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Nov 17, 2017 Essay on Power Through Freedom,
King Lear: The Tragic Disjunction of Wisdom and Power - Essay. Paul A. Cantor, University of Essay Virginia. What is the Dream Analysis and Theory Essay price of Experience do men buy. Or wisdom for a dance in the street? No it.
is bought with the price. Of all that a man hath his house his wife. —William Blake, The Four Zoas. Many critics regard King Lear as the greatest of Shakespeare's plays and also as his most tragic. Indeed, many would claim that it is the most tragic play ever written. And yet, curiously, in most critical accounts of the play it is on Power Through Freedom difficult to see why we should even regard it as tragic at all, whether we are using an Aristotelian or a Hegelian definition of tragedy.
In the view of Neighborhoods Act Analysis most critics, Lear is basically a pathetic old man, vain and foolish, rash in Through Freedom his judgment and incapable of controlling his emotions—and he is all these things from the very beginning of the play. Analysis? 1 This characterization seems to preclude viewing Lear on the Aristotelian model of a tragic hero, as someone raised above the ordinary level of humanity, except in the most conventional sense of his social status. Moreover, in the view of the majority of critics, the play charts the growth of Lear's wisdom, as he learns the emptiness of Essay on Power worldly glory and comes to embrace the love of his daughter Cordelia as the one true value in his life. 2 As consoling as this vision of Lear's education through suffering may be, it leaves us with a sense that the dramatic issues of the play can in the end be fully resolved. But if that is the case, then Lear cannot be in a tragic situation as Hegel defines it, that is, he is not caught in the clash of two legitimate principles, a situation from economy in middle colonies which there is no simple escape, no matter how much he learns. In concrete terms, critics generally do not view Lear as caught between genuinely conflicting loyalties, his political and his personal obligations; on the contrary, in their reading of the Essay Freedom play, Lear would simply be right to abdicate the throne and of Nursing, retire into private life. In short, in the view of Essay Through Freedom most critics, at waitrose guernsey the beginning of the play Lear is simply mistaken in both his attitudes and his actions, and the course of the Essay on Power Freedom drama should in effect teach him the. error of his ways.
3 This reading of King Lear makes it an edifying play, but it drains it of its tragic power by oversimplifying Shakespeare's understanding of the complexities of political life. Economy In Middle? Ultimately, this kind of reading threatens to Through, reduce King Lear to a form of waitrose guernsey melodrama, a story of the straightforward conflict of clearly identifiable and separable forces of good and evil, in which the outcome is tragic only in the sense of being disastrous for the main characters. Essay On Power Through? Above all, many critics end up undermining the stature of King Lear as a tragic figure by suggesting that with a little more wisdom he could have avoided the catastrophes in Philosophy of Nursing his life. Critics may go on speaking of the grandeur of Shakespeare's achievement and of Lear as a character, but if the Freedom standard readings of the play were correct, a more honest reaction would resemble that of Groucho Marx, when, in a meeting almost as improbable as Lear's encounter with Tom o' Bedlam, he was attempting to explain the play to T. S. Eliot: I said the king was an incredibly foolish old man, which God knows he was; and that if he'd been my father I would have run away from home at the age of eight—instead of waiting until I was ten. .. . I pointed out that King Lear's opening speech was the height of idiocy. Computer? Imagine (I said) a father asking his three children: Which of you kids loves me the Essay most?
4. I am sure that most critics would, as Eliot evidently did, reject this characterization of King Lear, but the computer question remains: is there anything in their readings of the play that would allow them to counter this view of its hero? As convinced as critics are of the greatness of King Lear as a work of art, they evidently have a hard time giving an Essay account of the play that explains that greatness. In the delightfully insouciant way in which Groucho projects himself into the world of King Lear, he unwittingly reveals the problem with many interpretations of the guernsey jobs play. In our eagerness to identify with Shakespeare's characters, we run the risk of bringing them down to our own level. The Lear described in many critical essays sounds less like Shakespeare's monarch than the middle-class recreations of on Power Lear in the nineteenth-century fiction of writers like Balzac and Turgenev. 5. From this perspective, the turning point in the criticism of King Lear was Harry Jaffa's brilliant analysis of the opening scene of the play, in which he shows that Lear has a sophisticated scheme in mind for dividing up his kingdom, one in which he hopes to secure the bulk of his land for Cordelia, together with an alliance with the House of Essay Burgundy. 6 As Jaffa shows, Lear's plan, far from being the product of senility, is, if anything, too clever for his own good.
I will not go over Essay on Power Freedom the details of Jaffa's subtle analysis; suffice it to say here that he points the way to understanding Lear as a tragic figure. The king is not behaving like a doddering old fool in the opening scene, but attempting a remarkable political feat: to pass on his royal inheritance in chlorophyll diagram a way that will avoid the defects of following the Essay conventional rules of primogeniture. Lear fails in his plan, but in Jaffa's view, he fails nobly and hence tragically. Jaffa's reading is true to the text of the play and also to the impression Lear in fact makes on stage in the opening scene. Diagram? Far from Essay on Power coming across as a pathetic old man, Lear projects a commanding presence in his first appearance, dominating the action and, for all his errors, towering over the other figures on the stage. In another essay on King Lear, I have tried to extend Jaffa's analysis, analyzing the process of education the king undergoes when he loses power.
7 Like Jaffa, I try to show that Lear's errors are not, so to speak, vulgar errors; they do not simply proceed from stupidity or lack of Dream and Theory thought. I argue that, in tragic fashion, Lear's failings are bound up inextricably with his greatness. Precisely what makes him powerful as a king incapacitates him for seeing the truth about himself and Essay on Power Through, his kingdom. In part this outcome results from his being surrounded by hypocrites and flatterers, who reinforce his self-image and his confidence in the justice of his rule. But as Shakespeare presents it, the problem runs deeper.
Lear's errors are a kind of occupational hazard of his kingship. In order to exercise command, he must project an aura of authority, and this need in turn dictates that he have a high opinion of Essay on Personal Philosophy himself, thus fatally tempting him to Essay on Power Through Freedom, overestimate his capabilities in such tasks as disposing of his kingdom. The powerfully tragic vision of King Lear is rooted in Shakespeare's understanding of political life, its limitations and Our Law Enforcement Act Analysis, its demands. Through? The play turns on what I will call the disjunction of wisdom and economy, power. When Lear is in command as king, he is tragically cut off from the wisdom he needs to Essay on Power Through Freedom, rule justly. He gains access to this wisdom only when he loses power, but that process in turn incapacitates him for further rule. In this essay, I will examine largely the economy colonies second half of King Lear, and Through Freedom, trace what happens to Lear when he learns the truths to and Theory Essay, which his position as king initially blinded him.
Acts 4 and 5 are crucial to a full understanding of Lear as a tragic figure, but most critics fail to follow the subtle turns Shakespeare portrays in the king's attitudes, because they do not think through the implications of Essay on Power Through Lear's radically changed view of the world. In many accounts of the play, Lear's education is presented as an unequivocal good, as if there were nothing problematic about his experience. These accounts in effect present private life as simply superior to public life, suggesting that Lear has everything to gain and Essay of Nursing, nothing to Essay on Power Through Freedom, lose when he is thrust out of power. Without questioning Lear's legitimate gains in wisdom in the course of the play—indeed I have discussed them at length elsewhere—I want to explore here the possibility that King Lear is tragic precisely because of the diagram complexity of the process Shakespeare is Through portraying in the king's development. On Personal Of Nursing? Lear's gains in Essay on Power wisdom come at the expense of his initial grandeur and hence his ability to rule. In the unsettling logic of the world of Lear, the characters pay a terrible price for computer the wisdom they gain, and Essay Through, none more so than Lear himself.
Lear's process of economy in middle colonies education reaches its crisis in Essay on Power act 3, especially with his encounter with Edgar disguised as Tom o' Bedlam, and the insights he gains and even articulates as a result are indeed remarkable. It is tempting but far too simplistic to treat Lear's shattering experience in act 3 as a kind of guernsey jobs civics lesson or a seminar at a school of public administration. However much Lear grows in wisdom in act 3, he could not simply translate that wisdom back into a form of rule. For one thing, the wisdom Lear gains in act 3 has a questionable character. In trying to articulate what Lear learns, it is easy to distort the Essay nature of his experience, presenting in an organized and Neighborhoods Act Analysis, coherent form insights that in fact come to Essay Through Freedom, Lear in fits and starts. Lear gains many insights in act 3, but we cannot grasp what he is going through if we do not see how deeply unsettling and disorienting these truths are for him, shattering his self-image and his whole view of humanity. Dream Essay? However disturbing it may be to admit, the on Power Lear of act 3 is in no condition to walk back into the court and resume command of his kingdom.
What is precisely characteristic of Analysis Lear in act 3 is that he cannot hold together the two images of human nature he observes in Edgar as first Tom o' Bedlam and then as the noble philosopher (3.4.172), and that is the deepest reason why his experience on the heath at least momentarily unfits him for rule. Lear is agonizingly wrenched back and forth between images of the lowest degradation of the Essay on Power Through human body and in middle colonies, images of the highest development of the human soul. Obsessed with his insights into the extremes of Freedom humanity, Lear understandably loses sight of the middle range, but that is precisely the computer bus types realm where politics ordinarily takes place. 8. Shakespeare repeats this pattern in Lear's appearances in act 4. The juxtaposition of scenes 6 and 7 shows Lear recapitulating his encounter with the lower and higher sides of human nature, and once again he is unable to integrate his widely diverging images of humanity.
Encountering the blind Gloucester in Freedom act 4, scene 6, Lear dwells obsessively on the animal side of man and diagram, above all woman: Behold yond simp'ring dame, Whose face between her forks presages snow; That minces virtue, and does shake the head. To hear of pleasure's name— The fitchew nor the soiled horse goes to't.
With a more riotous appetite. Down from the waist they are Centaurs, Though women all above; But to the girdle do the gods inherit, Beneath is Through Freedom all the fiends'. This vision is the equivalent of chlorophyll diagram Lear's earlier view of the bare, fork'd animal in Tom o' Bedlam (3.4.107-8), as he effaces the distinction between human being and beast.
Because Lear is convinced that all human beings are consumed by on Power Through, sexual appetites, he refuses to see anyone punished anymore for violating the economy in middle conventional rules of sexual conduct: I pardon that man's life. What was thy cause? Thou shalt not die. Die for Essay on Power Through adultery?
No, The wren goes to't, and the small gilded fly. Does lecher in my sight. In Lear's refusal to support conventional marriage contracts, we see what the political consequences would be of the new doctrine of natural justice he learns during the storm on the heath. As ruler he would no longer have any legitimate basis for punishing any of his subjects or enforcing any law. Guernsey Jobs? Once Lear views all human beings as alike in their animal urges, for him the difference between legally constituted authorities and criminals dissolves: see how yond justice rails upon yond simple thief. Hark in thine ear: change places, and handy-dandy, which is the justice, which is the thief? (4.6.151-54). Though Lear once embodied the majesty of the law in his own person, he loses faith in Essay on Power Freedom all authority once he concludes that conventional appearances hide an Our Law Neighborhoods Act Analysis inner corruption:
Thorough tatter'd clothes small vices do appear; Robes and furr'd gowns hide all. Plate sin with gold, And the Freedom strong lance of justice hurtless breaks; Arm it in rags, a pigmy's straw does pierce it. None does offend, none, I say none. Speeches such as this continue Lear's impulse in act 3 to reject a conventional view of political reality in the name of what is natural to human beings. In particular he displays the same hostility to clothing because it hides the truth about humanity. Dream And Theory Essay? 10.
Lear's speeches in act 4, scene 6 are very powerful and express some fundamental truths about politics; Edgar is moved to comment on the king's words: O, matter and impertinency mix'd, / Reason in madness (4.6.174-75). But before we are tempted simply to equate Lear's viewpoint here with Shakespeare's, we need to look more critically at what the king says. Shakespeare deliberately builds an error into Lear's reflections in this scene: Let copulation thrive; for Gloucester's bastard son / Was kinder to on Power Freedom, his father than my daughters / Got 'tween the lawful sheets (4.6.114-16). These lines should give us pause; Lear's preference for and Safe Act Analysis Essay the natural over Essay on Power the conventional child is clearly as mistaken as his earlier tendency to chlorophyll diagram, accept conventional professions of love over his true daughter's natural feelings. Like Lear's two auditors at this moment, Edgar and Gloucester, we know how misguided the Essay Through king's praise of Edmund is. Bus Types? Modern interpreters seem disposed to Through, follow Lear in his thoroughgoing disillusionment with politics and human nature in this scene, 12 but Shakespeare took pains to prevent us from diagram wholly identifying with Lear's one-sided view of man as beast. Even Lear momentarily recognizes the diseased character of his imagination in this scene (4.6.130-31). Indeed, Lear's jaundiced view of women as all centaurs is immediately contradicted by Cordelia's appearance in the next scene.
Lear's reunion and Essay Freedom, reconciliation with his true daughter is one of the most beautiful and moving scenes Shakespeare ever wrote. Act 4, scene 7 provides the chlorophyll diagram dreamlike answer to Lear's nightmare vision of humanity in act 4, scene 6. From his obsession with human carnality in act 4, scene 6, Lear moves to a vision of human spirituality. He is barely aware of Essay his own body in this scene (I will not swear these are my hands, [4.7.54]) and in economy colonies his eyes Cordelia has transcended the physical level: You are a spirit, I know (4.7.48). By trying to kneel to Cordelia, Lear is finally willing to reverse their relative positions of power. In act 1, scene 1, Cordelia could not express her true love for her father because his power over her stood in the way, threatening to obliterate the distinction between a sincere profession of devotion and Essay, the hypocritical and self-serving flattery of her two sisters. Now that Lear has lost his power and admits to being nothing but a very foolish fond old man (4.7.59), Cordelia can no longer be accused of any base motives in her love for her father. Essay On Personal Philosophy? In rallying to Essay on Power, his cause, she, like Kent and the Fool, has nothing to gain and economy colonies, everything to lose. Free of the conventional political roles that complicated and distorted their relationship earlier, Lear and Cordelia are finally able to be simply father and daughter. Indeed in view of the reversal of their customary positions in Essay on Power Through Freedom this scene—the fact that Lear is willing to kneel to Cordelia—it is arguable that they are liberated even from the conventional roles of parent and child, and face each other as human being to human being in a condition of Enforcement and Safe Act Analysis equality.
13 Lear and Cordelia move beyond any kind of conventional moral accounting, as she rejects his seemingly justified assumption of guilt for their breach: Lear: I know you do not love me, for your sisters. Have (as I do remember) done me wrong: You have some cause, they have not. Cordelia: No cause, no cause. In act 4, scene 6, Lear rejected conventional morality out of contempt for human nature and on the basis of the Essay on Power Through Freedom lowest possible view of human beings as indistinguishable from beasts. Essay Of Nursing? In act 4, scene 7, Lear and Freedom, Cordelia rise above conventional moral considerations just as they appear to rise above the level of their bodies.
Shakespeare's juxtaposition of act 4, scene 6 and act 4, scene 7 conveys a deeper wisdom than Lear is Neighborhoods Act Analysis Essay able to Essay Through Freedom, encompass in either scene alone: the two scenes embody alternative and complementary visions of what is natural to humanity. It is a sad commentary on our times that we are all too eager to acknowledge that Lear is Our Law Enforcement Neighborhoods talking about what is natural to the human condition in act 4, scene 6. On Power? But on reflection, we can appreciate that in some sense of the term the behavior of Lear and Cordelia in and Theory Essay act 4, scene 7 is also a paradigm of nature, now thought of in terms of human perfection, rather than some kind of on Power Through lowest common denominator of humanity. Chlorophyll? The simplicity of Through Freedom their dialogue in this scene, the fact that they speak in brief, declarative sentences, above all, the economy in middle colonies fact that they are finally speaking to Essay Through Freedom, each other, no longer at each other, lends what can be called a natural quality to their interaction here. Neither act 4, scene 6 nor act 4, scene 7 tells the whole truth about the bus types human condition, and to accept one at the expense of the other is to risk falling prey to an overly cynical or an overly idealistic understanding of human nature. Shakespeare was guilty of Essay Through Freedom neither. However contradictory the images of humanity presented in act 4, scene 6 and act 4, scene 7 may be, the two scenes have one thing in common: in both Lear effectively rejects political life. In act 4, scene 6 his cynical view of humanity undermines all claims to legitimate authority by political figures. In act 4, scene 7 his idealistic view of the human condition leaves all ordinary political considerations far below. The juxtaposition of these two scenes thus points to an important truth about politics. In act 4, scene 6 Lear talks about human beings as if they were all body and no spirit; the result of this view of human nature as purely animal is to eliminate every possible justification for political action.
In act 4, scene 7 Lear talks about himself and Essay, Cordelia as if they were all spirit and no body; the on Power Through Freedom result of this contrary view of human nature as purely spiritual is to eliminate every need for political action; Lear and Cordelia pass beyond the world of good and evil. The conjunction of Enforcement and Safe these two scenes suggests that either of these views is one-sided and hence incomplete. As the bifurcation of vision throughout acts 3 and 4 of King Lear suggests, man is a composite being, a perplexing mixture of body and spirit. It is precisely for on Power this reason that human beings require political life: to deal with the guernsey jobs problems created by the tension between body and spirit. Neither animals nor angels require politics. We can now see more fully why Lear's gains in wisdom in acts 4 and 5 come at the expense of his ability to rule. At the beginning of the play Lear is the captive of many illusions about himself and Essay on Power, his world, but his very overestimation of his own powers is what gives him the computer bus types aura of authority he needs to command his subjects. The Lear of Essay Through Freedom act 4, scene 6 has learned a great deal about his own limitations, but the result is that he has developed a universal contempt for Enforcement Essay political authority. He has lost all faith in the ability of political action to improve the human condition, or even to control its worst excesses of passion. The Lear of act 4, scene 7 is Essay Freedom simply indifferent to politics; having achieved a spiritual communion with Cordelia in an intensely private moment, he no longer has any interest in public life. Failing to integrate his antithetical visions of humanity in act 4, scene 6 and act 4, scene 7, Lear is in middle unable to grasp the fundamental truth that the political authority he despises and rejects in act 4, scene 6 would be necessary to protect the on Power fragile spirituality he comes to cherish in act 4, scene 7.
Lear's loss of his ability to rule is not simply to chlorophyll diagram, be traced to the change in on Power his opinions about politics in acts 3 and 4. Shakespeare also focuses on the matter of Lear's temperament. Chlorophyll? The Lear of act 1, scene 1 is headstrong and Essay Through, rash; those are not the virtues of a philosopher, but they are the qualities of the Essay Philosophy kind of man who often succeeds in getting other men to obey his will. When we say that Lear has a kingly temperament, we mean in on Power Freedom part that he is a spirited man, capable of what he himself calls noble anger (2.4.276). His capacity for indignation is one of the forces that attaches him to Enforcement, political life and fuels his ability to get things done. Lear's tendency to identify his personal cause with justice pure and simple is unphilosophic and leads to many of his errors in judgment. Nevertheless, his pride and titanic overestimation of himself are also what makes an admirable man like Kent say that he can see authority written on Lear's face (1.4.26-30). Thus the more Lear comes to think of himself as an ordinary man, sharing the weaknesses of his fellows, the less capable he becomes of inspiring their awe and hence their obedience. To be sure, Kent, the Fool, and Cordelia come to love Lear more in his defeat and humiliation, but that is precisely a private reaction on their parts and not the same as political loyalty. The Lear we see in the second half of the play has become temperamentally unfit to Essay Through, rule England. We must realize that Lear's learning in the play is not a purely intellectual process; it is not a matter of Lear picking up a textbook in political science and waitrose, calmly reading about what went wrong with his administration.
Lear's education in self-knowledge is a soul-wrenching experience. It rips asunder the deepest fibers of his being. For Lear's titanic ego to be shaken, he must be painfully humiliated, and that is the terrifying process we witness in acts 1 and 2, as his wolfish daughters strip away every shred of Essay on Power Through Freedom dignity he has left. Chlorophyll? With all his pride, Lear resists this process: You see me here, you gods, a poor old man,
As full of grief as age, wretched in both. If it be you that stirs these daughters' hearts. Against their father, fool me not so much. To bear it tamely; touch me with noble anger, And let not women's weapons, water-drops, Stain my man's cheeks! Lear realizes that nothing less than his manhood is at stake in this scene, and he futilely wishes that he had the power to act like a manly king and take vengeance on all those who have slighted his dignity.
When Lear is confronted by the cruelty of his daughters, he is torn between the contradictory emotions of anger and Essay on Power Through Freedom, grief. His anger is waitrose rooted in his pride as a king, and makes him ashamed of the grief he feels as an ordinary human being. As Lear himself recognizes, the tension he experiences between wanting to Essay Through Freedom, express his grief as a wronged father and the need he feels as a king to suppress any such public display of weakness eventually causes his mind to snap: O Fool, I shall go mad (2.4.286). As much as we are moved by seeing what Lear gains in the process of Dream his education, we should not blind ourselves to what he loses. The Lear of Freedom act 4, scene 7 is a broken man, his pride in himself and in his regime shattered. He is a wiser man in this scene, more capable of love, and in many important respects this Lear is chlorophyll diagram preferable to the one we saw in the opening scene of the play.
But not in Essay all respects. Unlike the Lear we saw in act 1, scene 1, the Lear of act 4, scene 7 could not walk into Essay Philosophy, any room and just by his regal bearing command the instant respect of on Power Through Freedom any human being in range of his voice. A king who expects to Philosophy of Nursing, be obeyed cannot go around proclaiming: I am old and Essay on Power Through Freedom, foolish (4.7.84). We may admire Lear for this frank admission of his weakness, but we must also recognize its consequences for Our Law Enforcement and Safe Essay his ability to rule in the future as anything other than a figurehead. Essay On Power? The Lear of diagram act 4, scene 7 is completely without anger; as the Doctor says: the Essay great rage, / You see, is kill'd in him (4.7.77-78).
It may be a relief for us as audience to see this calm descend upon Lear, but we must recognize that with his rage, something else is for the moment killed in Lear: his pride. Essay? And, bound up as it is Essay on Power Through with his spiritedness, Lear's pride was the source of his greatness as well as of his failures as a king. Up to this point in the play, even in his madness, Lear has displayed an acute awareness of everything going on around him. If anything, he has been too ready to Our Law and Safe Neighborhoods Act Analysis, see affronts to his dignity in his subjects' actions, but that hypersensitivity has been profoundly linked to on Power Freedom, Lear's concern for diagram justice. Essay? In act 4, scene 7, he ceases to computer bus types, be aware of Essay on Power Through his surroundings; he even has to bus types, be reminded that he is in Britain (4.7.75). With Lear's great rage goes his noble anger, and with that, his ability and even his desire to govern his kingdom.
In short, we must realize that Lear cannot absorb the kind of unnerving truths he learns about himself and remain the same man. The Lear we see in act 4, scene 7 is profoundly changed from what he was in Freedom act 1, scene 1. His newfound wisdom and self-awareness are purchased at diagram the price of his original grandeur. 14 We may ultimately judge the Essay Through result worth the exchange, but we should not deny that Shakespeare is confronting us with a kind of choice. Shakespeare's tragic world is profoundly disturbing to us. We do not like to think about the tragic disjunctions he presents. We would like to think that it is possible to be a powerful ruler and a wise man at Essay the same time. Perhaps it is possible, and in the case of Henry V Shakespeare offers an example of a man who seems to unite wisdom and power (Prospero is another such case). 15 But even if it is possible, the conjunction of wisdom and power is surely not easy to achieve, and in King Lear Shakespeare most fully explores the Essay Freedom problems of bringing the two together. When Lear is in power, he is Dream and Theory blind to his own limitations, not just out of stupidity, senility, or simple error, but because, as Shakespeare shows, there is something in the very nature of kingship that blinds even and perhaps especially a successful ruler to fundamental truths about his situation. When Lear finally gains access to those truths, it is only through a process that disillusions him about politics in general and shatters the very spirit that made him a commanding figure. That is why King Lear is on Power such a tragic play, perhaps the most profound of all tragedies.
It offers no easy way out of Lear's dilemma. Shakespeare uncovers a deep and computer bus types, abiding tension between the preconditions of power and Essay Freedom, the preconditions of wisdom. The Lear we see in act 5 has recovered his sanity, but he is Essay still a far cry from the regal figure we first saw in act 1. He has become totally absorbed in his private bond with Cordelia: Come, let's away to on Power, prison: We two alone will sing like birds i' th' cage;
When thou dost ask me blessing, I'll kneel down. And ask of thee forgiveness. Economy In Middle Colonies? So we'll live, And pray, and sing, and tell old tales, and laugh. At gilded butterflies, and hear poor rogues. Talk of on Power Through Freedom court news; and waitrose jobs, we'll talk with them too— Who loses and who wins; who's in, who's out— And take upon's the mystery of things. As if we were God's spies; and we'll wear out. In a wall'd prison, packs and Freedom, sects of great ones, That ebb and flow by th' moon.
This is jobs a beautiful speech, and we want to rejoice in Essay on Power Lear's newfound happiness with his daughter. But Lear here betrays his complete indifference to conventional politics; what once was his greatest concern has been reduced to diagram, the level of gossip, a mere matter of on Power Through Freedom who loses and who wins; who's in, who's out. Lear now looks down upon politics as a realm of merely transitory triumphs. He seems to have achieved a kind of philosophic detachment from life, which allows him to see human affairs as if from a contemplative height. But Lear's indifference to politics extends even to an indifference to his own freedom, and hence he seems happy to endure what formerly would have struck him as the ultimate humiliation: to Dream, be imprisoned by his enemies. Lear is now content to live like a bird in a cage; as attractive as this image may seem, there is something demeaning about it as well: the majestic lion of a king has been reduced to a tame house pet.
16 As if to remind us that Lear may be indifferent to Essay on Power, politics but cannot escape its power, Shakespeare punctuates the king's lyrical fantasy with Edmund's curt and peremptory order: Take them away (5.3.19). We may applaud Lear's rising above his earlier conventional devotion to political life, but the fact is that his indifference to guernsey jobs, power in this scene is about to lead directly to the death of Cordelia. If basically decent men like Lear renounce political life, however justified they may be in on Power Through Freedom their contempt for corruption in high places, no one will be left to computer bus types, defend the Cordelias of this world. Thus if Lear comes to understand the Essay supreme worth of Cordelia, he cannot simply abandon political life to men like Edmund, who will ruthlessly stamp out all that Lear legitimately has come to Our Law and Safe Neighborhoods Act Analysis Essay, value in on Power the realms that transcend politics. It is thus characteristic of the Dream Analysis complexity of the movement of King Lear that Shakespeare has Lear at least partially rediscover the value of on Power Freedom political life just before his death. Waitrose? Lear does not go to the grave still believing that there is no difference between a human being and an animal; on the contrary, he powerfully asserts the superiority of Cordelia to other forms of Essay on Power Freedom life: Why should a dog, a horse, a rat, have life, / And thou no breath at all? (5.3.307-8). Our Law And Safe Act Analysis Essay? 17 Recapturing his sense of human excellence, the Through man who in act 4 could see no reason to punish any malefactor, returns in act 5 to his role as judge and executes the subordinate sent by Edmund to eliminate Cordelia: I kill'd the slave that was a-hanging thee (5.3.275). Our Law Enforcement Act Analysis? With his unique grasp of psychology, Shakespeare chooses just this moment for Lear to on Power Freedom, recapture a bit of his old pride and anger, and at the same time to recall his youth, as he responds to the confirmation of his surprisingly valiant deed: I have seen the day, with my good biting falchion / I would have made them skip (5.3.277-78).
This is a fascinating moment, as we finally get the briefest glimpse of the young King Lear. Nearing the Analysis and Theory Essay end of his life, Lear thinks back presumably to the earliest days of his political career, remembering what he forgot in his plan for dividing the kingdom, that the ability to do justice must ultimately be backed up by the sword. Lear's execution of the man who killed Cordelia tells us as much about the nature of justice as his speeches about the Freedom hollowness of authority back in act 4, scene 6. It is not that his final act cancels out the chlorophyll diagram truths he articulated earlier; it is only that his deeds bring out the on Power Through partiality of his speeches. To get at Shakespeare's understanding of justice, we cannot identify it with any single statement by his characters, but must take into account the pattern of the whole play, both deeds and speeches. The fact that Lear thinks back to his youth at the conclusion of the play provides a clue to Dream, its structure; as Edmund's line The wheel is come full circle (5.3.175) suggests, the Essay on Power Through Freedom end of King Lear harks back to guernsey jobs, the beginning.
At the start of the play the British regime, like Lear himself, has grown old. At the Essay Through end of the play, the regime renews itself. Like Lear recalling the Our Law Enforcement Neighborhoods Act Analysis powerful sword strokes of his youthful arm, the regime must get back in touch with its foundation in the ultimate guarantor of political right: military force. At the beginning of the on Power play, as a result of Lear's peaceful reign and Essay Philosophy of Nursing, his unquestioned authority, his regime has lost touch with political reality and he himself thinks that he can maintain control even while turning military power over to his children. Act 5 takes us back to the brute facts of Essay Through Freedom political life and reminds us that in the end the deepest political divisions can be settled if not healed only by Essay on Personal Philosophy, war. This consideration explains why the trial by combat of Edmund and Edgar figures so prominently in act 5. Edgar has an airtight legal case against Edmund and one might imagine that their conflict would be settled in on Power Through Freedom a court of law, where a juridical process could establish Edmund's guilt unequivocally. But Shakespeare shows a more primitive form of justice, trial by combat, because the thrust of act 5 is to keep reminding us that angels may dispense with violence in Analysis settling their disputes, but human beings cannot. Essay Through Freedom? The point is not that might makes right; we have seen the limitations of that savage principle in the destruction of Cornwall, Regan, Goneril, and now finally Edmund, whose careers in evil all go to prove the self-defeating and self-destroying character of a purely low-minded conception of justice. 18 But what Edgar's resort to the sword shows is that right cannot be entirely divorced from might. It is not that the colonies good cause always triumphs in battle, only that if the good cause is to triumph, it ultimately must be in on Power battle (recall that Lear must resort to force in this scene as well).
Edgar has had to learn how to in middle, turn some of the Essay on Power Through Freedom weapons of evil men and women against computer bus types them in Essay Through order to Essay of Nursing, protect what he values in Essay life. Our Law Enforcement And Safe Essay? 19 Starting the play as a naive young man, untutored in the deceptive ways of the world, Edgar has had to don one disguise after another in the course of the play to come to terms with the Essay on Power Through evil in the world. Though he remains almost comically scrupulous in dealing with his enemies, 20 the Edgar at the end of the play can at least no longer be called naive. When Edgar kills Edmund in combat he establishes his right to rule in Our Law Enforcement Neighborhoods Essay the realm, and on Power, seems to have absorbed whatever was best in his enemy, much as Prince Hal does when he defeats Hotspur. The fact that Edgar can stake out a claim to rule only with a sword reminds us of the violence at waitrose guernsey the basis of politics, and we have more confidence in the capacity of this temperamentally mild man to maintain political order once we have seen that he can answer the Essay on Power Through savagery of evil antagonists with some brute force of his own.
But it would be a mistake to fall into a totally cynical reading of the end of King Lear, arguing that the good party has had to become as savage as the Enforcement Neighborhoods Act Analysis Essay evil in order to overcome it. The Edgar at the end of the Essay Through Freedom play is not the same Edgar we saw at the beginning, but he has not become an Edmund. In general, in the end the good characters maintain their distinction from the evil, in computer part because they have been spared the necessity of descending to the barbaric level of their antagonists by the fact that the evil characters have largely destroyed each other. Through Freedom? Edgar and Albany never display the lust for power that is the hallmark of their counterparts Edmund and Dream Analysis Essay, Cornwall. At most they have learned the need for political action to counter the Essay on Power Through machinations of Neighborhoods Essay their enemies, but that means that they resort to morally dubious actions with a marked reluctance. Unlike Edmund, Edgar never takes pleasure in deceiving others, and he never glories in evil deeds. Hence the on Power Freedom end of the Analysis Essay play forms a sharp contrast to the beginning: Albany: Friends of my soul, you twain. Rule in this realm, and the gor'd state sustain. Kent: I have a journey, sir, shortly to go:
My master calls me, I must not say no. Edgar: The weight of this sad time we must obey, Speak what we feel, not what we ought to say: The oldest hath bourne most; we that are young. Shall never see so much, nor live so long. At the beginning of King Lear we are in Essay on Power a world where many of the characters, though not all, are hungry for power; at bus types the end we see characters who apparently cannot wait to hand over power to others. The course of the action has evidently been a sobering experience for decent men like Albany, Kent, and Edgar.
No one of them is Essay Freedom Plato's philosopher-king—Edgar perhaps comes closest—but they have developed some of his reluctance to rule. As Edgar acknowledges in Dream Analysis Essay the final lines, even his experience cannot match the journey Lear went through in the course of the Essay Through Freedom play, 21 but the way in which he accepts rule as a duty imposed on him and not something he eagerly sought shows that he has come to share some of Lear's doubts about political life. Because of his consciousness of the limits of power, Edgar will presumably rule more moderately. After a period of chlorophyll diagram political chaos, we see a regime refounded at the end of Essay on Power Through King Lear. Like all regimes, its foundation may ultimately be traced back to an act of violence, but given the character of its founders, we may reasonably expect that it will not be a violent regime. All signs in fact point to the inevitability of entering a diminished and tamer world. The precondition for refounding the Dream Analysis regime has been the Essay Through Freedom elimination of the evil extremes of humanity who threatened all conventional order.
But the extremes of guernsey good in Britain have been destroyed as well; Lear, Cordelia, and Through Freedom, the Fool are dead, and Kent apparently does not have long to live. A political regime tends to compress the range of humanity, trying to force people into conventional molds, to in middle colonies, moderate their passions, to move them toward a comfortable center. Essay On Power Through? The world Edgar will rule will be a safer world, but it will be a world without Lear's grandeur or Cordelia's beauty. That is another way of saying that it will no longer be a heroic or a tragic world. The moderation—one might even say the mediocrity—of the on Personal Philosophy of Nursing characters left standing at the end of the play is the Essay on Power Through truest measure of the greatness of King Lear and the tragic nature of his story. No ending of a Shakespeare play captures more perfectly the fundamental contrast at work in tragedy between the ordinary human beings who are content to stay within the limits of the conventional world and the heroic souls who try to go beyond them. 1 In his Shakespeare Our Contemporary, trans. Dream Analysis And Theory Essay? Boleslaw Taborski (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1966), 130, Jan Kott makes explicit what many critics assume about Lear: He does not see or understand anything. . . . Lear is ridiculous, naive and stupid. 2 The classic statement of this view is to be found in A. C. Bradley, Shakespearean Tragedy (1904; rept. New York: Meridian Books, 1955), 258-60. Essay On Power Through Freedom? See especially Bradley's attempt to state the moral of the waitrose guernsey play on p. Essay On Power Through? 260: The good are seen growing better through suffering. . . . The judgment of this world is a lie; its goods, which we covet, corrupt us. . . . Let us renounce the world, hate it, and lose it gladly.
The only real thing in it is the computer bus types soul, with its courage, patience, devotion. Essay? And nothing outward can touch that. For a similar view of King Lear, see G. Wilson Knight, The Wheel of Fire (1930; rept. New York: Meridian Books, 1957), 195-201, and Reuben A. Brower, Hero and Saint: Shakespeare and the Graeco-Roman Heroic Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), 415. For a more recent statement of this position, see Barbara Everett's essay, King Lear: Loving, in her Young Hamlet: Essays on Shakespeare's Tragedies (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989), 59-82. 3 See, for example, Knight, who speaks of the absurdity of the waitrose old King's anger in the first scene, describes him as cutting a cruelly ridiculous figure and Through, as selfish, self-centered, and characterizes him as a tremendous soul . Jobs? . . incongruously geared to a puerile intellect (Wheel of Fire, 161-62). 4 Letter to Gummo Marx, June 1964, in Groucho Marx, The Groucho Letters (New York: Simon Schuster, 1967). 5 Knight says that King Lear resembles a Hardy novel ( Wheel of Fire, 202).
Shades of Groucho, Knight remarks: It is, indeed, curious that so stormfurious a play as King Lear should have so trivial a domestic basis (161). So curious that one might question whether the Essay basis is really trivial or domestic. 6 Harry V. Jaffa, The Limits of Politics: King Lear, Act 1, Scene 1, in Allan Bloom, Shakespeare's Politics (New York: Basic Books, 1964), 113-45. This essay was originally published in The American Political Science Review 51 (1957): 405-27. Waitrose Jobs? Briefly stated, Jaffa's thesis is that the intent of Lear's original plan was to give Cordelia the bulk of his kingdom (the middle portion), while giving Goneril the extreme northern and Regan the extreme southern portion, regions their husbands already controlled as feudal lords. Lear intends to marry Cordelia to the Duke of Burgundy, a foreign power strong enough to give her support but not strong enough to conquer and absorb Britain (as the King of France might). Jaffa is the only critic of the play to have articulated the Freedom strategy of Lear's original plan, but he was not the economy colonies first to note that Lear enters act 1, scene 1 with a division of the Essay Through kingdom already worked out (after all, maps have been drawn up and Lear's counselors Gloucester and Kent are evidently already aware of the details when the play opens). See Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Shakespearean Criticism, ed, Thomas Middleton Raysor (London: J. M. Dent, 1960), 49-50, Bradley, Shakespearean Tragedy, 202-3, and Kenneth Muir, Shakespeare: King Lear (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986), 32, 55. For a further elaboration of Jaffa's analysis of Lear's plan, see David Lowenthal, King Lear, Interpretation 21 (1994): 393-96. 7 Nature and Convention in King Lear, to be published in Joseph Knippenberg and Peter Lawler, eds., Poets, Princes, and Private Citizens: Literary Alternatives to Postmodern Politics (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1996). 8 Compare Apemantus's criticism of Timon of Athens: The middle of Philosophy humanity thou never knewest, but the extremity of both ends (4.3.300-1).
9 All quotations from Shakespeare are taken from G. Blakemore Evans, ed., The Riverside Shakespeare (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974). 10 On the significance of clothing in act 3, see Lowenthal, King Lear, 403. 11 For a similar analysis of Lear's speeches in act 4, scene 6, see Lowenthal, King Lear, 407-9. 12 See, for Essay on Power Through Freedom example, Knight, who speaks of Lear penetrating below the surface shows to the heart of human reality here ( Wheel of Fire, 192), or Derek Traversi, An Approach to Shakespeare (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1969), vol. 2, 164, who sees Lear revealing the true state of man in chlorophyll this scene. 13 The idea of breaking with the conventional parentchild relationship and replacing it with something more natural is presented earlier in the play in demonic form when Cornwall tells Edmund after he betrays Gloucester: thou shalt find a dearer father in my love (3.5.24-25). Here the conventional bond between father and son is replaced by Essay on Power, a bond of pure self-interest between villains; in the case of Enforcement Essay Lear and Cordelia, the conventional bond is Essay Through Freedom replaced by a higher bond of Enforcement Act Analysis spiritual love.
14 One must be very careful in formulating one's estimation of King Lear. Even as perceptive a critic as Bradley, who has a better feel for what is tragic in Essay Freedom King Lear than almost anyone else who has written on the play, gets carried away with his own rhetoric: there is economy colonies no figure, surely, in the world of poetry at once so grand, so pathetic, and so beautiful as [King Lear] ( Shakespearean Tragedy, 228). It is very difficult to be grand and pathetic at once. What is precisely characteristic of Shakespeare's portrayal of King Lear is that he shows a grand political man at on Power Through Freedom the beginning of the play, who becomes a figure of great pathos in his reunion with Cordelia. Essay On Personal Of Nursing? The dramatic movement of King Lear is so extraordinary, the contrast between Lear at the beginning and at Freedom the end of the play is so great, that we must be wary of making statements that conflate what I might refer to as the public and the private Lears. 15 See my essays Shakespeare's The Tempest: The Wise Man As Hero, Shakespeare Quarterly 31 (1980): 64-75 and Prospero's Republic: The Politics of Shakespeare's The Tempest, in John Alvis and Thomas West, eds., Shakespeare as Political Thinker (Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press, 1981), 239-55. For a brief but insightful comparison of King Lear and economy, The Tempest, see Lowenthal, King Lear, 416. 16 Bradley is aware that a change has occurred in the Lear of act 5; of his utterances toward the end of the play, Bradley writes: We feel in Essay on Power them the loss of Analysis power to sustain his royal dignity ( Shakespearean Tragedy, 234). But Bradley blurs the issue by trying to Essay Through Freedom, redefine magnanimity in Christian terms: what remains is 'the thing itself,' the soul in its bare greatness (234).
17 On this point, see Lowenthal, King Lear, 413. 18 This outcome fulfills Albany's ominous prediction at 4.2.49-50. For the self-destructive character of evil, see Lowenthal, King Lear, 409. 19 For a different view of what Edgar learns in chlorophyll the course of the play, see Joseph Alulis, The Education of the Prince in Shakespeare's King Lear, Interpretation 21 (1994): 373-90. 20 Consider, for example, Edgar's hesitation in opening the letter from Goneril to Essay Freedom, Edmund when it falls into his hands (4.6.259-61). 21 I take the oldest in Edgar's speech to Dream Essay, refer to Lear; some critics feel the words refer to Kent. This suggestion seems unlikely; usually at the end of a Shakespearean tragedy, the highest-ranking character surviving speaks of the tragic hero of the play. In any event, the closing lines round out the Essay Through play effectively. The play opens with a discussion of how the difference between two men has been obscured in a political settlement.
It closes with lines stressing the way in waitrose guernsey which one man is distinguished from his fellows; moreover the criterion by which he is distinguished is the depth of his experience, more specifically how much he has been able to Essay on Power Freedom, see. Edgar's respect for wisdom is reflected in the fact that he values age (with its greater experience) over youth; at the beginning of the play, Edmund spoke out for youth over age. (On the issue of youth vs. age in the play, see Lowenthal, King Lear, 399.) Finally, in the first scene of King Lear hypocrisy governed the court; at Essay on Personal Philosophy of Nursing the end Edgar is calling for a new honesty when he enjoins: Speak what we feel, not what we ought to on Power Freedom, say. In sum, Edgar's final words manifest a new re gard for truth. Source: King Lear. The Tragic Disjunction of Wisdom and Power, in Shakespeare's Political Pageant: Essays in Literature and Politics, edited by Joseph Alulis and Vickie Sullivan, Rowman Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1996, pp. 189-207. Access our King Lear Study Guide for Free. King Lear Homework Help Questions.
Edgar adopts what critics call a southern stage dialect in his confrontation with Oswald: Edg. Chill not let go, zir, without vurther [cagion]. Osw. Chlorophyll Diagram? Let go, slave, or thou di'st! Edg. Essay? Good. In King Lear, this quote is a warning to Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Essay, be sneaky, not showy, to get what you want. It is not coincidence that the Fool conveys this warning to King Lear in Act I, scene 4. Fool is a bit of an. Shakespeare, speaking through King Lear, is using poetic license here.
It is common knowledge that every baby cries as soon as it emerges from on Power Through its mother's womb. If it doesn't cry of on Personal its own. A tragic hero is a protagonist that has a fatal (tragic) flaw; usually, the audience finds sympathy with the hero. At the beginning of the play, Lear seems like a fine ruler and in Essay Through his. The word gilded can mean 'deceptively pleasing' or 'covered with blood'.
When both of these definitions are applied to the two other daughters, it shows that Lear is 'laughing' at them because.
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4 Steps to Writing a Job-Winning Resume. Writing your resume, or even updating your resume, can be a scary, daunting task. But with the right approach and know-how, you can create your own standout document in no time. Freedom! And the good news is we’re here to help. We’ve broken down the resume-writing process into on Personal of Nursing 4 simple steps to make it easier for you to get started!
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Assisted in a classroom of 25 elementary school children, ages 5-6, for two consecutive school years. Engaged children with diverse and enjoyable activities involving theatrical play, musical instruments and hands-on learning. Offered detailed weekly reports that outlined each child’s activities and implemented new email letter system to offer reports online, saving the faculty 4 hours per week. Ft. Hood, Killeen, TX. Economy Colonies! January 2008 – August 2015. Essay On Power Freedom! Developed and chlorophyll led 5 new training programs over 12 months in preparation for on Power Through Freedom combat. Performed reconnaissance operations in compromised regions to develop combat training programs. Performed as a fire team member during situational training exercises and Essay of Nursing all infantry dismounted battle drills. Communicated urgent orders and directions effectively to team of 200+ military personnel.
Your educational background can be an important part of your resume and should communicate your background quickly and simply to Essay Through Freedom, potential employers. Even if you don’t have previous experience in a particular job, you may increase your chances of Analysis and Theory Essay, being considered for the position if you can show that you have taken courses that are relevant to the position at hand. Essay On Power! Here are some tips to help make your education section work for waitrose you: List the highest level of Essay on Power Through, education first. This will help catch the hiring manager’s eye and ensure that he or she is able to determine your education level quickly. If you are recent graduate without a ton of Dream and Theory, work experience, then you can place your education section at the top of your resume for Essay on Power Freedom emphasis. Include your educational information in this order: Degree or diploma name is diagram listed first. Major(s) follow the degree. If you have minors, these are optional to list but it’s recommended to list them if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. List the date you received the degree or diploma by year (for example, 2003).
If you are soon-to-be grad, you can list your expected graduation date. Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Do not include your GPA on your resume unless you are a recent graduate. If you don’t have a degree, never fear! If you have an Freedom associate’s degree, you can list it in the same way as above. It is also perfectly acceptable to list any college experience you do have, even if you didn’t graduate. In the absence of a college degree, it’s extremely important to list any professional training or certificates you have received especially if they are relevant to waitrose, the job you are applying for.
Then, make sure to emphasize your work experience section as much as possible to Essay on Power, show employers that you are qualified for the position, whether or not you have a degree. Need help writing an Our Law Enforcement and Safe Act Analysis Essay education section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and effectively outline your classroom achievements. More Articles about How to on Power Through, Write Your First Resume. 3 Critical Mistakes to Avoid on Your First Ever Resume. Computer Bus Types! Tips On Creating A Resume For A New Career. How to Write a Resume When You Have No Work Experience. Get Hired In 30 Seconds: Resume Summary Tips. Get Your Resume In Front of the Through Freedom Right People: Four Tips. Create a Resume That Stops Traffic. How to Write a Resume that Lands More Job Offers.
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carls essay Dr. C. George Boeree. Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Essay on Power Through, Chicago, the fourth of six children. His father was a successful civil engineer and economy colonies, his mother was a housewife and devout Christian. His education started in Essay Through, the second grade, because he could already read before kindergarten. When Carl was 12, his family moved to a farm about 30 miles west of Chicago, and it was here that he was to Essay spend his adolescence. With a strict upbringing and many chores, Carl was to Freedom become rather isolated, independent, and on Personal, self-disciplined. He went on to the University of Wisconsin as an agriculture major. Later, he switched to religion to Essay on Power study for the ministry. During this time, he was selected as one of ten students to go to Beijing for the “World Student Christian Federation Conference” for Our Law Essay, six months.
He tells us that his new experiences so broadened his thinking that he began to doubt some of his basic religious views. After graduation, he married Helen Elliot (against his parents’ wishes), moved to New York City, and began attending the on Power Through Freedom, Union Theological Seminary, a famous liberal religious institution. While there, he took a student organized seminar called “Why am I entering the ministry?” I might as well tell you that, unless you want to change your career, never take a class with such a title! He tells us that most of the participants “thought their way right out of religious work.” Religion’s loss was, of course, psychology’s gain: Rogers switched to the clinical psychology program of Columbia University, and received his Ph.D. in 1931. He had already begun his clinical work at bus types, the Rochester Society for the Prevention of on Power Freedom, Cruelty to Children. At this clinic, he learned about waitrose guernsey jobs Otto Rank’s theory and therapy techniques, which started him on the road to developing his own approach. He was offered a full professorship at Ohio State in 1940. In 1942, he wrote his first book, Counseling and Psychotherapy.
Then, in 1945, he was invited to Essay set up a counseling center at the University of Chicago. It was while working there that in 1951 he published his major work, Client-Centered Therapy, wherein he outlines his basic theory. In 1957, he returned to teach at in middle colonies, his alma mater, the University of Through Freedom, Wisconsisn. Chlorophyll! Unfortunately, it was a time of conflict within their psychology department, and Rogers became very disillusioned with higher education. In 1964, he was happy to accept a research position in on Power Through Freedom, La Jolla, California. He provided therapy, gave speeches, and wrote, until his death in 1987. Roger’s theory is a clinical one, based on years of experience dealing with his clients. Diagram! He has this in common with Freud, for example. Also in common with Freud is that his is a particularly rich and mature theory -- well thought-out and logically tight, with broad application.
Not in Essay on Power, common with Freud, however, is the fact that Rogers sees people as basically good or healthy -- or at very least, not bad or ill. In other words, he sees mental health as the normal progression of life, and he sees mental illness, criminality, and other human problems, as distortions of Essay of Nursing, that natural tendency. On Power Freedom! Also not in common with Freud is the fact that Rogers’ theory is a relatively simple one. Also not in common with Freud is that Rogers’ theory is in middle colonies, particularly simple -- elegant even! The entire theory is built on a single “force of life” he calls the actualizing tendency . It can be defined as the on Power, built-in motivation present in every life-form to develop its potentials to economy the fullest extent possible. We’re not just talking about survival: Rogers believes that all creatures strive to make the Essay Through, very best of economy, their existence. If they fail to do so, it is not for Essay on Power, a lack of desire. Rogers captures with this single great need or motive all the and Theory, other motives that other theorists talk about.
He asks us, why do we want air and water and food? Why do we seek safety, love, and a sense of competence? Why, indeed, do we seek to discover new medicines, invent new power sources, or create new works of art? Because, he answers, it is in Through Freedom, our nature as living things to do the very best we can! Keep in mind that, unlike Maslow’s use of the term, Rogers applies it to all living creatures. Some of his earliest examples, in fact, include seaweed and mushrooms! Think about it: Doesn’t it sometimes amaze you the way weeds will grow through the sidewalk, or saplings crack boulders, or animals survive desert conditions or the frozen north? He also applied the waitrose jobs, idea to ecosystems, saying that an on Power Through Freedom ecosystem such as a forest, with all its complexity, has a much greater actualization potential than a simple ecosystem such as a corn field. If one bug were to become extinct in a forest, there are likely to be other creatures that will adapt to fill the gap; On the other hand, one bout of “corn blight” or some such disaster, and waitrose guernsey, you have a dust bowl. The same for us as individuals: If we live as we should, we will become increasingly complex, like the forest, and thereby remain flexible in the face of Freedom, life’s little -- and big -- disasters. People, however, in the course of actualizing their potentials, created society and chlorophyll diagram, culture.
In and Essay Through Freedom, of itself, that’s not a problem: We are a social creature, it is our nature. But when we created culture, it developed a life of its own. Rather than remaining close to waitrose jobs other aspects of our natures, culture can become a force in its own right. On Power Freedom! And even if, in the long run, a culture that interferes with our actualization dies out, we, in all likelihood, will die with it. Don’t misunderstand: Culture and society are not intrinsically evil! It’s more along the on Personal, lines of the birds of paradise found in Papua-New Guinea. Essay Freedom! The colorful and diagram, dramatic plumage of the on Power Through, males apparently distract predators from females and computer, the young. On Power Through Freedom! Natural selection has led these birds towards more and more elaborate tail feathers, until in some species the male can no longer get off the ground. At that point, being colorful doesn’t do the male -- or the species -- much good! In the same way, our elaborate societies, complex cultures, incredible technologies, for all that they have helped us to survive and prosper, may at the same time serve to harm us, and possibly even destroy us. Rogers tells us that organisms know what is good for them.
Evolution has provided us with the chlorophyll, senses, the tastes, the on Power Through, discriminations we need: When we hunger, we find food -- not just any food, but food that tastes good. Food that tastes bad is likely to be spoiled, rotten, unhealthy. That what good and bad tastes are -- our evolutionary lessons made clear! This is called organismic valuing . Among the many things that we instinctively value is positive regard , Rogers umbrella term for waitrose jobs, things like love, affection, attention, nurturance, and Through Freedom, so on. It is waitrose, clear that babies need love and Through Freedom, attention. In fact, it may well be that they die without it. They certainly fail to Analysis thrive -- i.e. become all they can be. Another thing -- perhaps peculiarly human -- that we value is positive self-regard , that is, self-esteem, self-worth, a positive self-image.
We achieve this positive self-regard by experiencing the positive regard others show us over on Power Freedom our years of growing up. Without this self-regard, we feel small and computer bus types, helpless, and again we fail to become all that we can be! Like Maslow, Rogers believes that, if left to their own devices, animals will tend to eat and drink things that are good for them, and consume them in Through, balanced proportions. Waitrose Jobs! Babies, too, seem to want and like what they need. Somewhere along the line, however, we have created an environment for ourselves that is significantly different from the one in which we evolved.
In this new environment are such things as refined sugar, flour, butter, chocolate, and so on, that our ancestors in Africa never knew. These things have flavors that appeal to our organismic valuing -- yet do not serve our actualization well. Over millions of years, we may evolve to Essay on Power Freedom find brocolli more satisfying than cheesecake -- but by then, it’ll be way too late for you and guernsey jobs, me. Our society also leads us astray with conditions of worth . As we grow up, our parents, teachers, peers, the Essay on Power, media, and others, only give us what we need when we show we are “worthy,” rather than just because we need it. We get a drink when we finish our class, we get something sweet when we finish our vegetables, and most importantly, we get love and in middle, affection if and on Power, only if we “behave!” Getting positive regard on “on condition” Rogers calls conditional positive regard . Economy In Middle! Because we do indeed need positive regard, these conditions are very powerful, and we bend ourselves into a shape determined, not by our organismic valuing or our actualizing tendency, but by a society that may or may not truly have our best interests at heart. A “good little boy or girl” may not be a healthy or happy boy or girl! Over time, this “conditioning” leads us to have conditional positive self-regard as well. We begin to like ourselves only if we meet up with the on Power Through Freedom, standards others have applied to us, rather than if we are truly actualizing our potentials. Economy! And since these standards were created without keeping each individual in mind, more often than not we find ourselves unable to meet them, and therefore unable to maintain any sense of self-esteem. The aspect of your being that is founded in the actualizing tendency, follows organismic valuing, needs and receives positive regard and self-regard, Rogers calls the Essay Through Freedom, real self . It is the “you” that, if all goes well, you will become.
On the other hand, to the extent that our society is out of synch with the actualizing tendency, and we are forced to live with conditions of worth that are out of step with organismic valuing, and receive only conditional positive regard and self-regard, we develop instead an ideal self . By ideal, Rogers is suggesting something not real, something that is always out of our reach, the standard we can’t meet. This gap between the real self and the ideal self, the “I am” and bus types, the “I should” is called incongruity . The greater the gap, the more incongruity. The more incongruity, the Essay Freedom, more suffering. In fact, incongruity is Essay Philosophy of Nursing, essentially what Rogers means by neurosis : Being out of synch with your own self. Essay On Power Freedom! If this all sounds familiar to you, it is in middle colonies, precisely the same point made by on Power Through Freedom, Karen Horney! When you are in a situation where there is an Analysis and Theory Essay incongruity between your image of yourself and your immediate experience of yourself (i.e. between the ideal and Essay, the real self), you are in a threatening situation . For example, if you have been taught to feel unworthy if you do not get A's on Essay, all your tests, and Essay on Power Through, yet you aren't really all that great a student, then situations such as tests are going to bring that incongruity to light -- tests will be very threatening. When you are expecting a threatening situation, you will feel anxiety . Anxiety is Philosophy of Nursing, a signal indicating that there is trouble ahead, that you should avoid the situation! One way to avoid the situation, of course, is to pick yourself up and run for on Power Through, the hills. Since that is not usually an option in life, instead of running physically, we run psychologically, by computer, using defenses . Rogers' idea of defenses is very similar to Freud's, except that Rogers considers everything from a perceptual point-of-view, so that even memories and impulses are thought of as perceptions. Fortunately for us, he has only two defenses: denial and perceptual distortion.
Denial means very much what it does in Freud's system: You block out the threatening situation altogether. On Power Freedom! An example might be the person who never picks up his test or asks about test results, so he doesn't have to face poor grades (at least for now!). Denial for Rogers does also include what Freud called repression: If keeping a memory or an impulse out of your awareness -- refuse to perceive it -- you may be able to economy colonies avoid (again, for now!) a threatening situation. Perceptual distortion is a matter of reinterpreting the situation so that it appears less threatening. It is very similar to Freud's rationalization. A student that is threatened by tests and grades may, for example, blame the professor for poor teaching, trick questions, bad attitude, or whatever.
The fact that sometimes professors are poor teachers, write trick questions, and have bad attitudes only makes the distortion work better: If it could be true, then maybe it really was true! It can also be much more obviously perceptual, such as when the person misreads his grade as better than it is. Unfortunately for the poor neurotic (and, in fact, most of us), every time he or she uses a defense, they put a greater distance between the real and the ideal. They become ever more incongruous, and find themselves in more and more threatening situations, develop greater and greater levels of anxiety, and on Power Through, use more and Enforcement Neighborhoods Act Analysis Essay, more defenses. It becomes a vicious cycle that the person eventually is unable to on Power Through Freedom get out Essay on Personal of Nursing of, at Essay Freedom, least on on Personal Philosophy of Nursing, their own. Rogers also has a partial explanation for psychosis : Psychosis occurs when a person's defense are overwhelmed, and their sense of self becomes shattered into little disconnected pieces. His behavior likewise has little consistency to it. Essay! We see him as having psychotic breaks -- episodes of bizarre behavior. His words may make little sense. On Personal Philosophy Of Nursing! His emotions may be inappropriate.
He may lose the Essay on Power Through Freedom, ability to differentiate self and chlorophyll diagram, non-self, and become disoriented and passive. The fully-functioning person. Rogers, like Maslow, is just as interested in describing the Through Freedom, healthy person. Chlorophyll! His term is fully-functioning, and on Power Through, involves the following qualities: 1. Openness to experience . This is the opposite of defensiveness. It is the accurate perception of one's experiences in the world, including one's feelings. It also means being able to accept reality, again including one's feelings. Feelings are such an important part of openness because they convey organismic valuing. If you cannot be open to of Nursing your feelings, you cannot be open to acualization. The hard part, of course, is on Power, distinguishing real feelings from the economy in middle, anxieties brought on by conditions of worth.
2. Existential living . Through! This is and Safe Act Analysis Essay, living in the here-and-now. Rogers, as a part of getting in touch with reality, insists that we not live in the past or the future -- the one is gone, and the other isn't anything at all, yet! The present is the Essay on Power Freedom, only reality we have. Economy! Mind you, that doesn't mean we shouldn't remember and learn from our past. Neither does it mean we shouldn't plan or even day-dream about the Essay on Power Through, future. Just recognize these things for diagram, what they are: memories and dreams, which we are experiencing here in the present. 3. Organismic trusting . We should allow ourselves to be guided by the organismic valuing process. We should trust ourselves, do what feels right, what comes natural.
This, as I'm sure you realize, has become a major sticking point in Rogers' theory. Essay! People say, sure, do what comes natural -- if you are a sadist, hurt people; if you are a masochist, hurt yourself; if the drugs or alcohol make you happy, go for it; if you are depressed, kill yourself. This certainly doesn't sound like great advice. In fact, many of the excesses of the sixties and seventies were blamed on this attitude. But keep in mind that Rogers meant trust your real self, and economy in middle, you can only know what your real self has to on Power Through say if you are open to experience and living existentially! In other words, organismic trusting assumes you are in contact with the acutalizing tendency.
4. Experiential freedom . Rogers felt that it was irrelevant whether or not people really had free will. We feel very much as if we do. This is diagram, not to say, of course, that we are free to do anything at all: We are surrounded by a deterministic universe, so that, flap my arms as much as I like, I will not fly like Superman. It means that we feel free when choices are available to Through us. Rogers says that the fully-functioning person acknowledges that feeling of freedom, and guernsey, takes responsibility for his choices. 5. Essay On Power Through Freedom! Creativity . If you feel free and Essay on Personal Philosophy, responsible, you will act accordingly, and participate in the world. A fully-functioning person, in touch with acualization, will feel obliged by their nature to contribute to the actualization of others, even life itself.
This can be through creativity in the arts or sciences, through social concern and parental love, or simply by doing one's best at one's job. Essay Freedom! Creativity as Rogers uses it is very close to Erikson's generativity. Carl Rogers is best known for his contributions to therapy. Neighborhoods Act Analysis Essay! His therapy has gone through a couple of name changes along the way: He originally called it non-directive , because he felt that the Essay Through, therapist should not lead the waitrose guernsey, client, but rather be there for the client while the client directs the Through, progress of the Act Analysis, therapy. As he became more experienced, he realized that, as non-directive as he was, he still influenced his client by his very non-directiveness! In other words, clients look to therapists for guidance, and will find it even when the therapist is trying not to guide. So he changed the Essay on Power Through, name to on Personal Philosophy client-centered . On Power Freedom! He still felt that the jobs, client was the one who should say what is wrong, find ways of improving, and determine the conclusion of therapy -- his therapy was still very client-centered even while he acknowledged the impact of the therapist.
Unfortunately, other therapists felt that this name for Essay on Power, his therapy was a bit of a slap in the face for them: Aren't most therapies client-centered? Nowadays, though the terms non-directive and client-centered are still used, most people just call it Rogerian therapy . One of the phrases that Rogers used to describe his therapy is supportive, not reconstructive, and he uses the analogy of learning to ride a bicycle to explain: When you help a child to learn to ride a bike, you can't just tell them how. They have to try it for Enforcement Neighborhoods Act Analysis Essay, themselves. And you can't hold them up the whole time either. There comes a point when you have to let them go. If they fall, they fall, but if you hang on, they never learn. It's the Essay Freedom, same in therapy.
If independence (autonomy, freedom with responsibility) is what you are helping a client to achieve, then they will not achieve it if they remain dependent on you, the therapist. They need to try their insights on their own, in real life beyond the therapist's office! An authoritarian approach to therapy may seem to work marvelously at first, but ultimately it only creates a dependent person. There is only one technique that Rogerians are known for: reflection . Reflection is the mirroring of emotional communication: If the client says I feel like shit! the in middle, therapist may reflect this back to Essay the client by saying something like So, life's getting you down, hey? By doing this, the therapist is communicating to the client that he is Analysis and Theory, indeed listening and cares enough to understand. The therapist is also letting the Essay, client know what it is the client is communicating.
Often, people in distress say things that they don't mean because it feels good to say them. For example, a woman once came to me and said I hate men! I reflected by saying You hate all men? Well, she said, maybe not all -- she didn't hate her father or her brother or, for that matter, me. Even with those men she hated, she discovered that the great majority of them she didn't feel as strongly as the Enforcement Neighborhoods, word hate implies.
In fact, ultimately, she realized that she didn't trust many men, and that she was afraid of being hurt by them the on Power, way she had been by one particular man. Reflection must be used carefully, however. Many beginning therapists use it without thinking (or feeling), and just repeat every other phrase that comes out of the client's mouth. Philosophy! They sound like parrots with psychology degrees! Then they think that the client doesn't notice, when in fact it has become a stereotype of Rogerian therapy the on Power Through, same way as sex and mom have become stereotypes of Freudian therapy. Our Law And Safe! Reflection must come from the heart -- it must be genuine, congruent. Which brings us to Rogers' famous requirements of the Essay on Power Through Freedom, therapist. Rogers felt that a therapist, in order to be effective, must have three very special qualities: 1. Congruence -- genuineness, honesty with the client. 2. Empathy -- the ability to feel what the client feels. 3. Respect -- acceptance, unconditional positive regard towards the client.
He says these qualities are necessary and sufficient : If the diagram, therapist shows these three qualities, the client will improve, even if no other special techniques are used. If the therapist does not show these three qualities, the on Power Through Freedom, client's improvement will be minimal, no matter how many techniques are used. Now this is a lot to Enforcement Neighborhoods Act Analysis Essay ask of a therapist! They're just human, and often enough a bit more human (let's say unusual) than most. Rogers does give in a little, and he adds that the Through Freedom, therapist must show these things in the therapy relationship. Of Nursing! In other words, when the therapist leaves the office, he can be as human as anybody. I happen to Essay Through agree with Rogers, even though these qualities are quite demanding. Some of the research does suggest that techniques don't matter nearly as much as the therapist's personality, and that, to some extent at least, therapists are born not made. Rogers was a great writer, a real pleasure to waitrose guernsey read. The most complete statement of his theory is in Client-centered Therapy (1951).
Two collections of on Power, essays are very interesting: On Becoming a Person (1961) and A Way of Being (1980). Computer Bus Types! Finally, there's a nice collection of his work in The Carl Rogers Reader , edited by Kirschenbaum and Essay Freedom, Henderson (1989).
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dissertation l'amour Analyse des termes. a) sens général et le plus courant : attachement, désir de fusion, entre deux êtres. Essay Through. C'est donc quelque chose dont on Analysis and Theory attend : du plaisir, du bien, le bonheur. Domaine : affectif; sentiment, ou passion? b) sentiment : affection pour quelqu'un (amour filial; amour maternel; amour du prochain, etc) c) attachement exclusif et excessif envers quelqu'un ou quelque chose : c'est alors une passion (l'Amour-passion) Se méfier : on on Power Freedom se méfie de quelque chose ou de quelqu'un qui ne nous fait pas confiance, parce qu'il nous a déjà trompé, ou parce qu'il est susceptible de nous tromper, malgré qu'il ait l'apparence contraire. And Safe Act Analysis Essay. (On se méfie, dit-on souvent, des apparences). a) nécessité physique : il faut/il est nécessaire de manger si on Essay on Power Through Freedom veut se maintenir en vie (on ne peut faire autrement, c'est une contrainte naturelle) b) obligation morale : il faut/on doit obéir à la loi (c'est un devoir, quelque chose qui nous oblige; que les hommes soient naturellement enclins à être méchants, ne change rien à un devoir, puisque le doit-être ne dérive pas du ce qui est). Mise en rapport des termes (problématique, présupposé, enjeu).
Faut-il donc se méfier de l'amour? Ie, d'abord, l'amour, au lieu d'être une source de bien, de bonheur, de plaisir, ne serait-il pas source de maux (malheur, souffrance autant physique que morale, et contraire à la morale)? N'est-il pas alors, dans ce cas, de l'ordre de l'erreur, de l'illusion? (puisqu'au premier abord, on chlorophyll croit qu'il nous rendra heureux, etc) Mais cette illusion est-elle dangeureuse? En effet, pour qu'il soit nécessaire de se méfier de l'amour, tout comme par exemple il est nécessaire de se nourrir pour se maintenir en vie, encore faut-il que l'erreur ou l'illusion qu'il provoque soit dangeureuse. Freedom. Cette interrogation nous mène donc à chercher de quel ordre peut bien être cette illusion, et de quels dangers elle est la source.
On se demandera ensuite s'il faut se méfier de l'amour au sens éthique : alors, cet amour est-il nécessairement lié au mal, et peut-être à l'extinction de la société? L'amour est-il nécessairement néfaste à l'homme, à la fois au sens physique et moral? Se méfier de l'amour, est-ce alors un devoir, une obligation morale? La réponse à ce questionnement ne suppose-t-elle pas qu' il y aurait plusieurs sortes d'amour, des amours positifs et négatifs, des usages positifs ou négatifs de l'amour? Plutôt donc que de se demander s'il faut se méfier de l'amour, il convient donc se demander : de quel amour faut-il se méfier? I- L'amour est-il une illusion?
Et si oui, est-ce une illusion vitale ou éthique? A- D'abord, on on Personal Philosophy peut facilement montrer que l'amour est une illusion. Through Freedom. En effet, comme l'a montré Stendhal dans De l'Amour, l'amour nous trompe. Cf. On Personal Philosophy. la cristallisation. Erreur sur la réalité : nous ne voyons plus le réel tel qu'il est; nous ne voyons pas non plus notre bienaimé tel qu'il est réellement Nous croyons aimer quelqu'un pour ce qu'il est réellement, mais en fait, nous n'aimons, à travers lui, que l'idée qu'on se fait de l'amour.
Il faut donc bien se méfier de l'amour. Essay On Power. -Préciser que cet amour dont il s'agit ici est la passion au sens strict du terme : ie, une attirance exagérée et dominante, exclusive, pour quelqu'un (ou quelque chose, mais c'est moins pertinent). B- Mais si l'amour nous trompe, est une illusion, puisqu'il idéalise son objet, et ne le voit pas comme il est réellement, mène-t-il à la souffrance, physique, morale ? Et, peut-être, à la mort? (Ie : est-il nécessaire de s'en méfier) -Souffrance physique : pas très pertinent. -A la souffrance morale : après tout, c'est bien ce à quoi renvoie l'étymologie du terme de passion : patior : je souffre, je subis. Computer. La passion n'est-elle pas quelque chose qui devient pour moi un fardeau, dont je deviens l'esclave? Cf. On Power Through Freedom. deuxième phase de la cristallisation : l'amour tourmente. -A la mort : cf. Economy In Middle. Tristan et Iseult.
L'amoureux fou va s'isoler de la société, du réel, pour vivre son amour librement. On Power. Ce qui peut évidemment mener à la folie et à la mort (sous-entendu : l'homme est bien un être inter-subjectif, qui n'est rien sans la société) C- Obligation morale ? L'amour s'oppose à la vérité, puisqu'il déguise son objet. Diagram. Ce que nous aimons dans l'amour ce n'est pas ce que nous croyons. Essay. Mais est-ce néfaste pour la morale? Si nous devons nous méfier de l'amour, est-ce parce qu'il contredit la morale? Parce qu'il est source de mal et non de bien, et ce, essentiellement? D'abord, que suppose la morale? On peut répondre que la condition qui fait de nous des êtres moraux, c'est que l'on soit libre.
En effet, nul ne peut nous accuser de notre forfait, si nous ne sommes pas considérés comme libres. Dream And Theory. Nous sommes certes coupables d'avoir commis un crime, nous en sommes bien la cause, l'origine, mais nous n'en sommes peut-être pas responsables. Essay. S'il est admis par des spécialistes que je n'étais pas en possession de toute ma raison, alors, on bus types dira que je ne porte pas la responsabilité de ce crime, puisque je n'ai pas consciemment accompli cet acte. Freedom. En général, on in middle dit que ce qui m'a fait accomplir cet acte, c'est l'alcool, ou la folie, ou un choc émotionnel intense qui remonte à ma petite enfance (l'inconscient), et évidemment, la passion, l'amour passionnel. L'amour fait donc partie de ce qui me pousse à faire des choses sans que j'en sois vraiment conscient, ou sans que je puisse rien y faire. Essay Through. L'amour, c'est une force aveugle qui, comme l'inconscient, agit sur moi à mon insu, et m'aliène à moi-même. Diagram. Je ne m'appartiens plus, je ne suis plus moi. Essay Through. C'est que je suis complètement obsédé par cet amour, plus rien ne compte pour moi, si ce n'est cet amour. And Theory. Dès lors, si un obstacle surgit sur la voie qui me mène vers la réalisation de cet amour, tous les moyens seront jugés bons pour anéantir cet obstacle. On Power Through. Celui qui est victime d'un amour fou se moque de la morale, il emploiera un moyen moralement condamnable s'il lui paraît nécessaire à la réalisation de sa passion.
Exemple : tuer sa femme et son amant s'ils commettent un adultère ou même si je crois seulement qu'ils le font. De plus, l'amour est souvent égoïste et malveillant. Dream Essay. Cf. On Power Freedom. opposition entre un amour concupiscent et un amour bienveillant : l'amour bienveillant mène à vouloir et à faire le bien des autres; l'amour concupiscent au contraire n'est que désir de l'autre, ie, désir de possession. On Personal Of Nursing. Ce qui m'intéresse en l'autre duquel j'attends du bien, c'est juste mon propre plaisir, la satisfaction de mon désir. Essay On Power. Cet amour là ne renvoie donc qu'à moi-même. Analysis And Theory Essay. Ainsi l'amour concupiscent envers quelqu'un est un amour qui nie autrui, qui ne le respecte pas.
Pour reprendre la formule de Kant, cet amour traite autrui seulement comme un moyen, mais pas en même temps comme une fin en soi. Il faut donc se méfier de l'amour, au sens éthique cette fois. Essay Through Freedom. L'amour passionnel est dangeureux car il mène irrésistiblement à l'accomplissement d'actes moralement condamnables. C'est bien ce que montre Kant dans L'anthropologie au point de vue pragmatique. Dream Essay. L'amour étant une passion, il empêche toute réflexion, tout usage normal de la raison. Through. Celui qui est amoureux fou n'est plus en mesure d'écouter sa raison. Computer Bus Types. Dès lors, comment pourrait-il être moral, mener à accomplir une action morale? En effet, qu'est-ce qu'une action morale selon Kant? C'est une action qui est accomplie seulement par pur respect de la loi morale.
Elle a pour origine la raison, mais la raison en son sens pratique. Through Freedom. Il faut savoir se placer du point de vue de tout homme pour savoir si mon acte est moral. Essay. Ie, savoir faire usage de la raison, raisonner. On Power Freedom. Exemple : pour savoir s'il est bien ou mal de tuer mon prochain, il faut que je puisse me demander si cet acte est contradictoire ou non (application d'une règle logique), et ce qui se passerait si tout le monde en faisait autant. Computer. Si j'aboutis à une contradiction, alors, mon acte est immoral.
Voyons si l'amoureux fou peut accomplir cela et donc agir conformément à la morale. Essay On Power Through. Peut-il se demander si son acte est contradictoire, et si par exemple il mène à l'extinction de l'humanité? Non, car il ne peut écouter sa raison, il est sous l'emprise de la passion.Peut-il agir et même agit-il en faisant comme si tout le monde pouvait en faire autant? Non, car il ne se soucie nullement du reste des hommes. Dream Analysis And Theory Essay. Ce qui l'intéresse, c'est lui, ce sont ses petits intérêts égoïstes.
Ne pensant qu'à la satisfaction de son intérêt propre, à satisfaire son amour, l'amoureux fou ne peut qu'ignorer l'aspect universel de la morale. Conséquence : c'est un devoir de se méfier de l'amour, car si on Freedom l'universalisait, ce serait sans doute la ruine de la société. Jobs. On a donc raison de dire qu'il faut se méfier de l'amour. II- Mais n'avons-nous pas restreint, ci-dessus, l'amour à la passion? Tout amour est-il passion, et faut-il donc se méfier de tout amour? Tout amour mène-t-il nécessairement à la mort, au malheur, et au vice, à la perte de maîtrise de soi? Après tout, la vie est-elle possible sans amour? N'est-ce pas une nécessité vitale?
Et l'amour n'est-il pas parfois source de bien? A- En effet, l'amour n'est pas seulement synonyme de passion au sens d'attachement exclusif et unique envers quelqu'un ou quelque chose . Through. Descartes, dans le Traité des passions, rattache ainsi l'amour au sens plus général du terme de passion. Diagram. La passion, c'est le domaine de l'affectif. Essay On Power. Est passion tout phénomène qui a pour origine le corps, mais qui est ressenti comme en l'âme même. Of Nursing. Le lieu originaire de la passion, c'est le corps. Essay Through. Mais elle est vécue comme psychologique. Waitrose Guernsey Jobs. Ce qui nous intéresse pour notre analyse, c'est que tout ce qui est de l'ordre de la passion, est de l'ordre de l'affectif, c'est un sentiment. L'amour étant une passion, est donc un sentiment. Essay. Or, le sentiment, nous dit Descartes, est ce qui fait que nous avons un rapport au monde; ce qui fait, par conséquent, que nous voyons les dangers ou les bienfaits des choses de ce monde.
Sans lui, je ne serais pas averti qu'il faut s'échapper lorsque je vois un danger (peur); ou que la nourriture m'est néfaste. Cf. Our Law Neighborhoods Act Analysis. déf cartésienne précise de l'amour (TPA, 79): l'amour est une émotion de l'âme causée par le mouvement des esprits, qui l'incite à se joindre de volonté aux objets qui lui paraissent lui être convenables ; (TPA, 80)en sorte qu'on imagine un tout duquel on on Power pense être seulement une partie, et que la chose aimée en est une autre. Ainsi, sans l'amour, je serais incapable de savoir ce qui m'est convenable, et de m'unir à cette chose. Waitrose. Donc : incapable d'être heureux, puisque ma moitié me resterait inconnue! J'ai donc besoin de l'amour car il est de l'ordre de la nécessité vitale. Essay Through Freedom. Il n'est pas nécessaire de se méfier de l'amour, car il n'est pas cause de souffrance ni mortel en soi. Computer Bus Types. Les passions, nous dit Descartes, sont toutes bonnes de leur nature. Essay On Power Freedom. C'est leur mauvais usage seulement qui peut nous être néfaste.
Mais alors, s'il y a un mauvais usage de l'amour, on Our Law Enforcement and Safe Essay doit quand même faire attention, et donc se méfier de l'amour! Ce dont on on Power Through ne doit pas se méfier, c'est de l'amour modéré (ie, comme sentiment non excessif). Economy Colonies. Ainsi, on Freedom ne dira pas qu'il faut se méfier de l'amour modéré envers sa fille, sa mère, ou son fiancé. Dream Analysis And Theory Essay. S'il est accompagné de réflexion, alors, il est modéré et je ne risque pas de me tromper sur les qualités réelles de la réalité et a fortiori de l'objet de mon amour. Cf. Essay On Power Through Freedom. texte sur l'amour de Descartes pour les filles qui louchent : s'et trompé sur ce qui lui était convenable, mais en réfléchissant sur l'origine de cet amour, s'est rendu compte de son erreur.
B-Mais est-il pour autant moral? N'est-il source que de bien, de vertu? Certes, il n'est pas toujours source de bien, mais il est susceptible d'être la source de la plus grande des vertus humaines : cf. Enforcement Neighborhoods Act Analysis. la générosité. On Power Through Freedom. Vertu consistant à savoir ce qui a de la valeur et ce qui n'en a pas. Bus Types. Ainsi, je m'efforcerai de savoir ce qu'il est convenable d'aimer et ce qui ne l'est pas. Ce que dit Descartes, c'est qu'il y a des amours négatifs et des amours positifs.
Certains sont source de vertu et d'autres de vice. Essay On Power. Il n'est donc pas moralement nécessaire de se méfier de l'amour, étant donné qu'il ne s'oppose pas toujours à la morale, qu'il ne nous déséquilibre pas nécessairement, qu'il ne nous aliène pas toujours, etc. C- Cf. Enforcement Neighborhoods Act Analysis Essay. les grands amours désintéressés (amour du prochain, etc). On Power Through. ne sont pas condamnables car ce que nous désirons, c'est le bien des autres, etc. Il n'est donc pas nécessaire, ni physiquement ni éthiquement, de se méfier de l'amour. Enforcement And Safe Act Analysis. Tout amour n'est pas nuisible à l'homme au sens où il mènerait nécessairement à la mort, à la souffrance, et au vice. Through Freedom. On dira même qu'il est dangereux de se méfier de l'amour, puisqu'alors, on Dream dit qu'il faut s'en débarrasser; or, nous en avons besoin pour vivre, et pour vivre avec douceur.
III- Mais l'amour au sens strict n'est-il toujours néfaste à l'homme et donc condamnable? Ainsi, le problème ne serait pas résolu. Through. L'amour en effet est essentiellement amour passion. Computer Bus Types. C'est de cet amour-ci qu'il convient donc de savoir s'il faut s'en méfier. Nous avons dit que l'amour au sens de passion excessive, est nécessairement source de vices, et ne peut mener au bien. Essay On Power Through Freedom. Il ne serait que synonyme de mal, de souffrance, de malheur. Waitrose Guernsey. Mais est-on sûr que l'amour ne nous mène à rien de valable, à rien de grand et de louable? Demandons-nous donc si l'on pourrait agir sans amour. Through. L'amour, c'est ce qui fait qu'on va se polariser sur un objet unique, ou une personne unique.
On ne voit plus que lui, ou qu'elle. Our Law Enforcement. Exemple : le scientifique; le peintre; l'amoureux fou. Essay. La vie sera-t-elle nécessairement insupportable? L'amour mènera-t-il à la destruction, soit de moi-même, soit de quelqu'un d'autre, soit même de l'humanité entière? Au contraire, nous répondrait Hegel : sans cet amour excessif, nous serions inactifs. Chlorophyll. Nous ne ferions jamais rien, nous ne créerions rien, nous ne prendrions pas goût à la vie, parce que rien n'aurait d'intérêt pour nous. Essay On Power Freedom. Aimer, c'est, comme il le dit des passions en général dans La raison dans l'histoire, prendre intérêt à quelque chose. And Safe Act Analysis. Grâce à l'amour, de grandes choses vont pouvoir être accomplies. Essay Through Freedom. Exemple : l'amour de César pour Cléôpatre a changé l'histoire de l'humanité de manière décisive. Economy Colonies. Pas d'amour, pas d'histoire, pas d'art, de science, etc.
Mais comment peut-on en arriver à une réponse tellement opposée à celle de Kant? C'est que, pour Hegel, la raison divine, Dieu, ou la providence, a bien fait les choses. Essay On Power Freedom. Les hommes sont ainsi faits qu'ils ne peuvent agir seulement sous les injections de la raison pure pratique, qui leur enjoint de n'agir que de façon déintéréssée? Et bien, je vais me servir de ces passions qui sont le moteur de l'action, et les diriger vers le bien, qui est la fin de l'histoire. Economy In Middle. Telles auraient pu être les pensées du réel sujet de l'histoire, la raison divine. Freedom. Hegel parle de ruse de la raison : la raison divine ruse, car elle se sert des passions des hommes pour réaliser son but : l'avènement du droit, de la raison, et de la liberté dans l'histoire. Ainsi, pourquoi se méfier de l'amour-passion?
Il n'a pas seulement des effets néfastes puisqu'il réalise le progrès de l'humanité. Chlorophyll. De plus, il n'est nullement illusion, puisqu'il réalise l'histoire. On Power Through. Réaliser, c'est ici rendre plus réel. Our Law Neighborhoods Act Analysis. L'amour ne me trompe donc pas, puisqu'il réalise le bien le plus grand qui soit. Conclusion. Essay Through Freedom. Toutefois, si l'argument de Hegel est convaincant, il ne l'est que si on Essay on Personal accepte son présupposé : que l'histoire va vers une fin rationnelle et qu'elle est gouvernée par une raison divine assez rusée et puissante pour pouvoir transformer les passions en bien. Essay Through. Sans ce présupposé, tout s'écroule. Waitrose Guernsey. Si l'amour, quand on Essay on Power Through Freedom le modère, ou quand il est accompagné de réflexion, n'est pas nécessairement néfaste mais peut nous apporter bonheur et vertu, l'amour passion nous paraît bien être quant à lui dangeureux et néfaste à l'homme. In Middle Colonies. Il faut donc bien s'en méfier.
On répondra donc à la question initiale que s'il faut se méfier de l'amour, il ne faut pas se méfier de tout amour, mais seulement de l'amour passionnel.