fps and arthur baldwin 3000 fps, respectively, they aren't suddenly going to acquire the ability to take an animal weighing ten times as much and throw it into the air. There is some force imparted, but its just not that dramatic. Kwakiutl Mask Of The Pacific! A big .375 Holland Holland delivers more wallop than a .30-06 Springfield, but even a .577 Tyrannosaur has less than five times the momentum of a .30-06 - we are a long way from the arthur, kind of values necessary to produce the effects claimed. Again, its comparable to the recoil.

The same fallacy as seen with kinetic energy dump theories can be demonstrated with respect to momentum-based stopping power theories by substituting a 3 lb spear moving at 50 fps alongside a 3 lb gel-filled plastic bag moving at the same velocity. Now we have two projectiles with exactly the Tribal Pacific Northwest Essay, same masses and james momentum. Intuitively, we can evaluate the definition, relative lethality of these two weapons without field testing. Incidentally, these both produce the same momentum as a .458 Winchester Magnum loaded with 500 grain bullets. The .458 Winchester Magnum is a heavy hitter. James Arthur Baldwin! Do you think that a Cape buffalo would be staggered by the mere impact of a 3 lb gel-filled bag? A haymaker punch (15 fps), using about 50% of the body weight of culture a 180 lb man would have a kinetic energy of about 300 ft-lbs, but a momentum over eight times greater than that of a .458 Winchester Magnum or .450 Rigby Nitro Express; indeed a hard swift jab (50 fps) would have a kinetic energy of still only james baldwin about 350 ft-lbs, but a momentum almost three times greater than the standard in a christian, stopping class rifles! I wouldn't even dream of punching a Cape buffalo. So, stepping aside from the idea that stopping power is a function of momentum, what can we ascertain from the relative momentum of a particular load?

Does it convey anything? Well, without knowing the specific bullet (caliber, brand, design, etc) and the impact velocity, we can't make absolute statements about performance. However, that aside, momentum is in general terms a good measure of the potential for penetration. James Arthur Baldwin! This potential will only be realized with the genetic, proper bullet and, as will be shown in the next article in this series, a relatively mild handgun load can easily penetrate more than a very potent rifle load with more than twice the james, momentum. But, high momentum can translate into deep penetration with the right bullet. III. A. iii. Kinetic Energy, Part 2: Thresholds of Wounding Potential Based on Kinetic Energy. I think it was the sage and revered (and great favorite of mine) Col. Townsend Whelen who first proposed the idea that modern sporting arms ought to deliver at Buddhism and Meditation Essay least 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy on james baldwin, the target for quick dispatch of deer and 2000 ft-lbs for larger species such as elk (Craig Boddington, American Hunting Rifles , Safari Press, 1995, pg. 20).

This guidance has been reiterated for probably half a century or more now, but the culture, world of smallbore ballistics today is very different than in the days when the esteemed Colonel was at the forefront of modern military small arms development with the U. S. Army Ordnance Department. Moreover, here is what he had to say in his own treatise on the subject of Killing Power over seventy years ago: The killing power of a bullet in flight depends entirely upon the average size of the wound it makes in the animal, and upon nothing else. The size of the wound in turn depends upon the size, weight, construction, and shape of the bullet, and the velocity with which it strikes, and upon arthur, no other details. . We frequently see it stated that the killing power of a cartridge depends upon its energy, and tables of the properties of cartridges often give the energy of Kwakiutl Mask Essay each. Now energy depends upon the weight of the bullet times its velocity, and on nothing else, and thus can have only a very distant bearing on our subject. (Townsend Whelen, The Hunting Rifle , Stackpole Sons, 1940, pg. 236) An important fact to remember is that not all energy is created equal. What this ultimately means is james arthur that a kinetic energy value used as a measure or threshold for lethality is Tribal of the Northwest Essay practically meaningless. James Baldwin! The character of the work done by why is culture, a certain quantity of kinetic energy will be dependent upon james baldwin, the mass, construction and Mask Pacific Northwest Essay velocity of the projectile. In other words, 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy generated by a slow-moving rock is not as lethal as that of james arthur baldwin a bullet.

Furthermore, the damage actually caused by a lesser amount of kinetic energy may easily exceed that caused by a greater quantity of kinetic energy! Expressed differently, kinetic energy has quality as well as quantity. This is easier to understand in terms of heat energy, which has temperature (degrees F or C) as well as quantity (BTUs or Joules). Kinetic energy is governed by why is culture, similar laws. As further evidence of this fact, observe that when terminal ballistic experiments are scaled the velocity is held constant. Kinetic energy, mass and the dimensions are scaled, but velocity is not. In like manner pure water at arthur standard pressure boils at 100 C, regardless of quantity. A small amount of water does not boil at a lower temperature than a larger amount.

The heat required to and Meditation bring a quantity of water to a boil is directly proportional to the mass of the water (just as the kinetic energy is james proportional to movies like john the volume of displacement by a bullet), but the character of the work done on the water by that heat energy is determined by the temperature it produces. It is velocity, not kinetic energy, which is the quantity of greatest interest in the terminal ballistics of small arms. Since a knowledge of the velocity and projectile construction is james arthur baldwin essential to evaluating the character of the kinetic energy and Buddhism and Meditation Essay its wounding potential, simply relying on a quantity of arthur energy can be quite misleading. The way in which a sporting bullet (say, a 7 mm 140 gr spitzer boat-tail at an impact velocity of 3000 fps) expends its first 1000 ft-lbs of like john q kinetic energy on a target (from 2797 ft-lbs to 1797 ft-lbs) will little resemble the way in which it expends its last 1000 ft-lbs (at an impact velocity of 1794 fps, where it will most likely fail to james baldwin deform and simply drill straight through causing a neat little hole with negligible cavitation). In the former case, a lung shot would result in a wide wound track and a gaping exit wound as it exits the genetic psychology, body at 2405 fps, but cause rapid collapse; in the latter case even a lengthwise shot which fully absorbed the james, energy of the projectile would probably mean a lost game animal because of the low probability of causing rapid hemorrhage. Interestingly, in the former case probably 20% or more of psychology that kinetic energy would be lost to deformation of the arthur, bullet, whereas in the latter case all of it would be delivered to the target. However, that same 1000 ft-lbs of energy delivered by a .41 caliber 280 gr LBT-WFN flatnosed hard-cast bullet at 1268 fps would quickly drop a bull elk with the melting pot america definition, same lung or lengthwise shot because its larger diameter and strong flat nose would create a large diameter and deep wound even after smashing through heavy shoulder bones. Arthur Baldwin! (Incidentally, this misunderstanding is not confined to Kwakiutl the ballistics of sporting arms. I have encountered the notion in recent years in my profession of james baldwin a tank killing threshold of 10 MJ.) A popular term among some gun buffs is genetic (or once was) the foot-ton, a magical quanta of kinetic energy that is supposed to translate into all sorts of killing authority. Aside from the problem described above in assigning an arbitrary kinetic energy level for lethality against a type of game, there is the matter of unit definitions.

If you like to think of baldwin it as the energy required to raise a one ton block a distance of why is culture one foot, that would be correct (again, not necessarily the same as being crushed by that falling block!). Forget the comparison to automobile impacts. Two foot-tons of kinetic energy does not equate with the impact of a full-size sedan. However, simply because an arbitrary quantity of james kinetic energy is not, in and of itself, sufficient to describe the wounding characteristics of our weapons does not imply that kinetic energy is not a valid measure of ballistic performance. We need not be reactionary or worse yet suppose that someone got it wrong and that what we need is a better formula for kinetic energy. This truly novel and disturbing misconception was once highlighted in a feature article, the essence of which was that kinetic energy is simply the arbitrary fabrication of some gun writer, not based on physical laws, and is fundamentally incorrect. Reading something like this, its as if the cancerous pseudoscience of gun writers has spread to corrupt even the hallowed precepts of like john q true science. I shouldn't make it seem as if the author of james arthur baldwin this particular article were alone in Essay, his assumptions. James Arthur! The history of popular terminal ballistics in the 20th century saw several examples of this kind of melting pot america definition crackpot science, such as Elmer Keith's ridiculous invention of james baldwin pounds-feet.

What is most astounding about particular outrage against science and clear reasoning is that the (long since departed) editors of the magazine didn't know enough themselves to prevent its publication. I expect this sort of thing in cyberspace, where ignorance abounds, but I expect a higher standard from publishers (incidentally, the present editorial staff has a much more scientifically founded perspective). Men like Townsend Whelen knew their basic science and would not have made such errors, nor permitted them to be published in genetic, their journal. It troubles me that our knowledge has diminished so much in james, 70 years. When gun writers attempt to movies q describe terminal ballistics in baldwin, terms more technical than wallop they take on the mantle of science and bear the responsibility to their readership to convey an movies q accurate discussion of the mechanisms involved. Science does not merely belong to james baldwin scientists nor only in the realm of the scientific journal. Of The Pacific Essay! It is truth on a fundamental level.

There are no everyday meanings to terms such as velocity, momentum, kinetic energy and impulse. They are not slang or jargon used to james baldwin describe nebulous, ill-defined concepts. They hold precise meanings. To carelessly misuse scientific language is to render a disservice to the readership, even though it be predominately composed of non-technical readers. Before going any further let me make an apology to the reader. This article and the letter exchange is now ancient history.

It was not my intent then nor is it now to pillory anyone. I wrote my own letters to the editor of the Buddhism and Meditation Essay, magazine at the time in hopes of james inspiring a more fastidious editorship in terms of technical matter. I feel justified in Buddhism Essay, rehashing the argument in cyberspace because it represents a viewpoint with which I suspect many reasonably educated shooters would sympathize - and I don't mean my viewpoint! I understand that much of what I am pressing here seems arcane and james arthur unimportant to most shooters. But the integrity of such concepts is the fundamental underpinning to all ballistics, the technology on movies john q, which we depend.

Is it necessary for the average shooter to understand all these concepts and james be thoroughly conversant? No, it is not. However, when they are discussed, the discussion needs to be scientifically correct. I guess I expect too much and like john perhaps I am being too critical, but whether the average Joe understands the ins and outs of physics is not the arthur, issue - its the attitude that accredited science is no better than hip-pocket hooey that bothers me. Its the attitude that science is why is culture based on opinion, rather than fact. Its the same mentality that has lead to the wholesale disrespect of arthur baldwin science in America, and that has allowed a culture to flourish with notions such as New Age mysticism, literalist religious extremism trumping science in the classroom and denial of global warming despite undeniable evidence. Those who throw around quasi-technical terms without understanding them only create confusion. Velocity is not impulse. It is not like impulse.

Kinetic energy is not momentum and velocity combined. Momentum will not describe the load with the hardest thump. There is no room in Buddhism and Meditation Essay, true science for a private opinion about a better definition of energy, and james baldwin those who ask Is the ft-lb an accurate KE label? should not be published. This kind of tabloid quality science is overtaking the firearms community. In the age of bioengineering, quantum electronics and relativistic physics, the firearms community is becoming mired in a level of scientific ignorance comparable to Medieval Europe. The truth is not marketable but crackpot theories about better formulas for melting pot america, kinetic energy warrant feature articles.

Falsehood and error need to be corrected. Those of us who care about the quality of the literature and the accuracy of the inquiry into terminal ballistics bear the james arthur, responsibility to repudiate the nonsense and to authoritatively instruct concerning the facts. Since this has proved to be a pitfall for some I will unravel the movies like q, mystery. The definition of energy is based upon physical laws. A ft-lb is a valid unit of kinetic energy - by definition. There is nothing to prove. The unit definition has nothing to do with antiquated perspectives on energy. James Baldwin! Kinetic energy is calculated as (1/2) mass times velocity squared.

But pounds are actually a unit of force (i.e., weight), which is mass times acceleration (due to gravity in this case). So, to melting get kinetic energy we must divide by 32.174 ft/s 2 , which reduces the arthur baldwin, velocity squared terms of ft 2 /s 2 simply to a christian feet. This leaves units that correspond to james arthur another definition of energy, being force times distance. Its really only confusing in Tribal of the Essay, the old English system of units because we normally think of pounds as mass rather than as force; in metric its obvious that all forms of energy are the same thing because they are all in Joules or kg-m 2 /s 2 . Just in case somebody doesn't know, foot-pounds are a real quantity and can be converted into BTUs, Joules, kilowatt-hours, calories, ergs, electron-volts or any other measure of energy as you please. All of these resolve down to the same fundamental quantities of mass times distance (divided by time) squared. Not all energy is the same, but all energy has the james arthur baldwin, same fundamental units. Kinetic energy was not invented for the delight of gun writers. Important! The different definitions of energy are based upon inter-related physical laws, none of which have been overturned since God created the universe, let alone in the last century.

Offering correction is as uncomfortable for the corrector as for the one being corrected. It disappoints me that many people actually despise or fear the truth (I am not pointing a finger here, this is a general observation more applicable to web forums and fireside talk). It is a subtle thing, typically taking the form of a resistance to let go of cherished misconceptions and an egoistic tendency that we all share to be knowledgeable. I have been proved wrong many times in james arthur, my life and why is culture important while the experience is not always a comfortable one, I am happier for being corrected. James Arthur Baldwin! Not everyone is made happier by correction. An even more troublesome tendency that I have encountered is the insistence that everything is subjective, that fact and opinion are equivalent. This viewpoint holds that objective reality has no inherent meaning, science is just a matter of expert opinion and such experts are plentiful.

If, as some have contended, all measured data such as penetration depth and wound diameter (even in game animals) provide us no absolute knowledge, if any degree of uncertainty removes all hope of understanding, then truly we have embraced superstition (or a weird form of Buddhism Essay agnosticism) and are equally well served by consulting an astrologer about the performance of our weapons. III. A. iv. The Bullet Zipped Straight Through I see this kind of thing referenced persistently on web forums and in the customer product reviews at Midway. The prevalent belief is that some bullets, by james arthur baldwin, dint of poor design or insufficient velocity (or perhaps even because they have too high an impact velocity - how does that work?), will pass through an culture animal without expanding or imparting any appreciable amount of their kinetic energy or causing any respectable wound.

It is an extenuation of the james baldwin, overpenetration worry that many hunters have, which gives rise to the suspicion that their bullets do not expand properly. It is, of Tribal of the Essay course, rubbish. Almost all of these anecdotes describe situations in arthur baldwin, which the game is in fact bagged, because the curious detail of a tiny exit wound is invariably a feature, indeed the key piece of evidence, offered to justify the accusation of sub-par performance. I have never once seen such a claim accompanied by any depiction of a post-mortem. Had it been done, I believe almost all of these situations would never be reported because it would be apparent that the pot america, bullet had performed very well, despite the james arthur, small exit hole in the hide. Of course the bullets are never recovered in Essay, such scenarios, so there is no hard physical evidence to james baldwin contradict the claim of no expansion. Nosler Partitions of .308 caliber and smaller, Barnes X-Bullets and Kwakiutl Tribal most other monolithic bullets as well as a number of softer cup and core designed bullets will make a small exit wound.

The smaller caliber Nosler Partitions and the soft cup and core bullets end up, not with a wide expanded mushroom, but instead with the james arthur, jacket laid back tight against the remaining shank of the bullet. The monolithic bullets can shed petals at why is culture important higher impact velocities, but even if they don't the exit wounds may be small. The only instance of an expanding bullet that failed to expand that I have observed was an original Barnes X-Bullet that struck fully sideways making a perfect keyhole in the hide so, obviously, it wouldn't be expected to expand. The tip was mashed over as it tumbled. It was, by the way, extremely effective for all that, churning across the thorax and ending up buried in the opposite hind leg.

The warthog thrashed around for arthur baldwin, a few seconds, but barely moved. There is a prevalent tendency to believe that killing power is attributable to Kwakiutl Tribal Mask of the Northwest the cartridge chambering, rather than to the bullet and impact velocity. James Baldwin! Please don't think me facetious. Obviously, ultra magnums produce more velocity and is britain can send the same bullet downrange with far greater kinetic energy than a cartridge of the same caliber based on arthur baldwin, the Mauser or 1906 Springfield base case. More propellant in the case translates into more muzzle energy. However, by the same reasoning, at some distance downrange no cartridge is any more potent than any other cartridge of like caliber when that bullet has achieved the same velocity.

The .300 Shock Awe Magnum firing a 180 grain bullet at a muzzle velocity of 3200 fps is important no more potent at 500 yards than a .30-40 Krag-Jorgensen at the muzzle, and an elk shot at that range wouldn't know the difference between that bullet and one fired at close range from the james, humble Krag. Yet I seriously doubt if the advocates of overbore magnums, and of shooting at game at distances in excess of like 400 yards, routinely consider that their weapons are equivalent to cartridges that were in arthur baldwin, vogue in 1920 when used at such extreme distances. What increased muzzle velocity has purchased hunters over the last 150 years or so is principally increased range, at psychology the expense of james reliability in some cases at the closer distances in which game will most often be encountered. I am not opposed to high velocity, it is generally a good thing, but there is a point of diminishing return. And there is john q nothing magical about any cartridge, no intrinsic property that imbues its projectiles with special lethality. Cartridges are simply containers of propellant stoppered with bullets. James Baldwin! Choose the ones that make sense in terms of the bullet weights that you use and the ranges that you hunt and don't be misled by hype about the supposed power of others because, as we will see in Part IV, higher velocity doesn't increase wound size as much as one might expect. III.

B. Miscalculations of Lethality. The following sections describe a series of quasi-scientific attempts to describe bullet load effectiveness. All of these are relatively simple relationships of basic quantities: bullet weight and/or diameter, sectional density and muzzle or impact velocity. Each is an attempt to go beyond the melting definition, measure of merit of kinetic energy or momentum alone and james arthur baldwin produce a more accurate and realistic measure of performance. Each has its following and some are quite well regarded. The OGW formula was published in the April 1992 issue of GUNS magazine and has since appeared in important, several references. James Baldwin! It is purportedly the result of careful examination of the culture, various contributions of kinetic energy, momentum, bullet sectional density, bullet diameter, bullet nose configuration, impact velocity and baldwin a number of is britain other criteria (pg. 62) to terminal effect. The author, without elaborating on his methodology, settled on the following formula: OGW (lbs) = Velocity (fps) 3 x Bullet Weight (grains) 2 x 1.5 x 10 -12.

This is, of james arthur baldwin course, nothing more than kinetic energy multiplied by momentum, then multiplied by some constant to arrive at the desired weight range (momentum is actually velocity times mass, not velocity times weight, but the two are related by a constant). There is absolutely nothing magical about the game weights derived by this calculation; they are entirely the result of a subjective selection of the constant (i.e., 1.5 x 10 -12 divided by the acceleration due to q gravity). Although the choice of this constant may be assumed to be based upon sage judgement, drawing on years of field experience, the result is merely a scaling factor. The only baldwin terms in this calculation are velocity and Essay bullet weight. The basic premise of the formula is worthy of closer examination.

The OGW formula attempts to combine in one measure the baldwin, separate contributions of Tribal Mask Northwest kinetic energy and james arthur baldwin momentum, or perhaps the melting definition, two schools of thought: fast and james arthur disruptive versus slow and deep. This is well intentioned; however, simply multiplying the two values is an unacceptable method of genetic deriving a composite effect. For instance, a certain load may have a very high velocity and therefore a high kinetic energy, yet have a very light bullet weight and james a correspondingly low momentum. Is Britain! How will it perform? The most useful description of its performance would be found by separating its component functions, cavitation and baldwin penetration, and analyzing these in relation to the game in question. Movies Like John Q! From experience, we know that very lightweight, small-bore ultra-velocity loads are poor performers against large game. Yet an 85 grain .243 cal light game bullet traveling at james arthur 3500 fps would have an OGW rating of 389 lbs at the muzzle! Compare this to a 575 grain ball traveling at 850 fps with an OGW rating of country 305 lbs. The former load is baldwin appropriate only for coyotes, jackrabbits and genetic psychology very lightly framed deer.

The latter load is for a 16 bore howdah pistol intended to stop charging tigers! Important caveats are in order. The author included an exhaustive list of cartridges and loads, but the distinctions of james baldwin OGW are only applicable between bullet weights and psychology velocities. Baldwin! The model itself makes no consideration whatsoever of the pot america definition, effect of sectional density, bullet diameter or nose configuration, although these were considered in its development. Most glaringly, bullet construction is neglected. A 150 gr. Arthur! bullet moving at 2800 fps is identical in this analysis, no matter whether it be a .264 caliber RWS H-Mantel or .358 caliber Remington Core-Lokt. However, these two loads would have vastly differing performance on Buddhism Essay, game. The model assumes you have selected a reasonable bullet weight and construction for the application in mind (in fairness to the author, Matunas makes this point clear, but it does beg the question of just what this model does tell you if you must already know the james arthur, answer before you begin). What the OGW Table really attempts to be describe is the approximate heaviest weight of animal that could be reliably killed from any angle using modern high-powered cartridges (not 19th century big-bore blackpowder weapons or even early 20th century weapons), assuming the bullet selected was reasonable. Strictly speaking, a true optimum game weight would be that size of beast which this load killed most effectively, and Buddhism Essay any game animal either heavier or lighter would be less effectively dispatched, so the use of the term optimum is misplaced.

Unfortunately, by baldwin, making velocity a third order term it wildly exaggerates the effect of this component in terminal behavior, which (as will be shown in Part IV) has surprisingly little meaningful effect for deforming bullets. Moreover, the dramatic degradation in effectiveness with increasing range is also far from accurate. Why Is Culture! A typical high velocity bullet is james arthur shown to definition lose half its effectiveness between the james, muzzle and 250 yards. In practice, no meaningful loss of performance is experienced for a christian country, most high velocity rifle cartridges and indeed some performance improvement may be observed with many bullets of conventional construction at moderated velocities! Worse, it suggests that if one uses light for caliber bullets, then the most effective employment of james these projectiles is at close range and very high velocity - in direct opposition to all conventional wisdom and test data. Under these conditions very lightly constructed bullets are most likely to disintegrate.

Comparisons between different calibers and bullet weights in this analysis, as suggested by the author, are simply not valid for reasons outlined previously. I almost hate to comment on this one because it happens to be a favorite of one of my favorite gun writers, a man of outstanding skill and a reputable hunter whose guidance in such matters should not be taken lightly (and I don't refer to Taylor!). Taylor himself was also a man of unimpeachable experience and his views on is britain a christian, rifles and calibers, especially for dangerous game, is taken as gospel on the subject. However, this formula has got to go. I'm sympathetic to the motivations which brought about its creation.

The smallbore cranks were a cult phenomenon at the time, preaching vehemently about high velocity and kinetic energy. A number of this following ventured to Africa, and like their predecessors in james baldwin, the heyday of blackpowder express cartridges, experienced miserable failures in the field, sometimes with fatal consequences to the shooter or guides. Taylor was attempting to counter this scientific kind of argument with a kind of scientific methodology. Applying his many years of psychology experience to the problem (and it must be confessed, his biases as well), he developed a formula which favored the arthur, kind of bullets and cartridges he knew to work reliably: TKO = Bullet Weight (lbs) x Impact Velocity (fps) x Bullet Diameter (in) Regrettably, this formula is as misleading as any kinetic energy figures or OGW or any other I've seen. For example, a hand-thrown baseball would have roughly twice the TKO of the standard nitro express load. I doubt if anyone would argue that bouncing a baseball off the noggin of an elephant would produce any positive result.

Taylor himself acknowledged that there wasn't any appreciable difference in the killing performance of the a christian, various .400s, .416s, .450s, .465s, .470s, .475s, and james baldwin .500s on movies john q, dangerous game when loaded with reliable bullets of sound construction. But his TKO formula (as generally interpreted) exaggerates any difference that might exist because it makes the bore diameter equally as important as the velocity; thus a .488 caliber .475 Jeffery No. 2 is seen to be 7% more potent than a .458 caliber .450 NE even though they both have the same ballistics. The comparison becomes even more exaggerated between a .450/.400 NE and a .500 NE in which the larger bore is james calculated to be 55 % more potent, even though Taylor regards them as being very similar in killing performance. Is Britain A Christian! In fairness to the author, the TKO value is generally misinterpreted (notice that the table he provides only arthur includes loads for solid bullets). Taylor himself said of it: I do not pretend that they [TKOs] represent killing power; but they do give an excellent basis from which any two rifles may be compared from the point of culture important view of the actual knock-down blow, or punch, inflicted by the bullet on massive, heavy-boned animals such as elephant, rhino and buffalo. ( African Rifles and james Cartridges , pg. xii) There seems to be a lot of misunderstanding about is britain country, this word shock; men seem to be under the impression that it implies killing power.

But that is erroneous. ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. 58) Elaborating, the author indicates that this stunning effect truly applies for the most part to james near misses of the brain on elephant, enabling a more leisurely dispatch with a follow-up shot (possibly of lesser caliber) or, especially, permitting the shooting of other nearby elephants, while the first is down. Such tactics are no longer permissible and were never ethical in my view (Taylor was a self-acknowledged poacher). Indeed, whether his TKO is true even in this sense is a highly contentious matter, disputed by some very experienced African hunters (I will not pretend to be highly experienced in this regard, but I have seen a Cape buffalo shot between the eyes, within millimeters of its brain, with a .500 NE which did not produce any effect whatsoever). Is Britain Country! More recently, Craig Boddington has voiced a similar doubt on the basis of his observations and james baldwin those of other contemporary hunters and game control officers ( Like a Freight Train , Rifle Shooter , November - December 2009, pgs.

38 - 42). But the pot america, point here is that Taylor never offered this formula as an arthur indicator of killing or even shocking performance for hits on the body. That is an American gun pundit extrapolation of thought. Taylor includes TKO values for everything down to the .256 Mannlicher, but not with a view to genetic offering the relative merits of one small-bore or medium-bore against another for general hunting use - its to show how puny these are relative to the big-bores for stopping an arthur elephant. Still, Taylor also made the point that even a stopping rifle was ineffective with poor shooting: Both barrels from like john, a .600 in james arthur, the belly will have little more apparent effect on [an elephant] than a single shot from a .275 in the same place. ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. 59)

American hunters and gun writers use terms like stopping power, shock and killing power to describe how quickly a deer (elk, antelope, etc.) falls when hit. Practically no one hunts elephant anymore and I can't remember the Essay, last time I saw an james article on is britain a christian, that subject. Promotion of the baldwin, TKO is indicative of the careless way in and Meditation, which any quasi-scientific method is seized upon, even though the originator of it may reject that purpose to which it is put (though, again, I am not endorsing or placing validity on Taylor's TKO calculation, even for the purpose he intended). Incidentally, if there is baldwin a knockout effect it will almost certainly be a function of bullet shape, presented area and velocity. Genetic! Bullet mass will not matter greatly, but a separate calculation would be necessary to arthur baldwin assess whether sufficient penetration was provided. John Wooters is another old salt who ought to be listened to reverently.

I love Wooters, even if he is a bit of a curmudgeon (when one has graduated to the plateau of veneration upon and Meditation Essay, which he resides, one can be forgiven for curmudgeonhood). No doubt frustrated with the ceaseless litany of baldwin kinetic energy figures, he concocted a formula for what he felt was a better measure of Kwakiutl Tribal Mask a bullet's effectiveness on game. James Baldwin! Unlike Taylor's Knockout rating, the Lethality Index (or L-Factor) is intended to be a real measure of killing effect on thin-skinned game by expanding rifle bullets (Finn Aagaard, The Truth About Stopping Power , Big-Bore Rifles , pp. 8 - 11). The author's formula is described below:

LI = Kinetic Energy (ft-lbs) x Sectional Density x Bullet Diameter (in) To be fair to melting definition Wooters, let me assert that indeed, large diameter bullets do make more cavernous and effective wounds than smaller diameters, kinetic energy certainly is a significant component in the measure of the wounding, and james arthur baldwin bullets with a high sectional density tend to penetrate deeper and expand with a higher residual weight (all things being equal). The trouble is: all things aren't on culture important, equal footing and quickie formulas that don't even take bullet performance into account cannot be considered meaningful measures of terminal effect. To be meaningful and scientifically sound (ie, correct and arthur true), a formula or theory must be founded on carefully collected test data, not gut feelings, prevalent perceptions and anecdotal evidence (which is little better than hearsay). Again, to be fair, this formula is an assessment of the potential of melting a specific cartridge-load combination and its components are assessed at the muzzle, but (as I will demonstrate in Part IV) the downrange performance of james arthur baldwin otherwise identical loads can be very different and sectional density, in particular, is an unreliable indicator of bullet performance. Not to pick on the Lethality Index alone, but I am suspicious of any lethality, killing or stopping formula which just goes up and up without end. What exactly does this mean? Something can only be so dead. Buddhism Essay! Does a value twice as high as another mean that it kills twice as quickly, twice the game weight, two animals standing side by james arthur, side, or with twice the probability? Just what is conveyed by these figures?

Even their creators cannot tell you. After all the computations and Kwakiutl Northwest Essay three or four significant digits of james precision, it all comes down to a touchy-feely sort of thing. I fear that this whole fascination for performance indices ultimately arises from the American passion for statistics and Kwakiutl Tribal of the Pacific Northwest our competitive spirit. It is sports stats on a different plane. My rifle load is better than your rifle load and james baldwin I can prove it! As a young person, I was as guilty as anyone of Mask Essay making all sorts of comparative calculations of kinetic energy and arthur momentum for various cartridge-load combinations. Tribal Mask Of The Essay! But this is a pretty pointless exercise, too far removed from the baldwin, real mechanics of wounding to be of any practical value.

III. B. iv. Hornady Index of Terminal Standards (HITS) The most recent attempt to quantify terminal performance in simple terms has been put forward by Hornady in the form of an online calculator . Its stated purpose is to assist hunters in why is culture, selecting a bullet and cartridge combination suitable for any hunting situation. After a little experimentation I derived the baldwin, terms of the calculation, which is given below: HITS = Bullet Weight 2 / Bullet Diameter 2 / 7000 x Impact Velocity / 100. Alternatively, recognizing that some of the terms constitute the sectional density: HITS = Bullet Weight x Sectional Density x Impact Velocity / 100. Having calculated this value, one then compares the score to four categories: 500 or Below -- Small game weighing less than 50 lbs 501 to 900 -- Medium game with a body weight of 50 to 300 lbs (e.g., deer, black bear and caribou) 901 to 1500 -- Large and heavy, but non-dangerous game weighing from why is culture, 300 to 2000 lbs (e.g., elk, moose, African plains game, bison, etc) 1501 or Above -- Dangerous game of james arthur any weight (including, for example, big cats)

This system bears a strong resemblance to Mask of the Pacific Essay the Optimum Game Weight calculation, but differs in important respects. While, unavoidably, any calculation would lead to splitting hairs and arthur baldwin comparisons between cartridges, the HITS system only indicates the genetic, general class of james arthur baldwin game animal suitable for john, that load. Hornady makes no advertisement that the values correspond to the relative capabilities of the loads in anything more precise than the arthur baldwin, four general categories. Clearly, higher is deemed to be better, but it does not follow that mathematical proportions between the values can be assumed to indicate how much better. In other words, a HITS of Kwakiutl of the Northwest 1500 does not indicate that the load is twice as powerful as a load with a HITS score of 750. That's a more reasonable posture than was put forward by the OGW, which claimed to tell you the actual weight, to arthur baldwin the pound, of the optimum game size.

Additionally, unlike some other calculations, the HITS doesn't pretend to tell you how effective a bullet / catridge combination will be; its not a measure of lethality. While I don't endorse any of these quick calculations as rendering some deeper insight into the actual mechanics of terminal ballistics, the HITS methodology does tend to push the user toward solutions which are known to psychology work better: higher sectional density and heavier bullet weight for heavier game. It doesn't include the unfortunate bias of velocity that the OGW creates, nor the bullet diameter bias of the TKO. For the most part, its a conservative result. Perusing the tabulated HITS for all the arthur, Hornady ammunition, at first nothing leaps out as an obvious case of mathematical mischief. None of the .223 Remington loads is judged to be suitable for movies john q, medium game, not even the 75 grain loads. None of the arthur, 6 mm or .257 caliber loads is judged to be acceptable for elk and other large game. If anything the scores result in an overly conservative categorization.

Goodness knows how many elk have fallen to the .32 Winchester Special and .30-30 Winchester, despite their sub-900 HITS scores. Buddhism Essay! But a little conservatism these days is james not necessarily a bad thing. The problem begins with the medium bores, in which all three parameters tend to be high. The .338 Winchester Magnum with a 225 grain bullet is judged suitable for dangerous game, which might be true depending on the game in mind (think leopards, lions or bears) and the bullet chosen. However, the Northwest, Hornady Super Shock Tip shown in the table, a rapidly expanding and james lightly constructed, boat-tailed bullet, would not be a good choice for any of these game animals. It might even be a fatal choice. Still more egregious is the suggestion that the 250 grain boat-tail hollowpoint load of the .338 Lapua might be a dangerous game load.

Obviously, a match bullet has no place whatsoever in any dangerous game hunting situation. On the other hand, none of the big-bore lever gun loads of the .405 Winchester, .444 Marlin, .45-70 Government or .450 Marlin are judged minimally acceptable for dangerous game, including the big cats or bears, and Buddhism and Meditation Essay these would all be first rate for that role even if we leave aside the james baldwin, debate over their utility against heavy, thick-skinned dangerous game. Once beyond medium bores that possess enough velocity to score as dangerous game loads and the lever gun loads lacking enough to qualify, things return to expectation, which is to say that the truly big bores are all judged to be suitable choices for dangerous game. No surprises there. On the whole, unless one has literally no notion of movies like john q what makes a suitable load for a given hunting application (and, granted, their numbers are legion) I don't really see the utility of this. James! But then again, maybe I am missing the forest for the trees. Maybe Hornady is right and basic shooter education trumps technical validity from their vantage point. The worst outcome of country this sort of calculation to my mind is the impression fostered that the james, performance of a load is largely or even totally independent of the bullet chosen.

The HITS treats every bullet of equivalent weight and genetic psychology sectional density (i.e., caliber) the james, same. In reality, the bullet chosen has a far more significant effect on the terminal performance than the velocity. Across a wide velocity spread the wound pattern will be similar for a given bullet of good design, but the differences between a monolithic solid, a bonded core hunting bullet and a varmint or match bullet of Buddhism Essay equal weight and caliber would be dramatic. James Arthur Baldwin! Hornady does speak to the applicability of the bullet to the purpose in general terms, but its clear that their desire to use this new tool and psychology apply it without further elaboration to their current line of baldwin ammunition outweighs any concern for misuse of their products. John Q! A simple statement in a footnote indicating which loads do not qualify as dangerous game loads (in fact why are match loads even shown here at all?) would suffice, without impugning the validity of what the HITS provides, at least in the mind of the target consumer. III.

B. v. James Arthur! Bekker Knock-Out Value (KOV) Well, here is what appears at first blush to be a step forward. Invented by South African pundit Chris Bekker, whose column The View from the Veld appears in the UK-based quarterly webzines Sporting Rifles and Deerstalker , the pot america definition, Knock-Out Value (KOV) formula is based on a simplified (and again, slightly erroneous) terminal momentum calculation: KOV = Terminal Momentum (lb-ft/s) x Sectional Density x Mushroom Factor Terminal Momentum = Impact Velocity (ft/s) x Retained Bullet Weight (lbs) Sectional Density = Original Bullet Weight (lbs) / Bullet Diameter (in) 2.

The author has presented more than one version of this formula in his writings at various times (for instance, dropping the Mushroom Factor and using muzzle values for bullet weight and velocity), but the above is said to be the james arthur, proper form. This formula inverts the bias of kinetic energy, effectively giving us mass squared times velocity, and uses a mix of pre-impact and post-impact values. It looks pretty good for why is culture, all that. After all, we have retained weight, impact velocity, and some accounting for expanded diameter. James Arthur! So what is Essay wrong? Well, for james baldwin, one thing, as with the why is culture important, other shortcut calculations, we are expected to simply accept this formula as the arthur baldwin, definition of killing power at john face value. James Arthur Baldwin! Why should it be terminal momentum multiplied by sectional density? Why not kinetic energy multiplied or divided by expanded frontal area, for instance? From where did this insight arise? Where is the physical evidence justifying a Mushroom Factor assessed to three or four significant digits for a plethora of john bullet configurations? To paraphrase Jerry MacGuire: Show me the data!

The only evidence that the james arthur baldwin, author offers to support its validity is in the form of genetic psychology comparisons to james baldwin other popular indices and factors or to kinetic energy alone. No documentation or analysis is provided to movies like show how these relationships in the KOV were derived. If there were any objective analytical basis for this formula then the author would have presented that data instead of james baldwin simply making unsubstantiated claims about the correspondance between the KOV and actual field experience. Is Britain A Christian! When the support of real world field experience is drawn upon for evidence, it is entirely subjective, simply the arthur, conventional wisdom, thusly: Everybody knows that the 9.3 x 62 mm Mauser would be far superior on Cape buffalo than the .300 Remington UltraMag, and why is important the KOV shows it to be 28 % better. Whether or not such assumptions are true is debatable; it really depends on the behavior of the bullet, and just how exactly does one judge 28% better performance in the field? Deeper? Larger hole? Fewer steps until it collapses? Was it actually 32 % better or only 24 % better? See the problem?

In any event, the KOV does not take into consideration the arthur baldwin, animal to be shot. Why then a Cape buffalo for the comparison? Why not a much smaller animal such as a springbok? I seriously doubt if the 9.3 x 62 mm Mauser can be shown to Mask Pacific Northwest Essay be 28 % better on a springbok. What then can such a measure really tell us? This sort of reasoning does not qualify as scientific argument or evidence. None of this mathematical dexterity demonstrates anything but that one can multiply several numbers together and end up with a result that subjectively and james arthur qualitatively satisfies one's preconceived notions about how things work - most of which are based on Buddhism Essay, popular notions of terminal ballistics (better known as conventional wisdom and frequently incorrect). By a careful (or haphazard) selection of terms and their arrangement, one can make almost any cartridge-load combination seem far superior to others. At best this sort of approach results in a gross generalization that tells us what we already knew: namely that high retained bullet weight is good, as is expanded diameter, that bullets with high sectional density often perform better than those with less, likewise velocity is good, etc.

However, some of arthur baldwin these also have a downside. Scientific, analytic methods and measures must be as objective and culture quantitative as possible. Consequently, theories of terminal effect must be evaluated in james arthur, quantitative terms, meaning that dimensions of why is wounds must be evaluated. None of these formulaic approaches can be defended with a study of field results, nor have their creators (including Taylor) ever attempted such an analysis. Field experience without measurement and records is next door to useless. It is no better than armchair opinion or hearsay. Science is not founded on faith in the analytical powers of an individual, it is founded on fact which can be examined and james baldwin tested by any individual. In his defense (I suppose) Bekker asserts that he has never argued that his method was based on scientific principles.

In constrast with the OGW which never even considered the caliber or the movies q, TKO which looked only at nominal caliber, the KOV at baldwin least considers the john q, expanded diameter; however, the baldwin, expanded diameter and impact velocity do not occur together in time. The KOV has associated the terminal rest state of the bullet with its velocity an instant before impact. This is a bit like suggesting that a person can walk away from a head-on collision with a 10-ton cement truck at 100 mph in exactly the same state that one steps into the vehicle as it is sitting in the driveway at home. These two quantities are associated with completely different states. Most the bullet's kinetic energy is expended in getting it into that shape. A Knock Out Value created by multiplying them together just doesn't mean anything in real terms.

The KOV calculation assumes that the final shape of the bullet is realized instantly and without loss of velocity. In actuality, the velocity changes instantly with each millimeter of penetration as the bullet gradually expands to its maximum expanded diameter, then assumes its smaller fully deformed diameter that it will hold when the hydrodynamic pressure falls below the a christian, effective flow stress of the bullet (at a velocity of roughly 1900 to 2100 fps for most rifle bullets). Though transpiring in a matter of time on the order of james a fraction of a millisecond, this is not an instantaneous process and the interval between impact and the termination of hydrodynamic deformation in the bullet dominates the mechanics of the penetration event. The following figure illustrates the point. Genetic! It shows a series of baldwin curves describing the fraction of the psychology, kinetic energy at impact which is expended during the hydrodynamic deformation phase (of the james arthur baldwin, bullet) for various retained bullet weights, assuming a hydrodynamic termination velocity of psychology 1900 fps. It will be quickly observed that, for 3000 fps impacts, between 60% and arthur baldwin 80% of the kinetic energy at impact is expended by the time the bullet has assumed its final form. Even at impact velocities only important slightly above the james arthur baldwin, hydrodynamic termination velocity, the definition, energy of the bullet deformation and resultant cavitation amounts to baldwin between 10% and 55% of the Buddhism Essay, total kinetic energy. If we care about retained weight and expanded diameter, we ought to arthur baldwin care about the why is culture, interaction which resulted in those dimensions.

However, even if one knew the termination velocity for deformation in james arthur baldwin, the bullet (which could be anything from 1400 to 2300 fps), any statement about the character of the wound (or the impact velocity) based solely on the final expanded diameter and retained weight would amount to mere speculation. It is the psychology, process by james arthur, which the genetic, bullet assumes that final form that dictates the arthur, dimensions of the wound. I have tested many bullet designs and there is genetic psychology no obvious correspondance between the appearance of the recovered bullet and james arthur the hole it produced during its penetration. Two bullets having the why is, same recovered appearance may create very different wounds based on their impact velocity and design characteristics. James! A bullet with smaller frontal surface area may make a significantly larger diameter wound than one which has expanded to melting pot america a perfect classic mushroom. You may not believe that - I wouldn't have believed it a few years ago - but I have proved it with testing (as will be seen in Part IV). In fact, if I may generalize, I have observed that the bullets recovered with the arthur baldwin, smallest expanded diameters frequently produce the largest cavities (not that they are the best overall performers). This is Kwakiutl Tribal Northwest Essay why, in my mind at least, both testing and careful observation and measurement of field performance are infinitely more meaningful than homemade formulas based on no physical evidence or pontifications safely removed from the contrary facts. Although he has offered no physical evidence for arthur, his theories, Bekker may well have a wealth of hunting and shooting experience. That can be incontravertably said for Pondoro Taylor and melting John Wooters and others who have attempted to create a mathematical expression consistent with their experience. James Arthur! I do not wish to be perceived as casting doubt on culture important, the substantive creditable field experience of anyone.

Still, these methods do not work. In the james arthur, final analysis, the KOV is little better (nor any worse) than the country, TKO, OGW or any of a score of other formulas trying to get at the answer. They all fall short of telling us more than we already knew. I don't wish to be unduly criticizing the KOV or Bekker. These formulas are merely the manifestations of the james arthur baldwin, biases we have all held as hunters. The KOV looks like it has a little more thought behind it than many such calculations, but precisely for movies q, that reason (and as a springboard to elucidate what is really happening during bullet deformation) I have given its features a more studied treatment. What most or all of these shortcut attempts suffer from at the very outset is old-fashioned human prejudice - the pre-conceived notion on the part of the creator concerning what the answer ought to james arthur baldwin be. Like John! We are all guilty of this. Not even the arthur, best of us is free from prejudice (which is why objective methods must be adhered to), but if we seek the and Meditation, truth, we must be prepared to be divested of our cherished beliefs, not always see them upheld. Insistence that the facts must be somehow wrong because my formula holds otherwise, and I have a vast body of hearsay and conjecture supporting me! in the face of plain physical evidence is baldwin nothing more than denial, an why is important inability to face reality.

Theory must bend to empirical evidence. A better understanding will follow. The other great fault of these attempts is rooted in a (perhaps innocent and unwitting) misuse of scientific principles, in the arbitrary combination of physical quantities until a satisfying result is obtained. James Baldwin! Mechanics works only in certain prescribed ways, and what we wish to understand is the mechanics that result in a wound of discrete specific dimensions. Pseudoscience doesn't advance our understanding and those of us who know better need to improve the understanding of those who genuinely seek to know, yet stumble here and there with the details.

At the far extreme of this spectrum is a distrustful perspective of science. Tragically, America seems to place about as much confidence in science as in superstition. Why Is Important! That makes a damning statement about the quality of our education efforts, because it wasn't that way 150 years ago. I frequently encounter the attitude on cyber forums that physics and biology cannot really answer our questions about terminal performance, that it all comes down to some kind of personal thing, like faith, or that it is baldwin far too complex to ever understand or quantify. That is nonsense. The truth isn't up for like john q, grabs, no matter how poor our grasp of it may be. However, even the introduction of more disciplined scientific approaches can have its pitfalls, as the baldwin, next section will demonstrate. III. Why Is! C. Bad Science: Misrepresentations of james Physics. Anyone who has persevered this far is either with me or else hopelessly confused but doggedly staying in there. For the hopelessly confused I now offer some hope.

Probably I should have included this discussion in Buddhism and Meditation Essay, the Mechanics of arthur Terminal Ballistics , but I wanted that discussion to Buddhism Essay be general and easily accessible. Of necessity, we must now get down to the details. III. C. i. Relationships of Force, Momentum and Energy. I am appalled by the articles that I see published which evince an ignorance of basic science. Just for my own sanity and peace of mind, lets review a few fundamentals. Mass is an intrinsic quantity of matter (as near as we can tell, but lets not get into string theory!) which describes the inertia of an object.

Inertia is the property of an james arthur object that resists changes in its motion. Mass and weight are not the same thing, but we normally associate the two. Weight is actually a force exerted on why is, a mass in a gravitational field. Baldwin! We live with gravity so we think of Mask Northwest mass and weight as being the same thing. James Arthur! It is vital in Buddhism Essay, mechanics to recognize that they are distinct.

This distinction was not perceived at james arthur first by scientists (understandably) and so the original English system of units is john based on the fundamental quantities of force (pounds), length (feet) and time (seconds), rather than more properly on mass (kilograms), length (meters) and time (seconds), as was done in the late 18th century when the metric system was developed (yes, its over 200 years old!). Force is actually a derived quantity, not a fundamental quantity, but that's water under the bridge, so lets not brood about james baldwin, it. [This conundrum has led to movies john q the introduction of pounds-force, lbf, and james pounds-mass, lbm, where 1 lbf = 32.174 lbm-ft/s 2 , but this convention has not removed the confusion, only resulted in melting, NASA Mars probes falling from orbit! Vive le Systeme Internationale!] Velocity is the rate of change in james baldwin, the position of an object with respect to time. Here too, we normally use the Buddhism, words speed and velocity interchangeably, but this is incorrect. James Arthur! Speed is the magnitude of the velocity, but velocity is melting a vector quantity which means that it carries with it an implicit direction of movement.

I throw the term around rather loosely when speaking of terminal ballistics, but its important to recognize that there is arthur baldwin more to velocity than mere speed. Because next we get to acceleration. Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity. Note that this is any change in the velocity, either in magnitude or direction. A classic example is a mass suspended on a string which is being whirled with constant speed . It is being subjected to a constant acceleration because its velocity direction is Buddhism and Meditation Essay constantly changing as it turns around its center of rotation. Arthur! [Deceleration is genetic slang for james, a negative acceleration and you won't find me using that term (I hope!)]. Obviously then, acceleration is also a vector quantity. Kwakiutl Mask Of The Pacific Northwest Essay! It can be in the direction of motion or against it or in any other direction. Momentum is the physical quantity of a mass moving with a given velocity, or simply mass multiplied by velocity.

The units in the English system are lb-s, not lb-ft/s as some might suppose (remember, pounds are a unit of james arthur force, not mass). Force is the physical quantity describing a mass experiencing a change in velocity, or mass multiplied by acceleration. Clearly then, the time rate of Kwakiutl Tribal of the Pacific Northwest Essay change in momentum is the same as force. Forces act on masses and induce changes in motion and, hence, the momentum. More on that in a moment. Sir Isaac Newton is the most important person in the history of mechanics, possibly in the history of all science and mathematics. Arthur Baldwin! He not only established the rules of mechanics in terms of its fundamental physical quantities, he also invented the calculus, which is essential for Tribal Pacific Northwest, solving the problems of james arthur mechanics.

It is Buddhism useful to understand the james arthur baldwin, difference between a derivative and an integral for the following discussion. A differential quantity is an infinitessimally small slice of Essay a whole. A derivative is a rate of change between two differential quantities. It is usually expressed as a symbolic (indefinite) fractional differential quantity, such as dx / dy. Velocity can be expressed as: v = ds / dt, that is, the differential quantity of distance (s) with respect to (divided by) the differential quantity of time (t). Acceleration can be similarly expressed as: a = dv / dt. Since acceleration is the time derivative of arthur baldwin velocity and velocity is the time derivative of distance, then it is clear that acceleration is the second time derivative of distance, a = d 2 s / dt 2 . Sometimes we speak of the differential quantities of mass, distance, velocity and acceleration as dm, ds, dv, and da, but it is important to note the distinction between a differential quantity and Tribal Mask of the Northwest Essay a derivative. Not all derivatives are taken with respect to time, for james baldwin, instance. An integral, on is britain country, the other hand, is the sum of the differential quantities integrated over some boundary. For example, the total distance (s) covered by a bullet can be described using calculus by james baldwin, performing the time integration of the velocity, taking each instantaneous velocity (ds / dt) and why is important multiplying by each differential time quantity dt and summing at each step.

If this calculation is performed numerically with enough resolution the answer will be very good. It can be performed analytically for an exact answer if the expression describing ds / dt is known and has an analytical solution (not always the case). Energy is a term that gets abused more than any other scientific term. Crackpots love energy. Its does not mean power, force, impulse, momentum force, or lifeforce for that matter. Energy is arthur baldwin a physical quantity describing the activity state of matter. It occurs (or manifests itself) in many forms. Melting Pot America! For our purposes, the most significant of these are kinetic energy, work and heat. There is also chemical, nuclear, and electromagnetic radiant energy (potential energy is an imaginary concept useful for describing closed systems). Kinetic energy is that attributed to a mass with a given velocity, or KE = (m / 2) v 2 . Work is the arthur baldwin, energy expended by a force acting over a distance, W = Integral (F ds). Heat is a form of internal energy which is and Meditation Essay basically kinetic energy on the scale of atoms.

Heat can be expressed as the mass multiplied by the specific heat of james arthur baldwin a material and its absolute temperature, U = mCT. Even though these different energies are calculated using different methods and often expressed in different units (ft-lbs, Joules, BTUs, calories, etc.), they all resolve back to the same fundamental units of definition mass x length 2 / time 2 and baldwin are totally interchangeable. In other words, energy is not simply some arbitrary term tossed about by scientists that means one thing in one context and something else entirely in another context. Power, in genetic, a scientific sense, is the time rate of energy change, transfer or usage, expressed as the derivative de / dt. If any term gets abused more than energy it would have to be power. James Arthur! Here again, ft-lbs/s, horsepower and Watts can all be interchanged with a simple conversion constant. Freshman level physics textbooks are notoriously bad sources for an understanding of ballistics.

I can sympathize with the confusion that many have in this regard. One would like to believe that the college level science class is free from error. Sadly, the late American penchant for making things accessible to the student has led to pot america some regrettable abuses of the truth. Typical example problems describing ballistic events are invariably sprinkled with phrases like, . neglecting air resistance. , . assuming perfectly elastic (or rigid) bodies. James Arthur Baldwin! , and . a collison between perfectly plastic bodies. . Such assumptions are utterly unrealistic and throw away the entire problem in real world exterior and terminal ballistics. One could more sensibly neglect gravity than air resistance! The acceleration due to like john q gravity is james only 32.174 ft/s 2 , but the movies john, (negative) acceleration due to james arthur air resistance is on the order of important 1700 ft/s 2 or more for high velocity rifle bullets. The equations of motion governing ballistic flight of projectiles are a set of highly complex, coupled second order differential equations that have no analytical solution, so the textbook manufacturers don't want to discuss it. James Baldwin! Its easier to give the melting, student a false impression of reality with a problem that is baldwin simply solved. Worse things occur when textbooks attempt to describe terminal ballistics. All real bodies are imperfect, plastic (inelastic) and non-rigid.

Elastic deformation is recoverable, meaning the object is not permanently deformed. Plastic deformation is permanent. All ballistic events of interest involve large plastic deformations. Kwakiutl Mask Pacific Essay! Elastic and plastic equate to the terminal ballistic terms of temporary cavity and permanent cavity. Rigidity is the completely imaginary property of james arthur not deforming, either elastically or plastically, when loaded. There is no such thing as a rigid body, but the assumption is often used in textbooks for simplicity when (typically static) loads are small in Buddhism and Meditation, relation to the strength of an object.

It ought to be pretty clear that rigidity is not an assumption that makes much sense in terminal ballistics (unless we are talking about solids, and james well constructed ones at that). Furthermore, any degree of penetration implies plastic deformation, which is not described by the most commonly offered relations of elastic mechanical behavior (such as Hooke's Law), and pot america definition which involves a significant expenditure of strain energy. Thus, the invention of the concept of perfect plasticity, in which no energy is expended. This abomination violates the Second and Third Laws of james Thermodynamics and should never even be discussed. Newton's Second Law of Motion, also known as the principle of and Meditation Conservation of Momentum, states: The time integral of the change in baldwin, momentum (or, the impulse) of a system is equal to the time integral of the why is, resultant of all applied forces acting on the system, or: I = Integral (F dt). This has been restated in the more familar form that the resultant of all the forces acting on a system is equal to the integral of the mass multiplied by the acceleration, or Integral (F) = Integral (ma). This is the baldwin, most important expression in all mechanics. Everything builds on this, but it is vital not to be confused about what it means. This is not an algebraic expression, it is an integral expression in vector form. Different rules apply.

Newton's Second Law is often violated in textbook sample problems. A classic textbook problem allegedly illustrating the conservation of momentum typically states: A bullet has a mass of 10 g and a velocity of 800 m/s. The bullet strikes a block at rest with a mass of 4 kg, and is fully embedded in the block. Assuming that the psychology, bodies are perfectly plastic and that the block rests on a frictionless surface, find the baldwin, final velocity of the Essay, block. [Solution: This is rubbish and does not demonstrate Newton's Second Law. The effects of time and force are completely lost! The attempt to make the principle seem real to the student results in gross unreality. Such examples should be confined to billiard balls moving at james arthur very low velocity.

But even here we have a problem. The classic freshman physics class demonstration of the principle of why is culture conservation of momentum is the rack of billiard balls suspended by wires. The ball on one end is raised and released to strike its neighbor and arthur instantly the far end ball is kicked away! Very cool! Ever wonder though why it is that the balls do not go on clacking forever? They return to rest in genetic psychology, just a few seconds! What they didn't tell you in james arthur, school is that there is Kwakiutl Mask Pacific more to mechanics than conservation of momentum. In fact, the baldwin, gross way that conservation of momentum is typically described, as the resultant of all the gross mass-velocity interactions, is simply untrue. But Newton didn't express his second law in these terms. It is clear in the case of the of the Pacific Essay, clacking billiard balls that something steals a piece of momentum with each cycle until the whole system returns to rest. [In fact, there exists a finite number of balls such that if one is arthur baldwin clacked into its neighbor on one end there will be no movement by the ball on Buddhism, the other end due to the accumulation of small robberies of energy along the way.] Some have argued that this is entirely due to james arthur the frame or the wires or contact with the Earth, but this is simply not true.

The result would be no different if the same experiment were repeated in why is, deep space, far from any gravitational field and not contacting any other body, with a series of hard spheres interconnected by springs. James Baldwin! Once released, it would be only a matter of seconds before the Buddhism Essay, movement ceased. This is a closed system, from which the energy is james not escaping as radiant heat fast enough to explain why it stops moving (and heat is not a term in Newton's equation anyway - however, this serves to illustrate why energy methods are the only methods of analysis that really prove dependable in some situations). Ah! However, some will say, this is culture a closed system and its net momentum is baldwin zero. Indeed, but that misses the point. The momentum of the cycling masses within the system will still degrade to zero and the laws of motion apply to is britain a christian country them as surely as to anything else. Moreover, if you built a device that permitted the james, momentum of these interconnected masses to be transmitted in all directions (due to their interconnections - as is true in genetic psychology, atomic matter) then the linear momentum of an impact would not be preserved for an inelastic event, even in space far from any gravitational influence. Understand what I am saying.

I am not contending that Newton's Second Law is invalid; quite the contrary. What I am saying is that real mechanics is james arthur not simplistic. Newton's Law holds that the time integral of the momentum is the genetic psychology, integral of the resultant of the forces acting on and within a system. Arthur! I am trying to emphasize that those forces depend on the system; the is britain, motion of the arthur, balls depends on the microstructural makeup of the balls. If the forces vary with physical properties then the mechanics of motion cannot be assumed to be invariant. That thieving something is the resistive forces in the atomic structure of matter. Its the same something that was expressed in why is culture important, the Third Law of Thermodynamics long after Newton. All movement encounters resistive forces, such as friction. There are forces akin to friction between the atoms in every body. There are even resistive forces within the structure of the atoms themselves.

We often think of atoms as being perfect, rigid bodies, but even this assumption is not true. So, the james, hard fact is, that even on is britain, the most fundamental level the simplistic view of the conservation of momentum is not perfectly true. It is almost true for low velocity impacts between elementary particles (certainly not true for relativistic impacts). So Newton was wrong? Absolutely not! Its only that we often do a sloppy job of james arthur baldwin accounting for all the forces which act on and within a system. If you neglect any force, then the answer is wrong.

Maybe its only slightly wrong and you don't care, but in the case of terminal ballistics involving large plastic deformations we simply cannot neglect the complex interactions of the materials. Most interesting terminal ballistic events involve hydrodynamic flows and in these situations the forces are continuous field functions acting in countless directions. Recall that energy may be expressed as force acting over a distance. One may then say that a certain quantity of energy, say 100 ft-lbs, is equivalent to raising 100 lbs up against gravity a distance of one foot. Why Is Culture Important! Here we see the difference between pure science and engineering. Science can easily give you an answer that is technically correct as far as it goes, but utterly useless and james untruthful. In the real world, the example I just gave is true only if the weight is raised at quasi-static velocity, barely moving. Culture! It matters how fast you do something.

Fast work wastes energy. There is less efficiency and effectiveness in the work and more entropy is expended. Engineering is the james, business of genetic psychology looking at the real world complexities of baldwin mechanical (and other) systems using the principles of science. We often state that mass is conserved (none is lost) and that energy also is conserved. Mass and energy must be accounted for to genetic psychology preserve the whole truth of mechanics. For ballistic events, kinetic energy is converted to strain energy (causing both elastic and plastic deformation) and this energy is finally converted into arthur, thermal internal energy when the body assumes a rest state. All elastic and plastic cavity expansions result in some non-recoverable energy loss to entropy as well. This last fact of reality makes the pot america, dumbed down principle of the conservation of momentum an unrealizable ideal. However, we may still make good use of the expression developed by Newton. As an aside, the most dramatic demonstration of this elastic energy dissipation that I have seen was on arthur baldwin, a late night infomercial for some high tech golf clubs. Kwakiutl Pacific Northwest! The heads were made from a metallic glass that is arthur composed of zirconium with a half dozen other metals mixed in to fully occupy all the spaces in the crystal lattice.

Imagine a box spring structure but with rigid braces placed all around the springs so that they can't flex anymore. A golfball was dropped in country, a tube onto james a plate of this material at the same instant as other balls were dropped onto plates of stainless steel and titanium alloy. The motion damped out in about 10 seconds for the steel, maybe 15 or 20 for the titanium, but the golf ball bounced on that metallic glass for over two minutes! A worse case of the bullet striking the block example was brought to my attention some time back, in which the like, conservation of momentum was again reduced to mass times velocity resultants, but the problem then went on to compare the arthur baldwin, initial kinetic energy of the bullet to the final kinetic energy of the moving block and movies like concluded by stating that the difference in these energies was absorbed by deformation and resistive forces. I say this is worse because it is almost correct and sounds correct, but isn't. You don't start with the idea that gross body motions must be preserved and james then declare any discrepancies in energy to definition be resistive losses.

This is particularly important where hydrodynamic behavior dominates the james baldwin, problem. The correct solution is to treat the interaction at a scale of resolution appropriate to the deformation, perform basic calculations of the fundamental equations of motion and movies john q visco-plastic deformation while numerically integrating, account for the energy explicitly at each step, and then describe the gross body motions. Doing this manually is out of the question, which is why the defense sector uses high powered computer workstations and finite element or finite difference methods. The reason why a simplistic assumption of preserving gross body motion does not work can be shown rather easily. If we describe an impact between two perfectly rigid bodies, m and james M, the larger one of which is initially at culture rest, we may express the force exerted by the smaller mass on the larger at impact as: F = m d 2 s / dt 2 , and the force exerted by the larger mass on the impacting mass as: F = M d 2 s / dt 2. (Note: the forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction and the accelerations are not the same). However, we are interested in penetration, so we ought (at the very least) to model the impact as a spring-mass system to indicate some elastic deformation. Let's concentrate on james arthur baldwin, the larger mass (the target), recognizing that what applies to the target also applies in its own way to the projectile.

According to Hooke's Law the force applied to Essay a spring in elastic deformation is equal to the spring constant multiplied by the deformation distance. For a spring-mass system, the total force exerted by and on the projectile is james given by: F = M d 2 s / dt 2 + K s. Observe that already the Kwakiutl Pacific Northwest Essay, acceleration on the mass is reduced by the quantity Ks / M. The energy absorbed by the spring is described by: E = Integral (F ds) = ( K s 2 ) / 2 (assuming a linear spring behavior). This is why we put suspension systems on dynamic systems (like automobiles). If the acceleration on the mass is less, it doesn't move as far or as fast. Arthur Baldwin! Its that simple. In other words, the force varies with the internal mechanics of the bodies. Newton isn't violated.

I have said that this perfectly elastic view of mechanics is unrealistic because of the resistive forces in real matter. So, lets add some nonrecoverable energy losses. Real dynamic systems include damping, usually represented in culture important, simple models by a dashpot, which is a mechanism that uses fluid viscosity to resist movement (this is the same mechanism used by those mercury recoil reducers). James! The viscous fluid offers resistance in proportion to the velocity of the motion. In consequence, the total force is expressed by: F = M d 2 s / dt 2 + D ds / dt + K s. The energy dissipated by the damper is given by: E = Integral (F ds) = Integral ( D v ds ). Buddhism! The acceleration is reduced by: ( Ks + Dv ) / M. James Arthur! Since in each case the input is identical, we must conclude that the Essay, acceleration on the mass in the case of the viscous damped spring-mass system is less than the acceleration experienced by the rigid mass. In ballistic events a portion of the arthur baldwin, damping is governed by a velocity squared function.

Therefore, neglecting the Buddhism and Meditation Essay, damping and elastic dissipation of energy results in an overestimate of imparted motion. The May/June 2002 issue of Petersen's Rifle Shooter has an article entitled, Where Do the Foot-Pounds Go? - Relating Kinetic Energy to Hunting Cartridge Effectiveness , which is much improved over the pseudoscience of four years before, and even begins to address the conversion of james arthur baldwin kinetic and strain energy into residual internal energy; however, it introduces one misunderstanding worth clearing up. The article states that high velocity small bore bullets penetrate steel plates like truck leaf springs by melting the a christian, steel. This sort of mythology is james arthur prevalent in my field and seems plausible, but even shaped charge jets moving at 9000 m/s (29,500 fps) do not melt the steel armor plates that they penetrate, nor is the Buddhism and Meditation, soft pure copper jet melted (this is not conjecture, it has been demonstrated). A shaped charge jet penetrates strictly using its velocity and density. The dynamic pressure vastly exceeds the strength of the steel and the penetration velocity exceeds the sound speed, so the james arthur, steel effectively has no strength at all.

Most bullets do not penetrate so fast through steel targets that hydrodynamic flow conditions exist, but the force per unit area still governs the behavior. I have shot slabs of 6061-T6 aluminum with a variety of small arms ranging from the 5.56 x 45 mm M193 and M855 (SS109 type) bullets up to the .458 Win Mag using a 500 gr Hornady steel jacketed solid ( this is extremely dangerous - do not attempt it! ). At no stage in any of movies q these penetration tests did melting occur, either in the target or in the bullets (aluminum, copper and lead have much lower melting points than steel). The bullets were recovered and baldwin exhibited mechanical strain, which would not be evident if they had melted. The target exhibited similar behavior. Kwakiutl Mask Of The Northwest Essay! Any bullet capable of melting steel would leave scorch marks through tissue. When was the last time you saw that? The author theorizes that the steam generated by all this heat transfer causes the violent cavitation during a bullet's passage through tissue. One need not guess at it. We know that dynamic pressure is responsible for cavitation in james, hydrodynamic penetration. Bullets actually deliver very little energy: 2000 ft-lbs is genetic psychology 2700 J or just enough energy to light a 100 W bulb for baldwin, 27 seconds.

I don't fault the author of that article for the mistake, as even sources that ought to be authoritative in the defense field make similar errors with regard to penetration mechanics (I still regularly see references to shaped charges producing plasma jets, and that sort of misinformation). Real world penetration is best described as a fluid mechanics problem. Why Is Culture Important! For inviscid hydrodynamic flow, the dynamic pressure is (according to Bernoulli's Law) proportional to the fluid density and the square of the velocity: P = ( rho / 2 ) v 2 . The force exerted on the bullet at james arthur baldwin the stagnation point is culture equal to the dynamic pressure multiplied by the presented area of the baldwin, projectile in definition, the direction of the flow, F = P A. The first thing that this tells you is that the mass of the bullet has no direct bearing on the diameter of the cavity created - rather, that is governed by james baldwin, shape and velocity. The kinetic energy expended during penetration is given by the force exerted over the distance of travel by the bullet, or: E = F ds. So, the differential penetration depth, ds, is simply the kinetic energy divided by the force acting on is britain a christian country, the projectile, ds = E / F. Penetration depth then clearly does depend on james baldwin, bullet mass (a component of movies john q kinetic energy). This expression could be integrated very easily (and conveniently) in terms of arthur baldwin velocity. Unfortunately, for all the reasons laid out in this discussion the above is still too simplistic. Living tissue is not a Newtonian fluid. It is solid, with fluid characteristics in high velocity impact events. It obeys non-linear behavior laws. It is viscous and exhibits second-order damping effects, as well as compressibility and melting pot america elasticity (fluids are inelastic and, notwithstanding popular mythology to the contrary, all fluids are compressible), so calculations of the permanent cavity created by the bullet will be complex.

We need a velocity dependent drag function and a constitutive relation governing the strength, elasticity, compressibility and failure mechanisms of the target material(s). So, where do we go from here? Can we have an objective assessment of the james arthur, effectiveness of our weapons? I think the Buddhism and Meditation Essay, answer is in the affirmative and hopefully the next two sections will begin to give some hint as to that understanding.

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Tips for Academic Writing and arthur baldwin Other Formal Writing. It is a long list. Country. People have a lot of problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to me. Yet bad grammar, bad style, and poor organization will make it very difficult for you to james arthur convey your ideas clearly and professionally, and will limit your academic and professional success. Kwakiutl Tribal Mask Pacific Essay. I strongly recommend that you work to james arthur baldwin eliminate any of these problems that may apply to your own writing. -- Dr. Is Britain A Christian. James A. Bednar. Rules for formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated.

Formal writing is james baldwin used in genetic academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions. Unlike casual conversation or emails to friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and well structured. Formal writing is not just dictated conversation In general, it is inappropriate simply to write as you would speak. In conversation, the listener can ask for james arthur baldwin, clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from melting, topic to topic freely, and so on. Formal writing must instead stand on its own, conveying the author's thesis clearly through words alone.

As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments relevant to a well-defined thesis. The best formal writing will be difficult to baldwin write but very easy to read. The author's time and effort spent on writing will be repaid with the time and effort saved by the (many) readers. Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is clearly evident in the introduction and Essay conclusion. Of course, the thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point. In a short essay, the baldwin main point should usually conclude the introductory paragraph. In a longer essay, the main point generally concludes the Buddhism introductory section. The reader should never be in james arthur any doubt about what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the genetic psychology reader again. When in doubt, use the recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon it, and finally sum up, tying everything back to the topic. At each level, you need to tell the reader what you will be trying to say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to james cover all the relevant material, clearly relating it to your stated point, and finally you need to tie the psychology subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to establish the point that you promised.

Stay on arthur baldwin, topic Everything in your document should be related clearly to melting pot america definition your main thesis. You can write other papers later for anything else you might want to say. The reason your reader is reading this particular paper of yours is that he or she wants to arthur baldwin know about your main topic, not simply about everything you might want to say (unless for genetic, some narcissistic reason everything you might want to say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is no need to bring up items simply because they relate to your main topic, if you do not have anything to say about them. If you do bring something up, say something important about james arthur, it! Staying on Kwakiutl Tribal Mask Essay, topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to acknowledge some weaknesses in your argument or discuss some merits of an james arthur, opposing argument. Movies Like John Q. It is quite appropriate to discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to the main topic of your paper. For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and arguing that it was not written well overall, it is usually a good idea to point out the few things that were done well, e.g. so that the reader does not get the impression that you just like to complain :-) . Often such opposing observations fit well just after the introduction, providing a background for the rest of arthur baldwin, your arguments that follow. Whenever you do include such material, i.e. things that go in the direction opposite to your main thesis, be careful to put it into only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. Is Britain A Christian. Jumping back and forth will confuse the reader unnecessarily.

In every case, try to make your point as clearly as possible, while at the same time not overstating it and not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in james arthur your document should follow smoothly from the preceding sentence, and Essay each paragraph should follow smoothly from the preceding paragraph. The world is arguably an unstructured jumble of ideas, but anything that you expect the reader to read from start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in your paper. James Baldwin. Without good transitions, the reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to a christian country be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether. One clue that your writing needs better transitions is if you find that you can cut and paste paragraphs from one section to arthur baldwin another without doing substantial rewriting of Buddhism Essay, how the james paragraph begins and ends. If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into a coherent narrative that reads well from Kwakiutl Tribal of the Pacific Northwest, start to finish.

In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Learning to do it takes a lot of practice at james arthur first, and actually making the Buddhism transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. One rule of thumb is that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . James Arthur. , As a result, . , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to add these words between most of your sentences, not just the paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much. Like John. In that case you need to reorganize your document to james arthur baldwin group related thoughts together, switching topics only when necessary. Once the organization is good, all you can do is read and reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in genetic casual conversation, usually intending to convey meanings other than what the arthur words literally indicate. For instance, we often speak informally of movies john, going the extra mile, at the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc.

Avoid such imprecise writing in formal prose -- whenever possible, the arthur baldwin words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. Genetic Psychology. If there were no miles involved, do not write of extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is obvious even to those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is james baldwin a second language and Buddhism and Meditation those who might read your writing years from now or in another part of the world. Formal writing should be clear to as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on james arthur baldwin, the whims of movies john q, your local dialect of English. It is a permanent and public record of your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written. Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to avoid that temptation. When two words will do, there is no need to use twenty. Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the academic community, your ability to arthur write concisely is genetic psychology far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to james arthur baldwin ensure that you write an essay of the why is appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to fill up space.

In the real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums. Be professional and diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Baldwin. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and the subject of is britain country, your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and baldwin offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc. If some of the essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. At the very least, you would have made an enemy for life, which is is britain a christian rarely a good idea. James. In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the author or implying that he or she is an imbecile. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is just a diatribe and Buddhism and Meditation Essay not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. It should be straightforward to figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those.

Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the sentences in what you are reading right now!). E.g. do not say Recall that . . Of course, an occasional imperative in parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. James. (see Walker 1996 for more details).). A formal document needs to be structured at all levels, whether or not the structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for psychology, an effective essay or article is to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the reader of james, your thesis in the body of the paper, and (3) restate the melting pot america thesis in the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Note that an james arthur, abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an independent miniature version of the article, not part of the melting definition introduction. Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to the main topic of your document; if not, either the paragraph should be eliminated, or the arthur baldwin main topic should be revised.

Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in why is the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an entire thought, not just a fragment or the beginning of a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs. The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to a sentence or a part of one. James Arthur. To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by Pacific Northwest Essay, a period, it would have to arthur baldwin be The light turned green, which has both a subject and is britain a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon.

However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in turn. If you could replace the comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in baldwin case you have two sentences that need to genetic be linked in arthur some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for Mask of the Essay, an article should say exactly and succinctly what the james reader will get out of that section. In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Important. Section standards vary in james arthur different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and psychology Conclusion. If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. Arthur Baldwin. if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about and Meditation, what is in arthur that section. Kwakiutl Tribal Of The Pacific Northwest. Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it.

For instance, a section about adding a second eye to a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to baldwin someone scanning the document. Instead, it should be something like Extending the and Meditation model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of person likely to be reading the paper. Everything important goes in your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at least skim the introduction and conclusion, and james baldwin those who read it in is britain a christian depth will remember those two sections the james best. So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the like john introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and arthur baldwin evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. Instead state that the paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to be the case. Then you can elaborate on that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in Tribal of the Pacific the subsections, mentioned in the order of the subsections. That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text.

If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and arthur 1.1 should be merged. Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in why is important that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on to the next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on arthur, what to put into figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the Buddhism Essay main article. That way, readers can skim articles and baldwin only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to is britain country read the whole article. Baldwin. In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the Kwakiutl Tribal Mask Pacific Essay figure are also mentioned in the text of the article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Arthur Baldwin. Other journals and genetic psychology other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to have very little in the caption, with the figures being understandable only when reading the main text. Even in such cases, I myself prefer to baldwin put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the why is culture import of the figure is clear. You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of what you are trying to achieve, i.e. whether you want the caption to be readable on its own. Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is baldwin replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc.

These words have no meaning in genetic themselves, but in conversation the meaning is usually clear from the context. In written text, however, the intended meaning is quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of it and this. It is a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for james, this sort of word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?. Why Is. For such a reference to james arthur make sense, the object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to movies like your reference. James Baldwin. Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the item to which you refer is explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is pot america definition any chance that the james arthur baldwin reader might not know to culture important which of several items you might be referring.

E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of each; he would be ambiguous. Often an james, ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the type of object or concept to which you are referring. For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this. That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is a good example of the use of the word 'this'.

Watch out for why is culture, homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for arthur, detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is confused with other actual words. As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text. Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of movies q, your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the james arthur baldwin difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of a burden, and is britain is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is arthur baldwin now becoming acceptable. But it is pot america much safer simply to avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to james arthur mean compose.

But and however are not interchangeable The words but and and Meditation however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and replace it with however, or vice versa, the result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation. I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges. Arthur. However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines.

I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only be used for john q, a single, atomic item. Thus it is arthur baldwin not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the psychology first half of a point, etc. Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in English.

Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case. Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people. For example, capitalize school subjects only james when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. A Christian. a computer science department, the president vs. President Bush. When in doubt, use lower case.

Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of james arthur, words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the psychology parentheses in james a mathematical expression. They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is movies like q a mistake to use a hyphen where the meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an arthur, adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. But the phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the English language, and using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the why is culture important noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the james baldwin noun phrase English language into an adjective, and a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective).

Note that hyphens are used only in country adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). You may want to search through your finished document for baldwin, ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in a row will be mistakes. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of why is culture, grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. James Arthur. Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to is britain read.

But in james arthur such cases it is often clearer just to reword the sentence to avoid the is britain ambiguity, as in arthur baldwin a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the pair of words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to genetic psychology avoid ambiguity. For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to james be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the why is literal interpretation, and baldwin so the hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the genetic same phrase but e.g. after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is not a property of the phrase, but of arthur baldwin, how you are using the why is phrase in james baldwin the sentence. American vs.

British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in Kwakiutl Mask Pacific Northwest Essay a British university, and I use American spellings by default (e.g. organization, not organisation). James. Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to make e.g. Kwakiutl Tribal Of The Northwest. all the papers in a certain edited volume use the same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the document. Formatting and james arthur baldwin grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Unfortunately, you do have to pay for the APA guide, though it is now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents. If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification.

Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the genetic psychology writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is distracting and makes it difficult to photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an acceptable substitute for a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in a written paper. Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends. They are not, and arthur even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to that circumstance. Except in movies like john unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to arthur discuss specific people (e.g. the original founders of a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of is britain country, a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is like the key in a database lookup -- if the james arthur baldwin name is is britain country misspelled (e.g.

Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to locate works by that author in the library or online. Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work. So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the authors' last names, not he or the author. If there is arthur only one author and you can determine the melting pot america definition gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the baldwin author or the author's last name. Referring to other texts Use double quotes around the title of an important, article when you refer to it in the text.

Italics are reserved for james baldwin, books or other works of similar length. Movies John. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and james arthur baldwin is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of pot america, what one author said about another author. Arthur Baldwin. If commenting on Mask of the, such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. Arthur Baldwin. When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to avoid the hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative.

Only when something genuinely cannot be made to culture important fit into the main flow of the james text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only pot america when the precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. if the work is arthur baldwin so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in this field. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is pot america more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in james arthur the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to criticize the grammar or spelling of an author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to country verify that you are correct. Reading a long rant from an American about how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the arthur baldwin authors . Kwakiutl Tribal Mask. . Try to baldwin avoid this redundancy. If you use the john q word author you need not also use paper, and james baldwin vice versa. Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the is britain a christian country paper; we do not need to be reminded of this. Academic writing is always about james arthur baldwin, papers and authors, and thus those topics should only and Meditation be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an arthur baldwin, existing piece of research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is country a standard way of doing it properly. First you say what the research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and arthur then you say how your own work is going to overcome those limitations.

I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and how you are going to do some of what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an psychology, original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do. Unless you want to make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the baldwin limitations, and you should always assume that the person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to psychology make an enemy, e.g. to draw attention to yourself by arthur, attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only that you are planning to why is important study topic X. In the arthur baldwin context of why is, research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for success and arthur no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Culture. Studying is something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on arthur, and can test you to see if you got the genetic psychology right answer; research is not like that.

In research, you need to spell out the specific questions you are going to try to answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on -- it's up to you to define the question and arthur baldwin the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to genetic discuss all topics that the audience expected to see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant. The reader is james arthur baldwin more likely to why is important assume that you have been sloppy about james arthur, your literature review than to assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant. Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant. Tribal Of The Pacific. In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to address the issue and explicitly state why the topic is james baldwin not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to Mask Pacific Essay understand or remember. Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of arthur baldwin, information in Essay order to fulfill their function of allowing people to locate the specific item of reference material you cite. In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and page numbers, and every conference paper must have the title of the conference proceedings, the page numbers, and some indication of who published it. Without having every bit of this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the james one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the article, such as the is britain a christian country cost of arthur, reprints.

As long as the correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in all cases each entry ends in a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in important an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to find the james baldwin correct source in melting the bibliography; beyond that, any number of citation formats will do unless there is arthur baldwin some specific standard you are told to follow. One common approach is to use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in . known [1], ( not . known[1]).

If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the sentence is concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence. Genetic Psychology. Thus the rule is simply to put the parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. James Arthur. or . as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). And Meditation. ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and not . as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is usually best to have only a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the main text. Arthur Baldwin. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and why is culture important we (and their various forms) in academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and james arthur baldwin scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific.

Others argue that omitting I and we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences. Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is why is culture being reported was an james, arbitrary and genetic specific choice made by a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work. When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is no need to james arthur emphasize the role of the authors. Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the is britain country human element where appropriate; in other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for English text, and in the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to follow the accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by less enlightened folks. :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in james arthur some cases for movies like q, British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is traditionally placed inside the james arthur quotation. However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the melting definition whole notion of quotation, i.e. an obvious bug in the English language.

For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is arthur baldwin hard, I always put the comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is a christian hard, but the computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen. The traditional formatting for james arthur baldwin, an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is hard---then you die. However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and after the dash.

Without the spaces the dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Is Britain. Grammatically, the function of the dash is to separate and connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the arthur baldwin dash. Again, in my opinion the accepted usage is Mask of the Pacific a bug in the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an james, error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at the place they were heading to. However, in practice it is genetic psychology often very difficult and awkward to arthur baldwin reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the comma is definition often omitted before an arthur baldwin, 'and' in a list.

For instance, they will write of is britain a christian, ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs. I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in the list together. Lists are generally meant to be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and chips. James Baldwin. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is ambiguous. Important. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at arthur baldwin least, agrees with me; see the Wikipedia serial comma entry.

Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is Buddhism and Meditation probably driven by james, the computer programmer in me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and a christian country e.g. Many grammar books state that a comma is james always required after i.e. and e.g. used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly. The inspiration for this rule is that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to the English translation of the movies Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. translating to arthur that is, and melting definition e.g. translating to for example, which in itself is an arthur baldwin, important distinction to Kwakiutl of the know). However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in arthur baldwin many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. Such pauses break up the flow of the is britain sentence, and modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to Latin phrases and then English phrases. Thus in many cases I prefer to omit the james baldwin comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the one before it. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in a christian the public domain.

You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for james, any other non-fraudulent purpose. If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the original author.

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18 Ideas for Starting a Pet Business. North Americans are so willing to put their money where their hearts are, so a pet business can be a very profitable small business. Canadian households, for instance, spent $6.5-billion on them in 2012, a figure thats been rising steadily annually, according to the Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council of Canada - and 59% of baldwin Canadians say the is britain a christian country bond they share with their pet is as strong as or stronger than the bonds they share with family and friends. Meantime, over the border, Americans spent $55.72 billion on arthur baldwin, their pets in is britain a christian country, 2013 and it#39;s estimated that they will spend $58.51 billion in 2014 (American Pet Products Association (APPA)). The pet services segment, including grooming, boarding, pet hotels, pet sitting, day care and other services, has been the james arthur fastest-growing category; Americans spent $4.41 billion on pet services in country, 2013 and james arthur baldwin, the APPA projects that they will spend $4.73 billion on pet services in culture important, 2014. Perhaps even more startling is the fact that 68% of U.S. households now own at least one pet, according to the 2013-2014 APPA National Pet Owners Survey - equating to 45.3 million cats, 56.7 million dogs and james arthur, 14.3 million freshwater fish (the three largest categories of pets). So how might you get into the pet business?

This article presents eighteen ways that might appeal to you. The ideas below range from pet-based products through providing pet services that involve working with animals, but you won#39;t find any pet business ideas on the list that involve the retail breeding and melting, selling of animals. As a long-time Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals supporter, this is something I#39;m vehemently opposed to. Arthur Baldwin! Pet sitting make the top of my list because a) there#39;s an almost universal need for it and b) it#39;s a very flexible business. Buddhism! For instance, if you live in a suitable place out of town, you can run a pet sitting business as a kennel operation with people bringing their pets to you and dropping them off.

But that doesn#39;t have to james arthur baldwin be the case; you can also go to peoples homes and look after their pets#39; needs. Or, you can combine a pet sitting business with a house sitting business and look after people#39;s homes as well when they#39;re away. This is is britain a riff on the pet sitting business idea, where you have a facility set up where dogs and /or cats can be dropped off and james arthur, looked after while their owners are gone. The main problem with this idea, as I allude to in my discussion of a pet sitting business, is Kwakiutl of the Northwest Essay zoning. Baldwin! You may simply not be able to psychology do it where you are. (See What You Need to Know Before You Start a Home Based Business.) Another pet business idea on the same theme, the Doggie Daycare has very similar pros and cons. Arthur Baldwin! There is an increasing need for this kind of pet service as more working people are discovering that dogs left alone day after day while the owner works can bark and be destructive. On the con side, though, you may find this a difficult business to like john q locate because of zoning regulations and municipal by-laws. Arthur! If you can do this and do it well, you can probably write your own ticket. There are an awful lot of people out there who don#39;t have enough time or skill or both to psychology train a dog properly - but for some reason, have bought one anyway and arthur baldwin, now need someone to movies q train it. The venue is not necessarily a problem; facilities to run dog training classes can be rented.

If you#39;re a really skilled animal trainer and have an interest in media, maybe a pet business specializing in james arthur, training animals for film and TV is for you. Genetic! Remember Morris the cat? Lobo? Moose, the Jack Russell terrier on the TV show Frasier? Some animals become huge stars.

Hollywood Paws (based in james arthur baldwin, Los Angeles) is an example of country a business that trains animals and their owners to work in the entertainment industry. Are you the arthur baldwin kind of person who enjoys solving puzzles? Maybe you#39;ve even thought of being a detective at some point. If so, you might put your sleuthing skills to work running a Pet Finding business. A Christian Country! You can help distraught pet owners get their loved ones back and make money too. Tracker dogs join growing the industry to help owners find lost pets (Steve Hendrix, Washington Post ) profiles one such business, Pure Gold Pet Trackers, that uses the arthur baldwin tracking skills of Kwakiutl Pacific Essay a golden retriever named Sasha to james find people#39;s lost pets. Another dog-related service that busy pet owners need is to have their dogs walked regularly. Tribal Mask Northwest Essay! The key to success with this pet business idea, I would think, would be time management. You#39;d definitely want to have enough clients so you could take x number of james arthur dogs out for a walk at a time, rather than just walking one and john q, then returning it to its owner. Arthur Baldwin! Dog grooming is pot america definition a very popular pet business as grooming is james one of those chores related to dog ownership that many people would rather pay someone else to do rather than do themselves.

Another reason for its popularity is that, like pet sitting, it#39;s quite a flexible business idea. Buddhism Essay! You could operate a dog grooming business as a mobile service or run it out of arthur baldwin a retail shop, for example. While we#39;re on the subject of chores related to dog ownership that many people would rather pay someone else to do rather than do themselves, don#39;t forget poop scooping. This involves visiting customers#39; properties on john, a weekly or monthly basis and collecting and disposing of dog feces. Yes, it#39;s dirty, messy work but so are lots of things that people do to make money. On the pro side, there#39;s no special training or equipment needed and you can easily operate this business from home. Having bathed dogs before, I can definitely see why some people don#39;t want to do this in their own homes; wet and messy only begins to describe it. A dog bathing business could be operated as a standalone business or as an adjunct to a pet grooming business.

Or you could run this as a do-it-yourself business, where all you provide is the arthur facilities and the equipment. So far I#39;ve written about pet services related to pets#39; basic needs. Kwakiutl Tribal Mask Pacific Northwest! But there#39;s a whole growing sector of james arthur pet businesses related to pets#39; not-so-basic needs, as pet owners look for is britain a christian more ways to help their pets lead longer and healthier lives. Pet massage services are one of arthur baldwin these niche pet services that seem to be growing. Ive also seen pet businesses offering acupuncture, hydrotherapy, and even psychotherapy! In many of these fields, there is specific pet-related training required to become a practitioner. And speaking of upscale pet services, I#39;ve also heard of restaurants devoted to dogs.

No, not just restaurants that allow you to bring dogs with you, but restaurants where the dogs are the is britain country diners. See this Doggy Style Deli in Edmonton, for arthur baldwin instance. Is this a pet business that would be allowed where you are? You#39;d definitely need to check both health regulations and municipal by-laws before you did anything else. Just as with the food they put into their own bodies, pet owners have become increasingly concerned about the quality of the is britain a christian country food their pets eat and are continually on the lookout for pet foods that they feel have additional health benefits. There are basically two approaches to pet food businesses; either producing the pet food yourself or becoming a distributor for a particular type of pet food. Dog bakeries, homemade healthy dog treats, raw foods, gourmet foods any of these could be extremely lucrative if the pets (and the owners) like what#39;s on offer. Arthur Baldwin! Pets, children the difference between them has blurred considerably in Buddhism Essay, the eyes of many pet owners. Arthur Baldwin! So many dog owners like to dress up their pets, creating all kinds of pet business opportunities to supply dogs with fashionable, good looking gear. (Cat owners know that they#39;ll be lucky to get away with putting a collar on little Tiger, let alone anything else, so the opportunities for creating and selling cat gear are much more limited.) Once again, you can create the couture yourself or distribute someone else#39;s. All kinds of pets need supplies and movies john q, gear, and pet owners seem to like the james baldwin convenience of being able to movies like john q #34;one-stop#34; shop. This kind of pet business seems to be dominated by franchises, but it is still possible to start your own business from scratch.

Such a business could also supply pet-related services as well, such as dog grooming. (Picture an in-house #34;dog spa#34;, for example, surrounded by products.) 16) Pet Business Marketing. The key to success for many small businesses is to find and fill a niche market. Pet business marketing is an example of this. There are so many pet businesses now that it#39;s possible to run a successful marketing business that caters to the needs of james arthur pet business owners exclusively. Fetching Communications, for instance, provides everything from blogging placement and is britain a christian, social media through trade show campaigns exclusively for baldwin pet businesses since 2003. If you have the marketing expertise, pet marketing might be the business youve been looking for.

And if you have artistic talent and love animals, you might start a pet business painting portraits of Tribal of the Northwest people#39;s pets. Arthur! Along these same lines, you might start a pet photography business if that#39;s where your talents lie. I would think you would need a lot of patience during the sittings needed when you were working to portray an animal, too. Movies John! Be that as it may, as people give their pets more and more importance in their lives, they seem to james baldwin have an increasing need to like john q commemorate them. Being a veterinarian is the james baldwin original pet business. And nowadays, veterinarians are able to of the Northwest make good livings specializing in treating pets such as dogs and cats.

The downside is that this is baldwin a business that requires years of training and, like being a human doctor, has strict accreditation and licensing requirements. How to Become a Veterinarian in Canada explains the details. Is a Pet Business the Right Business for You? To run a successful pet business, you have to love and be knowledgeable about the animals you#39;re going to be working with, and in is britain a christian, some cases, as you see from the descriptions of the businesses above, that involves years of specialized training. But you also have to bear in mind that even that isn#39;t enough. James Baldwin! A pet business is just like any other small business; the key to success is choosing the why is important right business for the right time and place. You may be a wonderful dog groomer, but if you live in james, a small town and there are already three dog grooming businesses operating there, you#39;re going to have a tough time of it. Q! What Type of Business Should You Start? provides an easy-to-use guide to figuring out what kind of business is best for you. James Arthur! And before you start a pet business, do the research and work through a business plan, just as you would for any other new business venture.

My Business Plan Outline will lead you through the process.

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Example Of Opinion Essay Essays and Research Papers. Opinion essay Opinion essay is a formal piece of essay writing which presents the . James Arthur. authors point of view on a particular subject supported by reasons and examples . The opposing viewpoint is also suggested, it goes with arguments that show that it is unconvincing. A Successful Opinion Essay Consists of: An introduction where the topic and the authors opinion are stated clearly. A main body where viewpoints supported by is britain country, reasons are presented in several paragraphs. This section has also the. Education , Essay , Mobile phone 792 Words | 3 Pages.

? Opinion Essay Some people use marijuana for health purposes, some just use it to get really high. Smoking marijuana . isnt as bad as it seems to others. James Arthur Baldwin. Obviously lighting something on fire and inhaling it wouldnt seem as if its good or healthy for you. Definition. Thats why people get the james arthur wrong impression. I believe marijuana should be legalized because there are more positives to it than negatives. Marijuana can help people medically and help the economy.

Ironically other substances that are. Bipolar disorder , Cancer , Disease 898 Words | 4 Pages. Name Demeshov Yerkebulan ID 20121754 Opinion Essay Music is the best type of . Melting. Art What is art? Everyone knows about it, but could you say a lot about arthur music? May be yes, may be no. Music is the best type of art. Genetic. Before proving it , lets talk about what music means. Arthur Baldwin. Music is an art form which medium is sound and Essay silence. In many cultures music is an important part of people.

Music contains all their history. May be for someone music is just. Aesthetics , Art , Medicine 929 Words | 3 Pages. Name Date Opinion Essay An opinion essay tells what the writer thinks or feels about a topic. . People have different opinions about things. James. In an opinion essay , you write your opinion about a topic. When you write an opinion essay , you choose a topic about which you have strong feelings. You support your opinion with reasons. For this Unit Project, you are going to write an opinion essay about the wetlands of Mississippi. Writing Process Part I: Prewriting Ideas As you learned in Unit 1, Mississippi. All rights reserved , Copyright , Essay 1171 Words | 6 Pages.

Sample SAT Essays Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is designed to a christian be as close as possible to an . James Baldwin. essay question that might appear on the SAT. Youll recognize that its based on the great philosopher Moses Pelinguss assertion, Theres no success like failure, which we have referred to throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and is britain a christian back it up with concrete examples . Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. Sample Essay Read this example sample essay . Then answer the questions below. The qualities of a hero . include selflessness, having the james inspiration to be a founder and being courageous. With these qualities in mind, it is easy to see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero. He embodied the three qualities mentioned above and these heroic qualities were seen in his life and work. He was born in Al Ain and Kwakiutl Tribal of the Pacific Essay had a simple education which included learning the Koran and mathematics. His.

Abu Dhabi , Al Ain , Hero 1313 Words | 4 Pages. Examples from Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness The research I did this summer focused on sorption of cesium and james arthur baldwin . strontium by soils. Movies John. These two chemicals are commonly found in chemical contaminants My research also focused on the distribution coefficient which is a measurement of how much of james arthur a solvent is [absorbed] by a geologic medium. I found that many of the readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages. all want to have a place to belong in the social jungle that is middle school.

But in genetic psychology my opinion its not worth all the drama and arthur trouble that . it will most likely create. For instance you could be suspended, fail your classes, become addicted on is britain country, drugs, or worse, and these are the things that will cause you to arthur baldwin fail and mess you up for melting pot america definition, life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to teach you how to deal with the baldwin unfairness in why is life. When I first started. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages.

age of expansion following on an age of arthur discovery, its expansion led to still further discovery about architectural design and decoration. Section A: . Interiors S.Maria Della Salute (1631-1682) The interior of S.Maria Della Salute is a very good example of Baroque Architecture and design. It displays the Baroque essence in a way but is not completely over melting pot america ornamented nor does it contain any unsuitable details. Marble is mainly used in the columns and arthur baldwin the base appears to be gilded in bronze. Sculptures. Baroque , Baroque music , Dome 1264 Words | 4 Pages.

of the week when Pete receives big shipments of inventory for the store. When that occurs the retail part of the Essay Garden Center can be really busy for a few . days after stocking the new inventory. Inventory can range from a variety of things, for example ; garden rocks in james arthur baldwin assorted rock pallets, mulch bags sorted out by Tribal Mask of the Essay, type, hay bales stacked, and even bird baths. So as one of the three managers, Pete has to make sure things go well and items are placed correctly and neatly throughout the store, in. Annual plant , Evergreen , Garden 1115 Words | 3 Pages. Example Essay He that is good for making excuses is seldom good for anything else. -- Ben Franklin. James Baldwin. As early as the . founding of the United States of America, Mr. Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time and it negative effects on and Meditation Essay, their lives. Today, it is frequently used as an baldwin excuse to justify the movies like john q lack of time management skills. The effects on arthur, kids, work, or even in why is important family life are sometimes devastating.

In a day there are 24 hours, and time is available. Benjamin Franklin , Family , Franklin Planner 950 Words | 3 Pages. idea of ghosts is arthur baldwin far too exaggerated to be real. According to psychologydictionary.org the paranormal is genetic designating any phenomenon comprising the james . transfer of data or energy which can't be described by present scientific insights (What). Why Is Important. For example , a couple of years ago I was in james arthur my house alone.

I was walking towards the front door and a pair of scissors fell from the countertop and on culture important, to the floor. It scared me to death and it was like the scissors had been thrown. I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages. ?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950s to Today Sexuality, like many other . things in our world, is an ever changing thing. The ideas and connotations surrounding it change from baldwin generation to generation. Because of this, the definition idea of arthur baldwin sex in a christian country the 1950s is james arthur baldwin completely different from the idea of sex today. Today, sexuality can be expressed in melting pot america almost anything we do.

Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and james arthur many other. 20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages. other areas) show specific anatomical and functional features in professional and psychology semi-professional musicians. One of the most visible . benefits of playing a musical instrument is the improvement of arthur baldwin memory capacity and Kwakiutl Mask of the Pacific ability. For example , the constant use of both the james arthur left and right hemispheres of the is britain brain simultaneously in baldwin someone who plays the is britain country piano exercises memory. Thanks to this, it is james also believed that people who play musical instruments are less prone to have neurodegenerative. Brain , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 946 Words | 3 Pages. Theories of a christian Relativity Opinion Essay.

Theories of Relativity Opinion Essay : Why We Should Read This Novel in the ENG3C Course Living on the street can be tough, . especially if youre a teenager. Baldwin. In Theories of Relativity by Barbara Haworth-Attard, readers have a chance at seeing just how hard life on the streets can be for teenagers. We should study Theories of is britain Relativity in the ENG3C course for arthur baldwin, many reasons, including how many students can relate to Dylan, because the book has many interesting characters and because of. Adolescence , Birmingham , Education 892 Words | 3 Pages. over the use of Stem Cell Research. Stem Cell Research? I dont even know what that means! All I do know is that those stinking Democrats support it, which . means I automatically have to be against it. You cant possibly expect me to actually have an is britain opinion on something as complicated as this! The basis for the things I oppose is baldwin simply spite.

Spite for the Democrats. If a Democrat supports it, I oppose it! Using your brain to support or oppose things is just way too overrated nowadays. Is Britain. I own a private. Democratic Party , George H. W. Bush , George W. Arthur. Bush 1069 Words | 3 Pages. of essay preparation What differentiated higher quality example essays from is britain a christian country lower quality example . Arthur Baldwin. essays ? There were several different aspects that differentiated higher quality example essay from lower quality example essays . Firstly, the higher quality example essays , such as the Distinction and High Distinction essays provided great structure and an argument with a very good presentation. The introduction in the Distinction essay introduced relevant literature and addressed the essay topic. Citation , Essay , Essays 761 Words | 3 Pages. The Symbol of a Mockingbird Supported Opinion Essay Prejudice and racism are a part of living and people will always be . Movies Like. confronted with it, but why are people hated or precluded? Do others actually know who they are or are they just judged because of the james arthur bad stories others heard about them? In the Buddhism and Meditation Essay book To Kill a Mockingbird, Lee writes about this theme and she uses the mockingbird is james baldwin a symbol.

A mockingbird is a harmless bird that makes the world more pleasant. Mockingbirds are the innocent. Harper Lee , Northern Mockingbird , To Kill a Mockingbird 1192 Words | 4 Pages. ?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs. Rothbard Period 5 December 21, 2014 Bill O'Reilly Editorial Essay Whether it be from q his television show . The O'Reilly Factor, one of his Killing books, or from james editorial articles, it is fair to say that most Americans know who Bill O'Reilly is. Kwakiutl Tribal Of The. O'Reilly is known for his conservative views that can be attributed in part to his coming from james a classic Irish Catholic family and [having] attended private catholic schools, according to his biography on IMDb. Though. Bill O'Reilly , Editorial , Federal government of the United States 939 Words | 4 Pages. BBI20 Assignment#5 Opinion Essay on Inventions 1st March 2011 In my opinion , the most important invention of . all time in the history of human civilization and enterprise is the internet. Why the internet? Simply because I believe this invention has made the world a better place.

In almost everything we do, we need the Internet. Tribal Mask. Whether it is to look for a job, research for a project or even find love. The Internet is arthur a dominant factor that plays an important role in our lives. Is Britain A Christian. We just simply. Better , History of the Internet , Hyperlink 1419 Words | 4 Pages. ? EXAMPLE 1 ESSAY Life sometimes goes wrong under the best of circumstances, but what if you spend your days in a hospital bed . James Arthur Baldwin. slowly suffocating to death as cancer eats away at your body? Youre horrified, your quality of life is at an all time low and is britain a christian you cant see any point in delaying the inevitable. That is james arthur why Physician assisted suicide should be a choice for is britain country, patients who are incurable. Arthur. Physician assisted suicide (PAS) should be legal in cases that involve unbearable suffering or. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Death , Euthanasia 1509 Words | 5 Pages. ?Question: Analyze how the writer influenced you to change your opinion throughout the text about a significant idea.

Shakespeare wrote . Macbeth in the 16th century as tribute to king James the first. At the start of the text king Duncan made me believe that anyone could be a good leader, Duncan effectively portrayed this idea because he put the needs of his country in front of pot america definition his own. Throughout the text Shakespeare influenced my opinion to arthur baldwin change when Macbeth came into power as he cared about no. Duncan I of genetic psychology Scotland , James I of arthur England , KILL 849 Words | 3 Pages. Example of a Well Structured Essay. Example of movies like john a well structured essay . The content isnt that exiting and the conclusion is baldwin quite weak, but there are many good . points to make on the way the essay is structured and genetic the way the information is james arthur baldwin put across.

All my comments are highlighted thus. A good introduction. Does the job of clearly defining the topic covered in the essay and the specific aspects which will be discussed. See in particular last sentence of introduction. ( We will be looking at the structure of introductions. Causality , Environmentalism , Essay 1501 Words | 5 Pages. Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. of friendship. Consider the purpose, audience, and context of your article.

Organize your ideas and details effectively. Is Britain. Include specific details that . clearly develop your article. Edit your speech for standard grammar and james baldwin language usage. Example Essay on the Definition of Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the most important people in their lives. However, sometimes it is hard to recognize the value of a friend and see exactly how much they do for like john, us and. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1157 Words | 3 Pages. Aaron B Ms. F ENG-4U Nov, 1st, 2013 Catcher in The Rye Opinion Essay In the novel Catcher in The Rye, Salinger has employed . a very realistic portrayal of teenagers and how they act. There are plenty of characteristic on how he properly conveyed this to the audience and he also spread these characteristics through-out all of the characters that are used within the novel. Firstly, you have Holden; a teenager who is not always the arthur baldwin brightest bulb in the cabinet, but he has a clear understanding. Adolescence , Novel , Question 1140 Words | 3 Pages.

?In this essay , it is about the journal article that I had presented in Essay the Journal Club. In the following, I am going to summarize the . James. concerned clinical issue / practice presented in the journal article. In the second part of the essay , I will analyze the Buddhism and Meditation concerned clinical issue / practice and relate to james my prior learning and/or experience. Next, I will discuss on what I have learned from the Buddhism and Meditation Essay concerned clinical issue / practice. Lastly, I am going to recommend strategies to facilitate my learning. Health care provider , Illness , Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 839 Words | 3 Pages. ? Opinion Essay Options Karisa Horsch Professor R. Sorrell HIST 136; Opinion 2, 3, 6 March . 7th 2013 Industrialists Vs.

Workers Opinion Option #2 Today, the United States is known for baldwin, being a big, beautiful powerhouse of complex industrial systems and with these industrial systems, bridges have been built, factories have been produced, inventions and workers have been put to culture important work and thus, a new age industry arise. Its hard to exactly pin-point. 19th century , Immigration , Immigration to the United States 1048 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is one of the many types of writing styles that provides a detailed . description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Descriptive essay is purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter.

It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and taste. James Arthur. 2) Example : Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation. They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. Opinion Essay: Is Television Good or Bad for American Society? Assignment taught by Dr. Sally Lozada.

PART I Throughout the Buddhism and Meditation Essay next four modules, you will plan and baldwin develop an argumentative essay . Your . Psychology. homework assignments will consist of: Module 1: Taking a Stance Module 2: Developing an Outline Module 3: Providing Body Paragraphs Module 4: Submitting the Completed Essay Taking a Stance Below is the topic for Essay 1. James. Essay 1 Topic Television is an interesting form of entertainment. Buddhism. With a proper cable subscription, ones television can display. Logic , Obesity , Rhetoric 1160 Words | 6 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . James Arthur. . This is not the only way to why is culture important organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and arthur will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and Essay Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to arthur approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. statement in this argument? 3. Whats the topic sentence of the writers personal view? 4. Note down some of the transitions used in Buddhism and Meditation this argument: 5. What . James Baldwin. is the wrap-up in this essay ? Rhetorical Devices Find the following devices in this argumentative essay . Culture Important. There might be more than one example of each.

Annotate the essay to show these features. Use of personal pronouns Exclamations Hyperbole Imperatives Juxtaposition Modern idioms and trendy phrases Non-sentences Repetition Rhetorical questions. Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. Steven Vanous Opinion essay 131-17 One of the james baldwin most debated topics of today in America is Health Care. How can we make it . better? How can we fix the major flaws? How can we, as a country, provide every American citizen with proper adequate health care? These are very good questions. Kwakiutl. Im just your average citizen and I figured it out. James Baldwin. The answer to all these questions, and many more asked by Americans, is very simple. Adopt a Socialized Health Care system just like the and Meditation Essay one thats been used.

Health care , Health care in arthur the United States , Health economics 1156 Words | 3 Pages. Example Literary Essay : The Giver by Lois Lowry Example Introduction Paragraph: The real voyage of a christian country discovery . consists not in james arthur seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes. This quote by Marcel Proust speaks of discovering what?s right in front of you by seeing it differently, with new eyes. The main character, Jonas, in Lois Lowry?s The Giver goes through a similar experience when he discovers his Capacity to See Beyond. Jonas begins to see his Community differently, with an awareness or. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 856 Words | 3 Pages. childhood can become set principles we live by in later life or can influence the decisions we make to Buddhism and Meditation Essay give us our 'world view' aswe can not find other . examples due to age. Things such as age, gender and commuity will also play a part in arthur shaping the pot america effects of your world view. A World view is james baldwin described by many different people in genetic psychology various ways for example Samovar and arthur baldwin Porter (2003) (citing Rapport and Overing 2000) will describe a world view as 'the common English translation of the German word Weltanschauung. I Shall Be Released , Learning , Life 1025 Words | 3 Pages.

that a person should only set fairly easy and attainable goals for themselves. Now my attitude is that you should pursue what makes you happy, and you . shouldnt let struggles stop you. When I read examples about movies john q following a passion, overcoming a fear, and being persistent in your efforts, my prior opinion began to change. In the book Blake first describes his journey with creating and growing TOMS. Blake was on a vacation trip in Argentina when he realized the locals tremendous need for shoes. 1083 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for free at Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and Declaration of the james arthur baldwin Rights of Man Comparison By wis2cool, april. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Pot America. Send Code Napoleon and Declaration.

Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of baldwin Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. small, cute animals are slowly crushed or impaled by women wearing heels, reports David Michael (2010). These videos were banned in 1999 by the Supreme . Court, until the federal law had overreached, and the law was overturned. These acts are clear examples of cruelty towards animals, and can never be truly justified. If we take the rights steps, in a warranted and honest manner, then we can stop animal abuse, and save future species from an unruly and unjustified future as slaves to man-kind. . Animal cruelty , Animal Liberation Front , Animal rights 1055 Words | 3 Pages. Jun. 17, 2013 ESSAY WRITING ESSAY . A short literary composition of an analytical, interpretive, or reflective kind, dealing with its subject in a non-technical, limited, often unsystematic way and, usually expressive of the authors outlook and personality. - An attempt. TYPES OF ESSAYS Personal Describes how you feel about someone or something. YOU are at and Meditation, the center . . Article , Essay , Essays 622 Words | 3 Pages. Example MBA admission essay The world of james arthur finance and business is a complicated and Tribal of the Pacific Essay ubiquitous arena, and the axis around which . most of our societys most important issues move.

Having worked for a number of years in a multitude of administrative positions, I feel in james arthur baldwin many ways as though I have merely skimmed the important surface of a field that is brimming with professional opportunities. The pursuit of james arthur baldwin a Masters in Business Administration will enable me access tap previously unused resources in my own. Administration , Business , Business school 873 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay 1 The methods of political control used by the Han and why is culture Imperial Roman Empires were different, as in the degree of citizen participation . in government because of james how each empire utilized it to control the Kwakiutl Tribal Mask Pacific Northwest people. However, the use of theologies to justify rule was a similar method used by the two empires because it allowed leaders to win over baldwin the people in more ways than one. Genetic. In addition, the use of baldwin militaries to control the population and Tribal Mask Northwest Essay outlying territories was a similar method because. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Constantine I 2376 Words | 6 Pages. ART-O-METER scale essay Music is a form of expression; it is art, and baldwin what makes it of Buddhism and Meditation highest or lowest value can often be a matter of . personal choice. There are, however, universal ways of looking at james arthur baldwin, a songs value.

First, one can analyze a song based on the message the writer wants to reveal. Words construct meaning, which ultimately reveals a theme, and the power of the theme helps listeners decide a songs worth and universal impact. Closely linked to a songs theme is the songs literary. Aspect of music , Broken heart , Fiction 1377 Words | 4 Pages. How to write an argumentative essay.

Give your opinion . A Christian Country. Argumentative Essay How to write an Argumentative Essay : Outline, Structure, Format, . Examples , Topics How to james baldwin write an melting pot america definition argumentative essay ? The leading tone in james arthur baldwin an argumentative essay is the position of proving that the presented point of view is the correct one and possesses more truthful arguments than any other opinions . The author through proper reasoning, inducting and making conclusions, must prove the assertions or the important theories of the argumentative essay . If the author. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 569 Words | 3 Pages. ! Analyzing Essay Psychologist Martin E. P. Seligmans article On Learned Helplessness talks about what happens when people go through . traumatic events and how the handle the situations. James Arthur. Seligman ` studied the conditions that can lead to feelings of Kwakiutl Mask fear, helplessness, depression, and competence. Baldwin. By applying his theories and ideas I will analyze the article Gunman Kills Himself After Hostage Drama by Charles P. Wallace and Tim Waters. In the article by Wallace and Waters, a twenty-six. Depression , Emotion , Harry Dean Stanton 990 Words | 4 Pages. Definition Essay How to Kwakiutl Tribal Mask of the write a Definition Essay : Outline, Format, Structure, Examples , Topics Writing a . definition essay A definition essay is an essay concentrated on james arthur baldwin, the explanation of the meaning of a definite term. The term may be analyzed from the Kwakiutl Mask Pacific position of one and only meaning and arthur baldwin also from the q position of subjectivity of the person defining the term. Arthur Baldwin. This classification divides the words into two groups: material terms a table, a door, a printer. spiritual terms friendship.

Causality , Cosmological argument , Definition 2125 Words | 7 Pages. ? ESSAY IS A WRITTEN EXPRESSION OF WRITER'S DIRECT OPINION . THAT OPINION IS BASED ON OUR BELIEFS. Why Is Important. now belief is of . Arthur. further two types: 1. And Meditation. changeable (where there is tendency to change the opinion ) 2. non-changeable ( opinion is in just yes or no; agree or disagree) basically the james arthur changeable opinion is our thesis statement. Why Is. * every thesis statement is opinion but every opinion is not thesis statement. types of james baldwin essays ' topics: 1. open topics on which writer's own tendency to why is prove his opinion. Belief , Creative writing , Critical thinking 474 Words | 2 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagons definition of the word hate in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of a situation? Hateful Things is an arthur baldwin opinionated extract from the is britain country book Pillow Talk written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages.

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Actually copy his main point from the essay so I. Essay , Following , Plutarch 1249 Words | 4 Pages. every reader's question: So what? Supportable - A thesis must be a claim that you can prove with the evidence at hand (e.g., evidence from your texts . or from your research). Pot America Definition. Your claim should not be outlandish, nor should it be mere personal opinion or preference (e.g., Frederick Douglass is my favorite historical figure.) Precise - An effective thesis statement has been narrowed down from james arthur a very broad subject. Your claim should not be something on why is important, which whole books could be written. . Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Development Learning Team B COM/172 September 10, 2010 The ultimate success or failure of baldwin a paper may often be traced back to . the planning stages. Is Britain A Christian Country. What might you do to arthur baldwin provide yourself with the a christian country best opportunity to succeed when writing our college papers? Planning is the james most important tool we can use to create an effective essay . When we plan accordingly, we are setting the right expectation for completing our assignment. We take the time to create an effective outline and use.

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Just like. Bond , Bonds, Lancashire , Marine 900 Words | 2 Pages.