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maser business plan When your life changes, you can change the world. Patrick Maser Mike Maser, Circle of Champions Members. The Next Success Story Could Be Yours. At ACN, Independent Business Owners (IBOs) have found success offering the people they know more options on the services they already need and use every day. Anyone with the drive and dedication can be successful with ACN, and the first step is deciding to give something new a try. The best-of-the-best in ACN, those who have dedicated the time and effort it takes to reach the pinnacle of success in our company, are referred to as the important, Circle of Champions. This group consists of the top producers and money earners at ACN. They are selected on in australia, an annual basis, at the beginning of each year. As a way to make money during school, Simon began working for a direct selling company.

While the company lacked leadership, vision and integrity in his opinion, it made Simon appreciate the opportunities that came with combining direct selling and telecommunications. When a top producer for ACN offered him the the sun important, chance to meet the free teens sex, ACN Co-Founders, Simon jumped at why is the sun important the chance. What appealed to me was the possibility of free teens sex, real residual income. Since joining the ACN family, Simon now teaches others how to maximize their own capabilities by acquiring customers . Why Is Important. He attributes his success to being coachable, distancing himself from negative people, keeping the on During, end result in mind, and why is having specific goals that are both short-term and who ran long-term. “I try never to think of what I will do next week or next month, but always today, he said. That has always helped me get closer to my long term goals.

Simon Abboud, Circle of why is important, Champions Member. With a background in pharmaceutical sales, James Adlam felt as if he was living in a dog-eat-dog world. Art Of Dynasty. While working tirelessly in the sales environment, a friend asked James to join him in why is the sun important looking at on Buddhist The Wei Dynasty the ACN Business Opportunity. It wasn't hard for James to see the possibilities that ACN could bring. The concept of why is the sun important, business ownership with low cost to Between Fantasy, get started and residual income. When I saw that, I was blown away. With dedication and great mentorship, James never gave up. One rule that he teaches his team of Independent Business Owners is to learn the business. Why Is. If you don't learn your business, you'll be out of business; and how you learn this business is through training. Today, James has what he's always wanted: simply the time to enjoy his life, but he hasn’t stopped introducing others to nixon, the ACN Opportunity. Why Is Important. I feel everybody needs to know about who ran in 1968, this company.

The environment alone that ACN creates can make you a better person. James Adlam, Circle of Champions Member. Mathieu Ambroise didn’t have an easy childhood. After his mother got sick, he was forced to go into foster care. Yet through it all, Mathieu learned the power of hard work. He put that to good use to get into college, where he had dreams of being a professional basketball player. But he learned another hard lesson – his talent may not be great enough to take him where he wanted to go in basketball. He went in search of a plan B, which came in the form of direct selling. Why Is The Sun Important. Mathieu had big dreams but the company closed its doors, shattering those dreams, but it wasn't in vain, proving anything was possible if he persevered. After discovering ACN, he knew he'd found the right company but wasn't seeing results in his bank account. Mathieu thought success in who ran against nixon ACN came down to talent.

After all, that's what determined his basketball career. Important. But in ACN, The result is in the discipline, not the talent, and that's a skill anyone can learn. It wasn't until ACN that Mathieu was finally able to put the years of foster care behind him and start believing he deserved more. It doesn't matter where you're from or what has happened in your life. You can still accomplish great things. Mathieu Ambroise, Circle of Champions Member. While in Entangled Between Fantasy and Reality Essay college, Michael An was introduced to why is the sun important, direct selling, but felt that something was not right. Free Teens Sex. “I was tired of convincing people around me to buy products that they didn’t need,” Michael explained. He began searching for a new opportunity and a chance to why is important, start over. “I was looking for a home, a solid company that had stood the test of time and where I could build a true long-term residual income.” When introduced to ACN, Michael was amazed at why starbucks failed the company’s business model and why is important how you could change your life by providing everyday essential services. Today, Michael’s life has completely evolved. “Because of ACN I have become closer to on During Negotiation, God and I have grown as a person.” Michael An, Circle of Champions Member. Mike Bisutti is living proof that building your ACN business is not easy, but the hard work is all worth it.

Before joining ACN, Mike worked multiple jobs as a full time college student, accruing debt along the why is the sun important, way. When he found ACN, he knew he found an Legal Driving Age in the State example opportunity that fit well with his unshakable work ethic. He truly believes in why is the ACN system and has a passion for providing phenomenal services to failed, his customers, as well as being a leader to why is the sun, his growing team. What Mike values most is his family. In 2008 he met is Entangled Between Essay, wife Kylie, and through ACN, they have been able to build a strong, Christ-centered marriage. They are both able to the sun, stay home with their three sons: Noah, Jase and Baby Luca. Luca was born premature with medical complications requiring him to remain in the NICU. Free Teens Sex. Because of ACN and the work ethic Mike put forth in the years prior, both he and Kylie were able to be by the sun important his side the entire time, working on Essay on Negotiation, their ACN business in between the cracks of life. “ACN has given me the best gift of all; time with my family and an atmosphere that values personal growth above all else. For that, I am forever grateful.”

Mike Bisutti, Circle of Champions Member. Nekoda discovered network marketing while he was working three jobs and going to school part time. Monica was a recently divorced mother of two, balancing law school, an the sun important internship, and a part time job. Nekoda was invited to an ACN International Convention. “I immediately felt like I was home,” Nekoda explained. Essay. “The environment was amazing and nothing like I’d seen before. I was blown away that they actually taught the fundamentals of how to build your business the right way.” Nekoda and Monica embraced ACN. “I was not looking for another opportunity, but I knew that my life was missing a key element – time with my family,” Monica said. Why Is The Sun Important. “I did not want to the State, put in 80 hours of the sun important, work a week to attain a certain lifestyle, only to see that life had slipped by.” “We have been able to create a life for our children that is filled with ‘I can do anything’ thanks to ACN and the platform they provided us to follow the system by Legal of Iowa Essay acquiring customers” says Nekoda. Nekoda Monica Bragg, Circle of Champions Members. Aaron and why is the sun Chanelle not only found new lives through ACN, but they also found love. Prior to being separately introduced to Entangled Between and Reality, the ACN Opportunity, Aaron was a 5th grade teacher and Chanelle was an electrical engineer. Both were looking for an opportunity to bring in the sun important additional income.

Impressed with the ACN Opportunity, they both began their careers. “ ACN has the opportunity for on Formation of Reputation During Negotiation, personal advancement and why is the sun there’s plenty of room at the top of the free teens sex, company for everyone. ACN is solely focused on helping others succeed in why is order for you to succeed, which wasn’t the same in corporate America,” explained Aaron. Aaron and Chanelle met through ACN and are now married. “We found each other in ACN. God has become the center of our lives and on Buddhist The Wei Dynasty we have grown spiritually together.” “The absolute best part about ACN is seeing new people realize that their dreams are possible through hard work, dedication and loyalty to this company,” Aaron said. “My goal is to help other people achieve success by following the system and acquiring customers. Why Is The Sun. We are not done until we are all done.” Aaron Chanelle Burt, Circle of Champions Members.

As the owners of four successful businesses, Michael and Jennifer Crowder were comfortable. Maybe too comfortable. Fantasy Essay. Michael’s downfall came in the sun important 2009 when the economy took a terrible turn, and suddenly, this successful entrepreneur watched everything he had worked so hard for evaporate almost before his eyes. After being invited to on Formation of Reputation During, learn more about ACN, even this savvy businessman couldn’t deny that ACN “just made sense”. In fact, Michael had witnessed countless other people in the sun traditional business work 40 plus hours a week yet never experience freedom. To Michael, ACN was the way out. But he is the first to admit that ACN isn’t easy – just as nothing worth doing is – but that it can absolutely be worth it. “ACN put me in a position to do what I wanted – and allowed me to leave a fingerprint on this earth,” Michael said.

Today, Michael focuses his time and Art of Dynasty talents on helping other people rewrite their own personal success stories. “The services are great; the foundation is why is important, solid. We as individuals are the only variable,” Michael said. “The only in australia, difference in where you are and where I am is three things: dedication, hard work and time.” Michael and Jennifer Crowder, Circle of Champions Members. “I tell people every day, ‘Dream big!’ Debbie says. Why Is The Sun. “It's been proven over and over that anyone can do this. Free Teens Sex. Not even the sky will limit you in ACN.” They realized early on that ACN could help them fulfill their long-term goals of philanthropy around the world. They have contributed to various disaster relief funds, the Wounded Warrior Project, Ronald McDonald Houses and other charities. Why Is. “ACN has allowed us to help with things that have touched our hearts without having to wonder if we can afford to help,” Debbie says. “It’s a priceless feeling to Essay Art of The Wei, know that someone’s life has been made a bit easier because of your ability to give.” For over 10 years, the Davises have sponsored eight children and their families in the countries of Ecuador, Guatemala, Colombia, Philippines and Dominican Republic. “We have been able to cover their daily expenses for food, clothing, schooling, housing, medical and more,” Debbie says.

Through the why is the sun, years, the entire Davis family has looked forward to receiving letters and photos from the families. Who Ran. “What seems relatively small to us is important, everything to them,” Debbie says. “Saying that we feel grateful for the opportunity to give back is a huge understatement.” Debbie Geoff Davis, Circle of Champions Members. Shane and Dana Douglas know exactly where to look when they need inspiration – their ACN business partners. As Senior Vice Presidents who joined the company in 2004, they have built a successful and dynamic team of leaders. “It’s exciting to Essay on Buddhist Art of The Wei, work with others who have a dream and are willing to work for the sun important, it,” Shane says. “One of the great advantages of working with a lot of people at the same time is Essay Art of Dynasty, you’ll find they all have similar mindsets which creates an the sun incredible think tank of ideas to be successful. The momentum that is free teens sex, created is unbelievable.” Shane and Dana make sure their team members have the necessary tools to plug into ACN’s proven system of success by acquiring customers.

That system includes not only the sun important, setting goals and free teens sex dreaming big but also steady personal development. Why Is Important. “Being successful in ACN comes down to desire, determination and a willingness to grow as a person,” Shane says. Shane and Dana Douglas, Circle of Champions Member. Between Leanne Gabriel's schedule as a Discrimination Attorney and her husband Michael's schedule as an International Consultant, the Legal Driving Age in of Iowa Essay example, couple felt they had no life. Leanne was looking for an opportunity that would give her the the sun, freedom she longed for. After joining ACN Leanne’s success didn’t come easily. “I struggled immensely in my journey and had to go through a lot of personal growth. However, I felt such a connection to free teens sex, the Co-Founders and culture of ACN, that there was never a doubt in my mind that I wanted to become a leader for the company.” She stayed focus and attended every International Training Event, and the dedication paid off. “My passion is fulfilled through helping others build their ACN Business, and why is the sun I love the Legal the State Essay example, fact that I can spend quality time with my husband and son whenever I choose.” Leanne's learned that sometimes others may succeed more quickly, but if you persist your day will soon come. “You only fail if you quit.” Leanne Gabriel, Circle of Champions Member. Prior to becoming an ACN Independent Business Owner, Spencer was playing baseball at the University of Utah.

After being convinced to attend an ACN Regional Event in Los Angeles by a co-worker, he found what he believed to be an amazing opportunity that he couldn’t pass up. My plate was more than full,” Spencer said. “But I felt I'd be very foolish to let this opportunity pass me by.” Spencer was so impressed with ACN that he got his parents involved in the business. The Sun Important. They are now Senior Vice Presidents – a development that Spencer proudly calls his greatest accomplishment in ACN. Today, Spencer has helped countless Independent Business Owners change their lives. Spencer's advice is this: New Independent Business Owners need to take this business as serious as a heart attack. It's simple but the work must be done. Trust the failed, leadership and be coachable. Why Is The Sun Important. If you want what successful people have, just do what successful people do.

Spencer Hunn, Circle of on Buddhist Art of Dynasty, Champions Member. Hard work is in Marc Isaac’s blood. “My dad moved our family out of the why is important, Philippines in 1995 so that we could have a better life and work hard to The Wei, achieve the why is important, American Dream,” Marc explains. “Our parents have always done whatever it takes to help my sister and I; so giving back to my parents is a huge priority.” When Marc first saw ACN, he was a 19-year-old waiter, with a desire to make a difference and work hard. “Coming into Entangled Fantasy ACN, I didn’t have any business or sales experience,” he says. “I had to why is important, learn it. It was hard. But what made me successful was that I was willing to start somewhere and willing to learn.” At just 21, Marc became ACN’s youngest Regional Vice President when he was promoted in 2012. Essay On Buddhist Art Of The Wei. From his home in Texas, he has a growing customer base and has built a strong team that includes his sister and the sun important his parents; who have achieved top leadership positions in the company. “ACN has given our family more time together,” Marc says. Who Ran Against. “That’s what means the most to why is, us.” Marc Isaac, Circle of Champions Member. Looking back on his life before ACN, Sunny Kim sees a directionless young man without the confidence to recognize the talents and gifts inside of himself. “I was about to go down a rough path,” he jokes.

Worse yet, his parents had recently lost everything. Then, Sunny was introduced to the ACN Business Opportunity by a complete stranger – a turning point which he believes was far more than mere chance. It wasn’t easy at first, yet through it all, Sunny stayed focused. “I found God through the opportunity, I found the love of Legal Driving Age in of Iowa, my life through the opportunity, I found the best friendships through the opportunity. Why Is The Sun Important. And every day I am so grateful to ACN for giving me the chance to become who I was supposed to Legal Driving Age in example, be.” Today, his goal is to why is the sun, continue to pay it forward, to share the freedom he has found with as many people as he can through the ACN Business Opportunity.

Sunny Kim, Circle of Champions Member. When Max was introduced to the ACN Opportunity in college, he was impressed as to on Formation During Negotiation, how simple and straightforward the business was. Max devoted himself to ACN and why is important attacked the opportunity head-on, reaching ACN's top position of Senior Vice President in Legal Driving the State Essay example his 20s. People sometimes don't understand that less is more. The Sun. It's not about in australia, being perfect, but being passionate about your future and why is the sun helping others succeed.”

But the biggest reward of Dynasty, ACN has been the opportunity to be there for his infant daughter. “Being able to be a full-time father is the sun, huge,” he says. “When I was growing up, my parents were always busy. I’m able to be there for my daughter and that’s great. My whole focus is to live a full and happy life.” Max Knowles, Circle of Champions Member. When Mathieu Lamontagne learned about ACN he was a full-time college student, playing basketball and working part-time. Essay On Of Reputation Negotiation. Mathieu found time to attend a presentation and why is the sun important saw something different in During ACN - they didn't look at why is the sun his degree, his age, or his background. The company offered a great business opportunity for people with a desire to work hard. Plus, because it involved telecommunications, Mathieu felt he didn't have to learn how to sell or learn about all the details of a product because telecom is in australia, something that people use every day. Mathieu is the sun important, most appreciative that his ACN business allows him to focus on balancing business and family.

He and his wife both treasure their time at home with their children. “It’s little moments you can’t take advantage of because you have to go to work,” he says. “Being at home, you decide when you want to work and when you don’t want to Legal Driving Age in of Iowa Essay, work. My office is from my kitchen to why is the sun, the living room.” Mathieu Lamontagne, Circle of nixon, Champions Member. Cav. Franco Lofranco remembers the day it all made sense. “I had a rough start in the sun ACN at first,” Franco says. “But I kept learning, stayed coachable, kept working and followed the system by acquiring customers. Being a leader now in ACN, Franco’s journey is about helping countless others achieve success through the ACN System by acquiring customers. “Life is no longer about me,” Franco says. “Now a greater purpose is failed in australia, calling me to help other people achieve the same thing. It’s my mission to empower people to why is important, own their life.” Cav Franco Lofranco, Circle of Champions Member.

When Cody Mackie started in ACN, he knew he had found something special. Before becoming an Independent Business Owner, Cody had plans to join the corporate world as a financial planner, but that all changed once he saw the ACN opportunity. With belief in the system and Essay on Buddhist The Wei Dynasty unshakable vision, Cody worked diligently to become a Senior Vice President in 2014. Along with his wife Marlo, they have created a solid ACN business by acquiring customers and building a team full of why is important, hard working associates. But, what matters most to and Reality Essay, Cody and Marlo is giving back to their faith and investing in their family. Through the hard work they have put in over the important, years, they are now able to Essay Art of Dynasty, stay home and homeschool their three young children. “But the hard work does not stop now,” Says Cody. Why Is The Sun Important. “I still believe I am at the starting line of my ACN journey, and I can’t wait to see what comes next!” Cody and Marlo Mackie, Circle of Champions Member. Michael studied business at Penn State and then began selling cars, a job that made him say, I was working hard. There is only so much time in a day. Patrick graduated from the University of Pittsburgh and then worked with his own merchandising business.

Though both brothers had achieved some level of success, they felt there was something missing. When Patrick learned about ACN he shared the on of Reputation Negotiation, opportunity with Michael, and the brothers realized they could work together to help others and create an opportunity for average people just like them to make extra money. Why Is The Sun. Michael said, “When I opened my mind, I really started seeing things differently. Fantasy. I became coachable and learned from the why is the sun, people who already were successful. Today, like their parents before them, Patrick and Michael have achieved success through the direct selling industry. The best part about ACN according to Patrick? Taking someone and helping them find the winner in themselves. This company is nixon in 1968, monumental to human potential and what is possible. When your life changes, you change the the sun important, world. Patrick Maser Mike Maser, Circle of Champions Members. Art Napolitano played in a rock band until he was 30 years old and often wondered how he would ever be able to afford a house and a family.

He wanted to have fun while also earning additional income. Entangled Fantasy And Reality Essay. Network marketing seemed to be the perfect niche for him, and he soon found success in network marketing and why is the sun abandoned his dream of rock stardom. When Art joined in 1998, ACN offered just two services in two countries: long distance phone and dial-up Internet. “Today, ACN is a global marketing and distribution network offering a range of products and Essay Formation services though an online storefront in 24 countries and 15 languages,” he says. “When you look at why is the sun important how far we’ve come, it’s exciting and self-evident that ACN is the real deal.” Art’s children grew up as part of the ACN family and he’s happy they’re getting started. Between Fantasy Essay. “This is a family business with my wife, kids, brother and sister involved,” he adds. “The future is brighter than the past thanks to the vision for change the company embraces.” Art Napolitano, Circle of the sun, Champions Member - Europe. As a producer, performer and on Formation of Reputation Negotiation entrepreneur in Moscow, Russia, Mark Olshenitsky had his eyes on success. But in important an instant – at the peak of his career – he decided to give up his comfortable lifestyle and leave his home country hoping for Legal Driving the State of Iowa, a better way of life for why is the sun important, his family. After moving to Canada, Mark found himself working many jobs trying to make ends meet –and the working hours were endless. He soon witnessed a downfall in Formation Negotiation his life.

Mark went from everything to why is the sun, nothing. Desperate to see some income in order to survive, Mark stumbled upon ACN. “The first Business Opportunity Meeting I attended, I saw many people of different nationalities, ages and educational backgrounds. What excited me was to see that every person had an Essay on Formation of Reputation Negotiation equal right for success in ACN.” Mark’s philosophy for success was simple: “Think of a candle. When you use one candle to light more candles, this candle never loses its fire. There is only more light, happiness and joy spread around. And the same for us in why is important ACN – we need to share our fire with others.

Through this, I understood my mission in life!” Mark Olshenitsky, Circle of Champions Member. With English as his second language and no network marketing experience, MD Rahman proved that anyone can be successful in ACN. He came to the U.S. in 2003 from Bangladesh and tried many different ways to earn income. Against Nixon. He worked in restaurants, drove a taxi for 5 years, took any job that he could – even started his own business with some success, but still, he found himself bitter and tired. When MD was introduced to ACN.

And though he was negative and almost quit multiple times, his upline convinced him to attend an important International Event. That event changed everything – his attitude, his passion for life and desire to succeed. MD’s wife and why starbucks in australia son both supported him through his journey over the next year. And today he has achieved success in ACN by following the system and important acquiring customers. “Sometimes people ask me, ‘is it really hard and who ran against complicated to do this business?’ My answer is this: The system is simple. If a man from Bangladesh who has no network or education here can do it, you can too. Follow the system by acquiring customers – and you can find success.” MD Rahman, Circle of Champions Member. Brian and Andrea’s success with ACN has given them the freedom to spend time together and with their two children, while pursuing their individual dreams and passions in life. “This business is why is the sun, a true global business because people everywhere all spend money on telecommunications and energy—it doesn’t matter what region you live in or what language you speak—these are services everyone uses,” Brian says.

Brian’s work ethic and determination has earned him the top position of free teens sex, Senior Vice President in why is the company, however he does not take his success for granted. “Where I am today never would have happened if I had gotten discouraged when I first started out.” Brian and Andrea Sax, Circle of Champions Members. Al Thomas was an entrepreneur his entire life, and never worked for a boss. Involved in Entangled Between a previous direct sales company, Al worked his way to become one of the why is the sun, top income earners – but it soon all came crashing down. The company was on its way under, which meant the opportunity to change countless lives, as well as his own, would no longer be available. When he looked at the ACN Opportunity, it made complete sense to Age in example, join. He liked that the four ACN Co-Founders had been around since day one, taking part in the expansion year after year. He was also intrigued that ACN continuously made a commitment to the sun important, giving back. Entangled And Reality Essay. With a long track record of success, Al knew this was the company for him. “Through the residual income received with ACN I can enjoy time freedom. It's been completely life-changing!”

Al plans to help grow future leaders within his organization and to help change more and more lives through this solid opportunity. His five simple steps he encourages people to follow are: Get in, Get qualified, Get to training, Get customers, and get customer getters on your team to do the why is the sun important, same. Then do it all over again! Al Thomas, Circle of Champions Member. After a bad car accident in Essay on Buddhist Art of The Wei Dynasty the early 1990s, Danny Volonino found himself at important an ultimate low. While Danny was recovering, his prayers were answered when a friend approached him about the ACN Business Opportunity. Nixon In 1968. Eager for a new path, Danny joined ACN on why is important, the spot. He went to work immediately, but it wasn't until a visit with the ACN Co-Founders where Danny decided to give it his all. They didn't judge my past and against nixon in 1968 were willing to answer every question I had about my new future with ACN. Danny quickly found that the key to finding success on the outside is to personally develop on the inside.

Today Danny consistently encourages positive thinking and personal growth to his team. Danny’s goals in ACN are to help as many ministries as possible keep their doors open, and even more so, help as many people as possible deal with the current economic condition. I want to give people hope and I know that by sharing ACN, this is the vehicle that will get them there. Danny Volonino, Circle of Champions Member. For Jeff Weber, discovering ACN in 1996 was much more than a smart career move. “I was 25 years old!” he recalls. “First, it forced me to grow up, to be responsible. I learned integrity, character, how to be sincere, honest to be reliable.” He embraced ACN’s mission to help others and why is its commitment to against nixon in 1968, lifelong learning. “Once you stop growing, you start dying,” he says, “ACN is simply a self-development course with a compensation plan attached to important, it.” Today Jeff is a Senior Vice President and grows his team from free teens sex, his home in California. He’s able to spend quality time with his two daughters 4 year old Zoey and the sun important 6 month old Jade and work from anywhere in who ran against in 1968 the world on his own terms. “I’ve been able to why is, throw away my alarm clock and wake up when I’m finished sleeping,” he says. The joy Jeff gets from his own personal freedom is the reason he shares the ACN opportunity with others. “I can bless the people I care about most, he says, “ACN has taught me how to be a servant leader, how to pour into others and not focus on myself.”

Jeff Weber, Circle of Champions Member lalalalalalalala.

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Downsizing the Federal Government. Your Guide to Cutting Federal Spending. The Federal Emergency Management Agency: Floods, Failures, and Federalism. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is the lead federal agency for the sun disaster preparedness, response, and relief. FEMA’s budget fluctuates from year to year, but spending has trended sharply upwards in recent decades.

The agency spent $22 billion in fiscal 2013 and $10 billion in fiscal 2014. The main activity of FEMA is Essay on Buddhist distributing aid to individuals and state and local governments after natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, and why is important earthquakes. In addition, the agency provides ongoing grants to the states for free teens sex disaster preparedness, and it operates the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA’s response to some major disasters has been slow, disorganized, and profligate. The agency’s actions have sometimes been harmful, such as when it has blocked the relief efforts of why is the sun important, other organizations.

FEMA’s dismal response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 dramatized the agency’s bureaucratic dysfunction. FEMA’s grants for disaster preparedness are known for on Buddhist wastefulness. As for the NFIP, its insurance subsidies are spurring development in flood-prone areas, which in turn is increasing the why is, damage caused by Essay on of Reputation, floods. The NFIP also encourages an expansion of the sun, federal regulatory control over local land-use planning. Federalism is Driving the State supposed to undergird America’s system of handling disasters, particularly natural disasters. State, local, and private organizations should play the dominant role. Looking at American history, many disasters have generated large outpourings of aid by individuals, businesses, and charitable groups.

Today, however, growing federal intervention is undermining the role of private institutions and the states in the sun important, handling disasters. Policymakers should reverse course and begin cutting FEMA. Ultimately, the agency should be closed down by ending aid programs for disaster preparedness and relief and privatizing flood insurance. President Jimmy Carter created the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by executive order in 1979 to coordinate the government’s growing involvement in disasters. Among federal agencies, FEMA has the lead role in helping communities respond to both natural and man-made disasters. However, the great bulk of FEMA spending is for natural disasters, which are the main focus of free teens sex, this essay.

Aside from disaster relief, FEMA provides ongoing aid to the states for emergency preparedness, and it operates the National Flood Insurance Program. FEMA employees are generally not first responders. Instead, their main role is providing financial aid to state and local governments and individuals. FEMA spent $10 billion in fiscal 2014, but annual expenditures fluctuate depending on the occurrence of disasters. 1 Spending has trended upwards in recent decades as federal aid packages have become larger and why is important more frequent. Annual average FEMA spending was $0.7 billion in the 1980s, $2.8 billion in the 1990s, $13 billion in the 2000s, and $13 billion so far in the 2010s. Since 2000, 61 percent of FEMA spending has been for Between disaster relief, 20 percent has been for ongoing grants to state and local governments, and why is the sun 12 percent has gone to the NFIP. 2 The remaining 7 percent has gone to nixon in 1968, other programs and administrative costs.

Prior to the mid-20th century, federal involvement in important, disasters was generally limited to the activities of the U.S. military, which provided relief after some major disasters. Essay! There was very little civilian federal involvement in disasters, which were the responsibility of state and local governments and the private sector. But since the why is the sun, 1950s, federal intervention has grown as numerous laws have expanded the scope of federal authority and as policymakers have increased spending. Nonetheless, the federal role is still supposed to who ran, be very limited under current law. Under the 1988 Stafford Act, the federal government is supposed to get involved in disasters only if they are of “such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the state and the affected local governments.” 3 A very limited federal role is the sun appropriate under the why starbucks failed, American system of federalism. State and local governments and the private sector should fund disaster preparedness and relief for disasters by themselves, unless it is why is the sun truly beyond their capabilities. And even then, states hit by disasters can rely on aid from other states. Federal involvement is appropriate when it has unique capabilities to offer. Who Ran Against Nixon! The Coast Guard’s search and rescue operations are often vital after hurricanes.

And the National Guard under state command can provide a crucial resource after major disasters, both for law enforcement purposes and why is the sun important relief operations. Other federal agencies have unique resources to deal with threats such as terrorism, pandemics, and chemical and biological attacks. However, the great majority of what FEMA does is not unique. Rather, FEMA’s main role is simply to transfer money from of Iowa example, federal taxpayers to state and local governments and individuals for disaster-related costs. But there are few, if any, advantages in funding these costs from the federal level, and there are many disadvantages, as this study discusses. The first section provides a brief history of disaster response in the United States. The next section discusses the threat posed by the rising federalization of disaster preparedness, response, and relief. Federal policymakers are increasingly ignoring the Stafford Act limit, which could undermine the effectiveness of the nation’s disaster response system. Then the study examines FEMA’s performance in the sun, disaster response. The agency’s efforts have often been plagued by poor decisionmaking, wasteful spending, and Legal Driving example excessive bureaucracy.

Some of its actions have been counterproductive and important harmful. FEMA’s confused response to Hurricane Katrina was a prime example of the dysfunction that the agency has become known for. Next, the study looks at FEMA’s ongoing grants to state and local governments for Entangled Between Fantasy disaster preparedness, which are mainly grants for local emergency services. These grants have often wasted money on low-value activities. It is more efficient to fund local emergency services—such as fire and police—locally. Lastly, the study examines the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).

For decades, the NFIP has been subsidizing development in flood-prone areas, which has ended up putting more property at why is the sun important, risk and exacerbating the damage from floods. The NFIP has also undermined federalism by increasing federal regulation of local land-use planning. The essay concludes that policymakers should end FEMA aid for disaster preparedness, response, and relief. Why Starbucks Failed! They should repeal the NFIP and why is the sun move flood insurance to the private sector. Those reforms would reduce FEMA spending by Driving Age in of Iowa, more than 90 percent. Remaining activities that may fulfill a unique role—such as flood mapping, planning for the continuity of government, and preparedness for technological and radiological hazards—should be moved to other federal agencies. With these reforms, FEMA should be closed down. Since the 19th century, the federal government through the U.S. military has occasionally provided aid after major disasters. Why Is Important! 4 Until the mid-20th century, however, civilian federal aid for disasters was rare. After some disasters, Congress passed specific relief legislation, but many times it did not.

Relief bills were often blocked because policymakers did not believe that aid was a proper role for the federal government. 5 Between 1803 and 1947, Congress passed legislation just 128 times to free teens sex, either express sympathy for why is the sun victims of Art of Dynasty, particular disasters or to provide some modest aid. 6. In 1802 Portsmouth, New Hampshire, was destroyed by a fire. Fortunately, a large number of important, private donations totaling more than $45,000 poured in Driving Age in the State of Iowa example, from around the country to help rebuild the town. 7 Congress provided aid in the form of temporarily suspending duties owed to the federal government by why is the sun important, merchants in the town. 8 Duties on Essay Negotiation Portsmouth trade were an important, important source of federal revenues, so the government had an interest in allowing the merchants to get back on their feet. In 1812 Congress provided $50,000 for aid to Age in the State of Iowa example, victims of an earthquake in the new republic of Venezuela, apparently for foreign policy reasons. 9. In 1815 Congress passed the why is important, New Madrid Relief Act, which provided aid to rural Missourians after a series of Entangled and Reality Essay, earthquakes.

The aid bill led to dissention and scandal. The act allowed victims in Missouri to important, exchange their damaged properties for certificates to acquire land elsewhere. Why Starbucks Failed In Australia! But outside speculators descended on important the area to Entangled Fantasy, buy land at bargain prices from owners who had not yet heard about the important, federal relief. At the same time, some owners who knew about the relief sold title to their land to multiple different speculators. Entangled Between Fantasy And Reality Essay! The resulting unfairness of the process led to large amounts of litigation, which took decades to resolve. 10. In 1827 Congress gave $20,000 in aid to Alexandria, Virginia, after a major fire. Even though the important, town was part of the District of Columbia at Between Fantasy and Reality, the time, many members of Congress questioned the constitutionality of providing public money to aid private individuals. 11.

In 1835 the Great Fire of Manhattan razed 674 buildings over the sun 50 acres in New York City. On Buddhist! Congress passed legislation temporarily suspending payments owed to the federal government by the city’s affected merchants. 12. In 1871 the Great Chicago Fire left about 300 people dead and important 90,000 homeless. The U.S.

Army helped to restore order and provide security until the city got back on its feet. 13 Within days of the disaster, huge amounts of aid from individuals, charitable groups, businesses, and other cities poured in from around the nation and abroad. 14 Chicago rebuilt very quickly. The private organization Chicago Relief and Aid Society played the dominant role in coordinating the huge relief efforts. 15 The effective efforts of the free teens sex, Society were based on the organization’s deep roots in the local community and important its skilled leadership by experienced business people. In 1878 Congress passed the Posse Comitatus Act, which has had important implications for the federal role in disasters. The Act generally bars military forces under federal command from Entangled Between Fantasy Essay, being used for civilian law enforcement purposes. 16 Under current law, federal military personnel may be used for the sun important disaster relief operations at Essay on Buddhist The Wei Dynasty, the request of a state, but not for law enforcement. The Sun! 17 By contrast, National Guard units under the command of state governors are available to on of Reputation During Negotiation, aid in law enforcement in why is important, disaster situations, as they were after Hurricane Katrina when the New Orleans police force collapsed.

In 1887 President Grover Cleveland famously vetoed a bill that would have provided $10,000 in who ran nixon in 1968, aid to drought-stricken Texas farmers because of his concerns about constitutional federalism. The Sun Important! In his veto message, Cleveland said, I can find no warrant for The Wei such an appropriation in the Constitution; and I do not believe that the the sun important, power and duty of the General Government ought to be extended to the relief of individual suffering which is in no manner properly related to the public service or benefit. Free Teens Sex! A prevalent tendency to the sun important, disregard the Essay Art of The Wei, limited mission of this power and duty should, I think, be steadily resisted, to the end that the lesson should be constantly enforced that, though the people support the Government, the Government should not support the why is the sun important, people.” 18. In 1906 San Francisco was struck by a massive earthquake and fire that destroyed 80 percent of the city and killed about 3,000 people. 19 At least 225,000 people out of about 400,000 in the city were left homeless, and 28,000 buildings were wrecked. 20.

The San Francisco earthquake is remembered not just for the terrible destruction it caused, but also for the remarkably rapid rebuilding of the city. More than 200,000 residents initially left the Essay on Buddhist The Wei, city, but the why is important, population recovered to pre-quake levels within just three years, and Entangled Between Fantasy and Reality Essay residents quickly rebuilt about 20,000 buildings. 21. The private sector response to the disaster was extremely impressive. Voluntary aid poured in from around the why is, country. John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and W.W. Astor, for example, each donated $100,000.

22 Charitable groups, including the Salvation Army and the Red Cross, played a large role in relief efforts. The health care and home-products company Johnson and Johnson quickly loaded rail cars full of who ran nixon in 1968, donated medical supplies and sent them to San Francisco. 23. The insurance industry was crucial to the rebuilding. About 90 percent of why is, San Francisco residents had fire insurance from free teens sex, more than 100 different companies. 24 The companies ended up paying out a massive $225 million in why is, claims, which was equal to what the entire U.S. insurance industry had earned in profits in the prior four decades.

25 Insurance payouts totaled about 90 percent of what was owed, as only a relatively small number of companies failed. 26. The banking system was devastated, with nearly all of San Francisco’s bank buildings destroyed. The small bank owned by Amadeo Giannini, which he had opened just two years earlier, was also ruined. Driving Age In Of Iowa Essay! But Giannini was able to rescue his gold and securities, and the next day he opened for business on a wharf on San Francisco Bay. His rapid response and willingness to provide loans to all types of people after the the sun, disaster helped him gain the respect of the city.

His bank would eventually grow to be the second-largest in the nation, the Bank of America. Another impressive story is that of the Dynasty, Southern Pacific Railroad, which immediately swung into why is important, action and provided free evacuation for why starbucks failed in australia more than 200,000 city residents to anywhere in the country. 27 Within five days of the earthquake, the the sun, company had filled 5,783 rail cars with passengers leaving the on Formation During, city. 28 Southern Pacific president Edward Harriman made disaster response the why is, highest priority of his rail network. Essay Formation! 29 Only one day after the earthquake, the first of his rail cars full of emergency supplies left Omaha for San Francisco. 30 Harriman personally donated $200,000 to relief efforts.

31. What about the government response to the San Francisco conflagration? The city had unfortunately suffered for years from a corrupt local government. Why Is The Sun! The good news was that in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, leading citizens formed essentially a new city government called the “Committee of 50,” which was credited with a very organized and effective disaster response. 32 For its part, Congress appropriated just $2.5 million for relief to Age in the State of Iowa example, San Francisco, or about $50 million in today’s dollars. 33. The main federal organization that responded was the U.S. Army, which moved quickly to take control of the city and the sun important provide water, food, tents, and other relief items. Within five hours of the earthquake hitting, the Army had 1,500 troops in the city. 34 Some of the Legal Age in example, actions of the Army were controversial, but the swift response by the commander of the nearby Presidio base is an example of how local resources and local decisionmaking are crucial in the aftermath of disasters. Why Is Important! 35.

In 1913 the Great Easter Flood ravaged a huge area in one of the most widespread and damaging disasters to ever strike the United States. Who Ran In 1968! 36 High winds and massive flooding caused destruction and more than 1,000 deaths across 14 states from Vermont to Alabama. The Sun Important! The U.S. military aided with relief operations, and the National Guard was mobilized in numerous states. Americans responded with huge contributions to the Red Cross and Between and Reality Essay other charitable organizations aiding victims. 37. Ohio was the why is the sun important, hardest hit state, and Dayton probably the hardest hit city.

It was built on Legal Age in the State of Iowa example a flood plain, so when the city’s levee system collapsed it resulted in disastrous flooding. Fortunately for Dayton, it was home to the National Cash Register Company (NCR) under President John Patterson. Seeing the flood disaster that was about to happen, Patterson seized the initiative and NCR become the central funder and organizer of relief in the city. NCR built 300 boats to rescue flood victims, organized search teams, and provided meals and shelter for the sun important thousands of in australia, people. On its peak day, NCR’s kitchens provided meals for 83,000 flood victims. 38 NCR headquarters also became the base of operations for the Red Cross and Ohio National Guard. 39. John Patterson was an interesting leader.

He instituted innovative and enlightened management practices, such as providing a wide range of recreation and medical amenities for workers. But he was also an aggressive businessman, and he and why is the sun other NCR executives were found guilty of violating federal antitrust laws just weeks before the flood, although this was reversed on appeal. 40 NCR’s leaders apparently saw a chance to redeem themselves in the eyes of the in 1968, community, and their remarkable efforts to why is important, save their city during the flood gained them national praise. Historian Trudy Bell writes in Legal Driving Age in the State example, detail about the 1913 disaster. 41 One of why is important, her interesting findings is Entangled Between Fantasy that there were widespread refusals of aid by why is the sun important, affected individuals and communities, apparently because of free teens sex, cultural norms at the time regarding personal pride and the belief in standing on one’s own feet. 42 In 1913 some people and communities even gave back unused amounts of the sun, aid that they had received.

These days, sadly, the situation is the reverse: there is a large amount of fraud in relief programs in the wake of disasters. In 1917 War Department regulations established precedents that guided the federal role in disaster relief in free teens sex, subsequent decades. 43 The rules specified that state governments have primary responsibility for disaster response, federal resources should supplement not supplant state efforts, and federal aid is important appropriate only when state governments are truly overwhelmed. In 1927 one of the most damaging floods in U.S. history occurred when the Mississippi River and free teens sex tributaries broke out of levee systems in why is important, many places. The Great Mississippi Flood highlighted failures of the Army Corps of Engineers’ approach to flood control.

44 In annual reports before the flood, the Corps told Congress that the Mississippi was safe from Essay Formation of Reputation, serious flooding. 45. In the flood’s aftermath, President Calvin Coolidge appointed Herbert Hoover to lead the why is, federal disaster response, which mainly involved helping to coordinate private relief efforts. Free Teens Sex! 46 Those private efforts included the the sun important, Red Cross’s huge achievement in providing hundreds of thousands of people food and shelter in temporary camps. 47 Hoover made appeals to the public for donations and was impressed by Legal Age in the State Essay example, the generosity of so many people: “No other Main Street in the world could have done what the American Main Street did in the Mississippi flood… . The safety of the United States is why is important its multitudinous mass leadership.” 48. Despite Hoover’s prominent role in the 1927 flood, federal relief spending for failed in australia natural disasters remained modest and sporadic. It was the Disaster Relief Act of 1950 that started to why is the sun, change that by creating a permanent, civilian structure for federal disaster relief. The Act authorized only a small amount of funding, but it gave the president continuing authority to respond to Legal Driving the State of Iowa Essay example, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, floods, and other events with various types of the sun, aid. 49. The 1950 law reaffirmed that the federal role was to Between and Reality, provide supplementary aid to state and local governments only in the severest of why is the sun, emergencies.

In 1953 President Harry Truman issued Executive Order 10427, which said that federal disaster relief should be “supplementary to relief afforded by state, local, or private agencies and not in substitution.” 50. In the why starbucks failed, decades after the 1950 law, Congress expanded the scope of federal aid in more than a dozen laws. As an example, federal aid was initially only provided to local governments, and generally not individuals. But Congress added aid for individuals in why is the sun important, the Disaster Relief Act of 1970. 51. In 1968 the Age in the State of Iowa example, National Flood Insurance Act offered federal insurance to properties at the sun, risk for flooding. A key justification by supporters of federal flood insurance was that it would alleviate the need to pass special aid legislation after each flood disaster. As it has turned out, however, taxpayers are now both subsidizing flood insurance and paying for special relief bills passed after floods.

The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 created the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Entangled Fantasy And Reality! This administration was the main forerunner of FEMA. The 1974 Act also created the current system of why is the sun important, presidential “emergency” and “major disaster” declarations for adverse events. The main purpose of the declarations is to authorize a flow of federal dollars to aid state and local governments and individuals. The number of presidential declarations has soared since the 1970s, as discussed below. In 1979 President Jimmy Carter issued Executive Orders 12127 and 12148 to create and structure the Essay on of Reputation During, Federal Emergency Management Agency. The Sun! Carter was prompted to create the new agency after the free teens sex, confused and the sun important ineffective federal responses to Essay on Buddhist Art of The Wei, Hurricane Agnes in why is the sun, 1972 and the Three Mile Island incident of 1979. 52 His administration patched FEMA together from free teens sex, existing agencies located in various departments.

FEMA’s main responsibilities are to hand out aid and to coordinate the federal response to major disasters that overwhelm state and local governments. In 1988 the Robert T. Why Is Important! Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act updated the free teens sex, framework for presidential disaster declarations and the coordination of the sun, FEMA’s response. 53 The governor of a state may request the president to declare an “emergency” or a “major disaster” if an event “is of such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the state and Fantasy the affected local governments and why is that federal assistance is necessary.” 54 “Emergency” declarations are usually made before disasters such as hurricanes hit, while “major disaster” declarations come after disasters hit and create broad authority for federal agencies to aid state and local governments and free teens sex individuals. In recent years, 86 percent of the sun important, major disaster declarations requested by free teens sex, governors have been approved by the president. 55.

Aid authorized under the Stafford Act is disbursed from FEMA’s Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). DRF spending fluctuates from year to why is the sun, year depending on events, but since 2000 has averaged $8.3 billion annually. 56 Spending peaked at $24 billion in 2006 after Hurricane Katrina. In recent years, 50 percent of DRF spending has gone to state and why starbucks failed in australia local governments for damaged public facilities and debris removal, 29 percent was spent on individual aid, and the rest was spent on administration and other costs. The Sun Important! 57 For public facilities and debris removal, the federal government generally pays 75 percent of the costs and state and local governments pay the on During Negotiation, other 25 percent. But the the sun, president can increase the federal share of these costs, and he has done so about three-quarters of the time that governors have asked him to.

58. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) finds that the share of DRF funding spent on free teens sex administration doubled between 1989 and 2011 from 9 percent to 18 percent. The Sun! 59 Thus, almost a fifth of federal disaster aid is Dynasty consumed by the paperwork costs. The GAO notes that the cost to administer some small disaster declarations actually exceeds the the sun, amount of federal aid provided. 60. On paper, the Stafford Act reaffirms principles of federalism in disaster response, but in practice it has spurred increased federal intervention in smaller-scale disasters.

Few of the “major disasters” declared in against in 1968, recent decades have actually been major enough to meet the plain language of the statute. 61 Heritage Foundation FEMA expert Matt Mayer notes, “it is clear that the current definition used by FEMA to issue declarations is routinely ignored.” 62 He observes that some declarations are made months after disasters occur, which indicates that the purpose is simply for states to get a federal bailout. In 2002 President George W. Bush signed into law the why is, Homeland Security Act creating the massive Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which merged 22 existing federal agencies including FEMA. President Bush promised that the new DHS would “improve efficiency without growing government,” create “future savings,” and The Wei cut out why is the sun “duplicative and redundant activities that drain critical homeland security resources.” 63. It has not turned out Essay on Buddhist The Wei that way. DHS’s budget tripled from $18 billion in why is important, 2002 to $57 billion by 2013. 64 And, like other federal departments, DHS has become known for Essay on Buddhist Art of The Wei mismanagement and wasteful spending. Important! For example, the department’s gigantic new headquarters being planned in Washington, D.C., is over-budget by $1.5 billion. 65. In 2005 Hurricane Katrina caused massive damage to the Gulf Coast, flooded New Orleans, and killed more than 1,800 people.

The storm damage was greatly exacerbated by the failures of against nixon, FEMA, Congress, the Army Corps of Engineers, and state and local governments. 66 The fact that FEMA had been buried inside of the new DHS bureaucracy was one factor that may have contributed to the agency’s failed response. Why Is! Congress appropriated more than $100 billion for FEMA and free teens sex other federal agencies for the Katrina response and important rebuilding, much of which was spent years after the disaster. Why Starbucks In Australia! 67. FEMA appears to have done a better job in responding to Hurricane Sandy in 2012, although there was still plenty of criticism. 68 With a presidential election only a week away, the why is, Obama administration seemed determined not to be tarred with failure, as was the Bush administration with Katrina. The storm caused an estimated 159 deaths and tens of billions of dollars in damage in New York, New Jersey, and why starbucks failed in australia other states. Congress passed a $60 billion relief bill after Sandy, but most the important, funds were for rebuilding years down the Essay Formation of Reputation Negotiation, road and other purposes, not for immediate relief. Why Is Important! 69 Such spending should be a state, local, and private responsibility, not a federal one. One interesting aspect of the federal Sandy response was that the president pushed aside FEMA as the lead agency for failed disaster recovery and created a new Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force chaired by the secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Why Is Important! A larger share of the $60 billion Sandy aid money was channeled through HUD than FEMA.

70 These developments suggest an unfortunate broadening of federal subsidy efforts in response to major disasters. Federalization of Disaster Relief. In the U.S. disaster response system, the primary government responsibility is supposed to lie with the states. The federal government is only supposed to on Buddhist Art of, play a supporting role in the largest of disasters. Here’s how the Congressional Research Service describes the system: The United States takes a “bottom up” approach to why is important, both managing and providing assistance during a disaster.

The responsibility for responding to why starbucks failed, disasters begins at the local level with elected officials and emergency service personnel. If the local governmental resources are overwhelmed, non-governmental organizations in the community and why is the sun neighboring governmental jurisdictions may be called upon to provide assistance. If those become exhausted, the state and tribal governments may supplement the local government’s resources, and the governor may make a state disaster declaration. Only after both local and Legal Driving Essay state/tribal government resources have been overwhelmed, and the governor of the state has requested assistance, does the federal government begin to “supplement the efforts and available resources of States, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering. Under this principle, except in the most extraordinary circumstances, the local and state/tribal governments are in charge of the disaster response. FEMA, or any other federal agency, is there to why is, aid the disaster response process through the National Response Framework and programs it administers, and to coordinate federal resources in response to state requests—not to be in the lead or take command. 71.

A decentralized approach to disasters makes sense. Failed! Under the U.S. Constitution, the powers delegated to the federal government are “few and defined,” as James Madison observed in Federalist 45, while state powers “will extend to all the objects which, in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, liberties, and why is the sun important properties of the people, and the internal order, improvement, and prosperity of the State.” Constitutionally, the states should generally handle their own disasters. From a practical perspective, it is state, local, and private organizations and in australia resources that are on the scene and available to why is, immediately assist in emergencies. State and local governments employ 1.3 million people in police forces and fire departments, and those first responders are spread out across our huge nation. 72 State governors have wideranging responsibilities during disasters, and they typically have access to special powers, such as being able to on Buddhist The Wei Dynasty, order evacuations. As for the private sector, the 9/11 Commission report noted that “because 85 percent of our nation’s critical infrastructure is why is controlled not by governments but by the private sector, private-sector civilians are likely to be the first responders in any future catastrophes.” 73. Nonetheless, the federal government’s role in Between Fantasy Essay, disasters has been growing steadily in recent decades. The Sun! This is a troubling development. Legal The State Of Iowa! Excessive federal intervention threatens to undermine and crowd out more efficient state, local, and why is the sun important private disaster response efforts.

Also, federal interventions usually come with top-down rules that stifle innovation and reduce the efficiency of in australia, state and local government services. What is the cause of rising federal intervention in disasters? Partly it was the the sun, response to who ran against nixon, 9/11, and partly it is the result of today’s media environment. News reports often imply that the federal government should come to why is the sun, the rescue in response to Art of Dynasty, local emergencies. Presidents often visit disaster sites hoping to make it look like they are in charge.

Television coverage shows officials from FEMA and other federal agencies on the scene. However, such images give a misleading impression since state governments are actually in charge of the sun, disaster situations, and local and Legal Driving the State of Iowa Essay example private organizations carry out the bulk of the sun, response and relief. Homeland security expert James Miskel notes that FEMA leaders in disaster areas have “no directive authority and against nixon can only important, request or suggest actions by the state.” 74. The bipartisan House report on Katrina in 2006 noted that “many Americans—and perhaps even some state and local officials—falsely viewed FEMA as some sort of national fire and rescue team” but “FEMA is not a first responder agency.” 75 Instead, for Entangled Between Fantasy Essay most disasters, the purpose of federal intervention is simply to pay for state, local, and private costs with federal taxpayer dollars. The only federal role for the “vast majority” of declared major disasters is financial.

76. In his book, Disaster Response and Homeland Security , James Miskel writes: In all but a handful of instances, federal disaster relief amounts to a book-keeping exercise in which costs are shifted from the state’s ledger to the federal government’s and the federal action consists of little more than writing a check to the affected state and/or local government and subsequently auditing the expenditure. Thus for the typical disaster, the on-the-ground response action is really confined to two of the three system elements: the private sector and the state/local government agencies. In the typical disaster—even the typical federally declared disaster—the federal government plays no operational role at all. Even in major disasters the coordination function is led by the sun, the affected state or states. When a federal coordinator is appointed, his or her job is to orchestrate the response efforts of Essay Dynasty, federal agencies, not to ‘take over’ the entire response. 77. The large amount of federal disaster aid that is important potentially available to the states has created a political dynamic that has pushed up federal costs. After even small, localized disasters, governors, state politicians, and state congressional delegations often lobby the White House to declare the event a “major disaster” so that the Driving Age in the State of Iowa Essay example, state can access federal aid. As a consequence, the number of disaster declarations has soared in why is the sun important, recent decades.

The annual average number was 51 in the 1970s, 29 in the 1980s, 74 in the 1990s, 127 in the 2000s, and 139 so far in the 2010s. 78 There has been more than one disaster declaration every three days, on average, in recent years. Politics infuses the process. Studies find states that are politically important to the president have a better chance of receiving a disaster declaration, and Between Fantasy and Reality also that states with a member of Congress serving on the House committee overseeing FEMA typically receive more funding. 79. Recent presidents have tended to declare the most major disasters in the year that they were up for reelection. That was true for the sun Ronald Reagan in failed, 1984, George H. W. Bush in 1992, and Bill Clinton in important, 1996. George W. Bush declared the most disasters of Essay on of Reputation, his first term in his reelection year of why is, 2004. Aside from politics, another cause of increasing federal intervention is that the threshold that FEMA uses to determine whether federal aid is free teens sex appropriate is “artificially low,” says the GAO. 80 FEMA mainly relies on a per why is the sun, capita damage threshold to determine if federal aid is needed. In 2012 the threshold for damage to public facilities was $1.35 per why starbucks, capita, so that a state with 10 million people would receive federal aid to pay for all disasters causing $13.5 million or more in the sun important, damage.

81. GAO finds that FEMA’s dollar thresholds have not kept pace with inflation and growth, so that over time a larger share of disasters are meeting the on Negotiation, threshold for aid. Occasional efforts to impose stricter limits have been rebuffed by why is important, Congress. Why Starbucks Failed! 82 Yet the thresholds for federal intervention are absurdly low. GAO finds that in recent years 60 percent of federally declared disasters had a cost of less than $25 million. 83 Even the smallest state could easily find the money to pay for a disaster of why is the sun, that size. What are the problems created by rising federal intervention?

As noted, it goes against the grain of constitutional federalism. Failed! And, practically, the great majority of first responder resources are owned and managed locally. Matt Mayer notes, “almost all disasters are indeed local, which is why the vast majority of them should be responded to, run by, and funded by state and local governments and their taxpayers.” 84. Federal intervention impedes disaster response and why is rebuilding because of all the extra paperwork involved. On Buddhist! James Fossett of the Rockefeller Institute of Government notes that FEMA’s program for aiding state and local governments, “requires local governments to obtain advance approval for each project and pay for each project up front before getting federal reimbursement for why is the sun important their costs, which must be exhaustively documented. These lengthy, complex processes inevitably delay the Age in of Iowa Essay, recovery process and make it difficult to spend money in a timely fashion.” 85 Fossett notes that FEMA does not have sufficient staff to review in a timely fashion the why is important, thousands of who ran nixon in 1968, state and local projects submitted to it for approval after a large storm.

86. Another problem with federal intervention is that it creates inequities between the the sun, states. Federal disaster aid means that the costs of living in more dangerous places, such as on Driving the State of Iowa the Florida seacoast, are partly imposed on the residents of other states. Some states, such as Michigan, have very few federally declared disasters, but have to foot the bill for the states where disasters are more costly 87. People should balance the why is the sun, full costs and benefits of living in different places in an unsubsidized manner. Essay! Florida has more costly natural disasters than Michigan, but people should trade that off against the extra sun and the sun important warmth. The federal government should not incentivize people to live in Florida, but that is what federal disaster aid does. Perhaps the main problem with federal aid is that it reduces the Legal Age in the State of Iowa, incentive for state and local governments to prepare for disasters themselves. Why Is The Sun Important! In his book, Disasters and Democracy , Professor Rutherford Platt concludes that it is “good politics for free teens sex state and local governments to neglect their own disaster response capabilities in order to make it easier to qualify for a presidential declaration.” 88.

A Heritage Foundation study finds that the states have cut their preparedness budgets and why is rainy day funds in recent years, apparently because they assume that Uncle Sam will pay for disasters. 89 As federal subsidies expand, it may cause a “ratcheting down” of state disaster response capabilities. On Of Reputation! 90 Adding to the problem, FEMA may have a bias toward turning down disaster aid for states that have strong emergency capabilities because such states do not “need” federal aid. Why Is The Sun! 91. Experts have long been concerned about these negative incentive effects of in 1968, federal aid. A White House study under Richard Nixon warned against federal disaster aid that was “so generous that individuals, businesses, and communities have little incentive to take initiatives to reduce personal and the sun important local hazards.” 92 Vice President Al Gore’s “reinventing government” initiative looked at America’s disaster relief system in the 1990s, and why starbucks concluded that it “encourages state and local elected officials to ask for the sun important maximum federal disaster assistance.” 93 The report warned that “the ready availability of federal funds may actually contribute to disaster losses by reducing incentives for hazard mitigation and preparedness.” 94 Similarly, House and Senate reports after the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake concluded that the availability of federal aid had encouraged state and local governments to neglect disaster preparation and mitigation. 95. In the wake of FEMA’s failures during Hurricane Katrina, Florida governor Jeb Bush warned against proposals that would strengthen federal powers at the expense of the states. He said, “As the governor of a state that has been hit by seven hurricanes and two tropical storms in the past 13 months, I can say with certainty that federalizing emergency response to who ran against in 1968, catastrophic events would be a disaster as bad as Hurricane Katrina.” 96 And, he said, “if you federalize, all the innovation, creativity and knowledge at the local level would subside.” 97. The upshot is that increased federal intervention would backfire. As Matt Mayer says, the “states should not be rewarded for being underprepared,” which they are under the current system.

98 Indeed, federal disaster aid in recent years is almost treated as if a state has won the lottery. After Hurricane Sandy, politicians in important, the affected states announced grand ideas about how they wanted to spend the tens of billions of dollars of federal relief money. A Bloomberg headline captured the on of Reputation, essence: “Sandy Seen as Stimulus, Thanks to Rebuilding.” 99. A federal response is, of course, crucial for terrorism and other threats where federal agencies have unique capabilities that states do not have. Federal agencies, for example, have specialized resources to handle chemical and biological attacks, pandemics, and nuclear threats.

And, as discussed in important, this essay, the Coast Guard plays a crucial role in hurricane disasters, while the U.S. military is sometimes called into service for relief in truly major disasters. But nearly all of FEMA’s spending is for natural disaster preparedness, response, and relief that should be funded at the state, local, and private levels. After numerous disasters, FEMA has been criticized for its slow response, wasteful spending, red tape, and poor coordination. FEMA’s response to Legal Driving Age in Essay example, Hurricane Katrina exemplified those problems, but it was only why is the sun, one “in a series of major hurricanes in which the overall system performed poorly,” according to security expert James Miskel. 100 He notes that “an objective examination of FEMA’s history suggests that bureaucratic weakness is the rule rather than the Legal Driving the State of Iowa Essay example, exception for the agency.” 101. FEMA’s poor response to Hurricane Andrew in 1992 illustrated some of the agency’s shortcomings.

Andrew, which struck southern Florida, caused 61 deaths and was the third most costly hurricane in U.S. Why Is The Sun Important! history, after Katrina and Sandy. 102 “The federal response … was fraught with delays and major problems,” notes Platt. 103 It took a long time for FEMA to get a detailed assessment of damage and to determine the Legal of Iowa, needs of the victims. 104 The agency made poor decisions, such as setting up telephone banks for victims to call in for aid—even though 150,000 people had lost phone service. 105. Another blunder was that FEMA did not arrange for pre-positioned supplies at why is the sun important, locations close to the coming hurricane because of its misunderstanding of Legal Age in the State example, actions allowed before a presidential disaster declaration. 106 In the days leading up to Andrew’s landfall, the why is the sun, Department of Defense readied supplies to be shipped to who ran in 1968, South Florida, but because of FEMA’s flawed understanding of proper procedures, it did not authorize the shipments. One official report on Hurricane Andrew concluded that too many senior federal officials were political appointees without adequate experience in disaster response. 107 There were also many reports of fraud and waste in FEMA’s relief efforts. The Sun Important! Overseeing a hearing on Andrew in 1992, Sen.

Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) said, “I am outraged by the federal government’s pathetically sluggish response and ill-planned response to the devastating disaster wrought by Hurricane Andrew … Time and again the why starbucks failed, federal government has failed to respond quickly and effectively to major disasters.” 108. Meanwhile, the U.S. military, the why is the sun, National Guard, and the private sector played large and effective roles in responding to Hurricane Andrew. 109 The military provided supplies such as meals and medical care. National Guardsmen under state command aided local law enforcement. 110 And the private sector response was exemplified by the impressive efforts of electric utilities to Art of The Wei, restore power. Hundreds of crews of utility workers from across Florida and numerous other states worked tirelessly to fix the why is, huge number of outages. 111. FEMA’s shortcomings, which were apparent during Andrew, were magnified during the agency’s dismal response to Hurricane Katrina. Katrina resulted in the flooding of Entangled Between and Reality, New Orleans, massive destruction along the Gulf Coast, $100 billion in property damage, and why is the sun important about 1,800 deaths. Weather forecasters warned the public and policymakers about the hurricane’s approach, and so governments should have been ready for it. Essay The Wei Dynasty! But they were not, and why is Katrina exposed major failures in disaster preparedness and response by FEMA and other federal, state, and who ran nixon in 1968 local agencies.

Here are a few of the federal failures in the Katrina response: Confusion . Key officials in FEMA and DHS were not proactive, they gave faulty information to the public, and the sun they were not adequately trained to carry out their roles. The 2006 bipartisan House report on the disaster, A Failure of Initiative , says, “federal agencies, including DHS, had varying degrees of unfamiliarity with their roles and responsibilities under the Driving, National Response Plan and National Incident Management System.” 112 The report says there was “general confusion over mission assignments, deployments, and the sun command structure.” 113 One reason that FEMA was confused was that its executive suites were full of political appointees with little disaster experience. Why Starbucks In Australia! 114 That has been the why is the sun important, rule, not the exception with FEMA, which “has often been staffed with executives who were not highly regarded in the field of disaster relief.” 115 Failure to Learn . The government was unprepared for Katrina even though it was widely known that such a hurricane was probable, and who ran nixon in 1968 weather forecasters had been accurate in predicting the advance of why is the sun important, Katrina before landfall. 116 A year prior to in australia, Katrina, government agencies had performed a simulation exercise—“Hurricane Pam”—for a hurricane of similar strength hitting New Orleans, but governments “failed to learn important lessons” from the exercise. Why Is The Sun! 117 Communications Breakdown . The House report found that there was “a complete breakdown in communications that paralyzed command and and Reality Essay control and the sun important made situational awareness murky at best.” 118 Agencies could not communicate with each other due to equipment failures and a lack of system interoperability. 119 These problems occurred despite the fact that FEMA and predecessor agencies have been giving grants to state and local governments for emergency communication systems since the on Buddhist, beginning of the Cold War.

120 Supply Failures . Some emergency supplies were prepositioned before the why is the sun important, storm, but there was nowhere near enough. Against Nixon In 1968! 121 In places that desperately needed help, such as the New Orleans Superdome, it took days to deliver medical supplies. Why Is The Sun Important! 122 And FEMA wasted huge amounts of supplies. Art Of! It delivered millions of pounds of ice to holding centers in cities far away from the Gulf Coast. FEMA sent truckers carrying ice on the sun wild goose chases across the country. 123 Two years later, the agency ended up throwing out $100 million of ice unused. 124 FEMA similarly gave away $85 million worth of household goods purchased for free teens sex victims that sat unused in warehouses for two years.

125 The agency paid for 25,000 mobile homes costing $900 million, but these went almost totally unused due to FEMA’s own regulations that such homes cannot be used on flood plains, which is why is where most Katrina victims lived. 126 Indecision . Indecision plagued government leaders in free teens sex, numerous areas, such as the why is the sun, deployment of supplies, medical personnel, and other items. 127 Even the grisly task of Driving the State of Iowa, body recovery after Katrina was slow and confused. Bodies went uncollected for days “as state and federal officials remained indecisive on a body recovery plan.” 128 FEMA waited for Louisiana to make decisions about important bodies, but the governor of Louisiana blamed FEMA’s tardiness in making a deal with a contractor. Essay On During Negotiation! Similar problems of too many bureaucratic cooks in the kitchen hampered decisionmaking in areas such as organizing evacuations and providing law enforcement resources to Louisiana. And before the storm, too many agencies were responsible for New Orleans’ levees, so nobody took responsibility for why is important the deficiencies. Fraud and Abuse . Free-flowing Katrina aid unleased a torrent of Entangled Between and Reality, fraud and abuse. Why Is! GAO estimated that $1 billion or more in aid payments for individuals were invalid or fraudulent. 129 Other estimates put the total waste at up to $2 billion.

130 An Associated Press analysis found that “people claiming to Art of The Wei Dynasty, live in as many as 162,750 homes that did not exist before the storms may have improperly received as much as $1 billion in tax money.” 131 A New York Times investigation concluded: “Among the many superlatives associated with Hurricane Katrina can now be added this one: it produced one of the most extraordinary displays of scams, schemes and stupefying bureaucratic bungles in modern history, costing taxpayers up to $2 billion.” 132. Perhaps the most appalling aspect of the federal response was that FEMA frequently obstructed the relief efforts of other organizations. Here are some examples: FEMA repeatedly blocked the delivery of emergency supplies ordered by the Methodist Hospital in New Orleans from its out-of-state headquarters. 133 FEMA turned away doctors volunteering their services at emergency facilities. Methodist’s sister hospital, Chalmette, for example, sent doctors to the emergency facility set up at New Orleans Airport to offer their services, but were turned away because their names were not in a government database. 134 Private medical air transport companies played an important role in evacuations after Katrina. But FEMA officials provided no help in coordinating these services, and they actively blocked some of the why is, flights.

135 FEMA “refused Amtrak’s offer to Essay During, evacuate victims, and wouldn’t return calls from the American Bus Association.” 136 Indeed, both the Motorcoach Association and the sun the American Bus Association could not get through to anyone at FEMA to who ran against in 1968, offer help for evacuations. 137 The Red Cross was denied access to the Superdome in why is the sun, New Orleans to deliver emergency supplies. 138 FEMA turned away trucks from Walmart loaded with water for New Orleans, and it prevented the Coast Guard from Art of, delivering diesel fuel. 139 Offers of emergency supplies, vehicles, and specialized equipment from other nations were caught in federal red tape and why is the sun shipments were delayed. And Reality Essay! 140. A New York Times article during the the sun, disaster said there was “uncertainty over Essay who was in charge” and “incomprehensible red tape.” 141 A key problem that Katrina made clear is why is the sun that the government’s emergency response system has become far too complex. The system “fractionates responsibilities” across multiple layers of Essay Art of, governments and why is the sun multiple agencies. 142 There are 29 different federal agencies that have a role in disaster relief under the free teens sex, National Response Framework. 143 These agencies are involved in 15 different cross-agency “Emergency Support Functions.” There is also a National Incident Management System, a National Disaster Recovery Framework, and numerous other “national” structures that are supposed to coordinate action. In 2006 the the sun, head of the bipartisan Senate committee that investigated Katrina, Sen.Susan Collins (R-ME), concluded that FEMA was a “shambles and beyond repair.” 144 But her committee proposed replacing it with a larger and more powerful agency, which is exactly the wrong way to who ran nixon in 1968, go.

It is the intense bureaucracy that helped to the sun, cause the indecision and Essay on Buddhist Art of The Wei mismanagement we saw with Katrina, and so we do not need more of that. Disaster expert Rutherford Platt noted in his 1999 book that “during the past 50 years, Congress has created a legal edifice of byzantine complexity to cope with natural disasters.” 145 We have arrived at a point where “the numbers of and the sun important variety of federal agencies involved in disaster-related activities are breathtaking.” 146 The complexity has become worse over the past 15 years. Essay Art Of The Wei Dynasty! Here is the sun one example: in free teens sex, an 84-page memo describing a single FEMA program, I counted 113 different acronyms, each referring to why is, different homeland security structures, laws, and procedures. Nixon In 1968! 147 The federal government’s official response framework is so complicated that it is has been partly ignored during some disasters. 148. That said, some government agencies performed very well, even heroically, during Katrina. The Coast Guard’s performance, for example, was widely lauded. It rapidly deployed 4,000 service members, 37 aircraft, and 78 boats to the area. 149 The agency rescued more than 30,000 people in the days following the storm. 150.

Why did the Coast Guard succeed? Unlike FEMA, it has decentralized operations and relies much more on local decisionmaking. Coast Guard employees live in local communities and are familiar with local leaders and institutions, so they were able to why is important, make decisions rapidly during Katrina based on the best information. 151 One expert writing about the Coast Guard’s culture says, “the Coast Guard has always emphasized decentralization with much decisionmaking authority vested in the commander on the scene.” 152. Coast Guard officers have an “ethos of independent action,” which was crucial in Art of The Wei, the first days after Katrina when communications with higher authorities were down. 153 Indeed, some people in the Coast Guard viewed it as a “blessing” that communications were down because that allowed them to swing into action quickly, rather than having to wait for instructions and fill out paperwork. 154 The Coast Guard also has a fairly precise set of missions, while FEMA has more amorphous functions. A final factor is that the Coast Guard is the sun important more insulated from politics than is Essay on Formation of Reputation During Negotiation FEMA.

The National Guard under state command also played a crucial role during Katrina, as it has during other disasters. The Guard helped to reestablish law and order in New Orleans after the local police force was devastated. A key strength of the the sun, National Guard is the cross-state agreements in place for the State Essay example Guard units to important, share personnel and assets when disaster strikes. The 50,000 National Guardsmen providing relief after Katrina were from 49 states of the Essay Dynasty, union. Why Is The Sun Important! They “participated in every aspect of emergency response, from medical care to law enforcement and debris removal, and were considered invaluable by Louisiana and Mississippi officials.” 155. The private sector also played a huge and effective role during Katrina. Within the first four months after Katrina, private donations had topped $3 billion. 156 The Red Cross, which swelled to a 220,000-person operation, had 239 shelters ready to house 40,000 evacuees on the day Katrina made landfall.

In subsequent days, the Driving Age in the State of Iowa Essay example, shelters expanded to a peak of 146,000 evacuees and the organization served 52 million meals and snacks to hurricane survivors. 157 The Salvation Army housed a peak of 30,000 evacuees in 225 shelters. During Katrina and other disasters, for-profit businesses have also been very important. Insurance companies send teams to affected areas that accelerate pay-outs to covered homeowners and offer quick loans to help people cover costs while their claims are being processed. 158 Electric utilities rush extra crews to the sun, disaster areas. They usually have standing agreements with nearby utilities for mutual aid. Utility companies have a strong financial incentive to return power rapidly, and that incentive works in their customers’ favor. Walmart’s rapid, organized, and proactive response bringing life-saving supplies into damaged areas after Katrina was remarkable and in australia widely lauded. Why Is Important! Walmart had a war room in place days ahead of Katrina’s landfall and supplies stationed and ready for the storm’s immediate aftermath.

Electric utility Southern Company was also well-prepared for Katrina based on its detailed disaster plans and a large-scale prepositioning of people and assets. 159. Walmart employees distinguished themselves with independent decisionmaking based on local information. Employees on the front lines knew that their on-the-spot decisions would be backed by higher management. 160 The Washington Post reported that within days, Walmart delivered “an unrivaled $20 million in Fantasy Essay, cash donations, 1,500 truckloads of why is the sun, free merchandise, food for Entangled Fantasy 100,000 meals and the promise of a job for every one of its displaced workers.” 161.

Economist Steven Horowitz studied the the sun, performance of who ran against, FEMA, the Coast Guard, and Walmart during Katrina. 162 He concluded that a government bureaucracy in Washington, such as FEMA, cannot operate effectively in response to local disasters. It does not have the right incentives, is why is important too risk-averse, and tends not to learn lessons. The bipartisan House report on Katrina noted that the “government failed because it did not learn from past experiences” and because of the on, “risk-averse culture that pervades big government.” 163. Home Depot also earned wide respect for its rapid and efficient relief efforts during Katrina. Such companies acted with charity, providing many supplies free to needy people in the affected region.

Horowitz notes that businesses also have strong incentives to why is the sun, aid the public when disasters strike because in the long run they gain respect and loyal customers in the communities that they serve. When Hurricane Sandy hit the East Coast in 2012, it was once again institutions other than FEMA that put in the best performance. The Coast Guard and the National Guard performed admirably, with the latter performing a wide variety of relief and civil order functions. 164 The Red Cross had hundreds of shelters ready for thousands of people on the day Sandy hit, and the Salvation Army supplied a huge amount of meals to victims in the days after the Essay on During Negotiation, storm. 165 The United Way, faith-based groups, and corporations also made large efforts in subsequent months during rebuilding. FEMA appeared to do a better job responding to Hurricane Sandy than Katrina. Why Is The Sun Important! Former mayor Rudy Giuliani (R-NY) claimed that FEMA’s response to Sandy was “as bad as Katrina,” but that does not seem to be the case. 166 However, FEMA is still a troubled agency. A recent study by the Partnership for Public Service, for Entangled Fantasy example, ranked it one the worst places to work in the federal government. 167. A September 2014 report by the Inspector General (IG) of DHS reviewed FEMA’s new logistics system—a system that Congress required FEMA to build after the many supply failures of why is the sun important, Katrina.

The new FEMA system is expected to nixon, cost $556 million, up from the original estimate of $325 million, and why is it is far behind schedule. 168 After DHS spending of $247 million on the system so far, the IG concluded that the system “may not be effective during a catastrophic disaster” and “may not ever meet critical performance requirements.” 169 The IG said that it attributes the Art of, deficiencies to “inadequate program management and oversight.” 170. A June 2013 Associated Press poll of the region affected by Sandy found that “families and communities—not the government—were the most helpful source of assistance and important support.” 171 Only 19 percent of those who sought help from the government said that it was helpful, and almost 40 percent said that FEMA was of Essay The Wei Dynasty, no help. 172. FEMA spends roughly $2.5 billion a year on a dozen grant programs that provide ongoing funding for state and local first responders. The Sun Important! Nine of these programs are “preparedness” grants, which the DHS says “strengthen our nation’s ability to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies.” 173.

Most of the preparedness grants were either created or expanded after the September 11, 2001, attacks, and they have distributed almost $40 billion to state and Essay local governments since then. 174 The grants are mainly for local governments to why is important, pay for failed such things as vehicles, equipment, planning, conferences, training, and public awareness campaigns. Here is a list of the preparedness grants with the 2014 spending amounts: 175. Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI)—$587 million for urban preparedness against terrorism. State Homeland Security Program (SHSP)—$401 million for preparedness in urban and rural areas. Emergency Management Performance Grants (EMPG)—$350 million for all-hazards emergency management. Important! Operation Stonegarden—$55 million to enhance coordination between government agencies for border security. Tribal Homeland Security—$10 million to tribal governments for security enhancements. Nonprofit Security—$13 million to in 1968, nonprofit groups for why is the sun security enhancements. Port Security—$100 million for seaport security. Transit Security—$90 million for transit system security.

Intercity Passenger Rail—$10 million for Amtrak security. A fundamental problem with such grants is that federal funding of local activities is less efficient than local funding of local activities. In Australia! In part, that is because federal politicians focus on maximizing spending in their states, not on program effectiveness. In a 2012 report on FEMA grants, Senator Tom Coburn of Oklahoma said that Congress is preoccupied with the amount of money spent, not “how the the sun, money is on During spent, or whether it is needed in the first place.” 176. The expansion of the UASI program illustrates the importance of politics.

UASI originally provided funds to the 7 U.S. cities with the highest terrorism risks. But cities that did not receive funds—and their members of Congress—immediately started lobbying for the sun important inclusion, and over time Congress added more cities. 177 In due course, Congress expanded the program to free teens sex, 64 cities, although it has recently been cut back to 37. 178. The political pressure to why is the sun important, spread spending widely is also evident with SHSP funding. It is distributed by Legal Driving the State of Iowa example, a formula that takes disaster risks into account, but that is undermined because a minimum amount must be spent on every state. 179 Wyoming, for example, has just one-fifth of one percent of the U.S. population and a low risk of terrorism, but it receives almost 1 percent of why is the sun important, SHSP funding.

180 Similarly, for the EMPG program, spending does not depend on terrorism risk, and small states receive a disproportionate share. Looking at Legal Driving Age in of Iowa Essay example, the big picture, there are two types of FEMA grant, but neither makes sense. Coburn’s report says that some grants “subsidize expenditures that would otherwise have been made by state and local governments.” 181 His report finds that FEMA aid often pays for such things as office supplies, camera systems, athletic equipment for fire and police departments, and why is important wages for local first responders. Funding such items federally rather than locally just creates unneeded paperwork. Alternately, federal aid can induce local governments to purchase low-value items that they would not otherwise purchase. FEMA money is “free” to local governments, so they tend to squander it.

Coburn’s report provides examples of cities using preparedness grants to who ran in 1968, buy hovercrafts, underwater robots, and other fancy equipment that is little used. Knox County, Ohio—population 54,000—spent a $100,000 FEMA grant on why is the sun a hazardous materials truck. The truck sat unused, and a local official admitted that it had been “a total waste of the State of Iowa example, taxpayer dollars from the federal government on down.” 182. FEMA’s aid has raised civil liberties concerns. Numerous cities have purchased license plate reader systems and video surveillance systems with FEMA grants, for example. 183 And many cities have used FEMA grants to purchase military-style equipment for their police forces, such as militarized vehicles, aerial drones, and sound cannons. 184.

The Wall Street Journal noted that “six-figure grants from the Department of Homeland Security have been funding BearCats and other heavily fortified vehicles in the sun, towns and cities nationwide.” 185 A BearCat is an armored personnel carrier. Essay Formation Of Reputation! Concord, New Hampshire, received a $258,000 FEMA grant to buy a BearCat, and other small cities, such as Fargo, North Dakota, have received similar grants. Why Is The Sun! 186 It makes no sense for Essay the federal government to pay for such controversial items. If the leaders of why is, a town think that they face a major threat and need new security equipment, they should make the case to their own taxpayers for the funding. Aside from the grants listed above, FEMA also provides firefighter assistance grants of Formation of Reputation Negotiation, about $600 million a year.

187 These grants aid local fire departments in paying salaries and why is the sun buying trucks, protective gear, and other items. Having well-funded fire departments is important, but local governments have traditionally paid these costs without federal aid. Indeed, firefighting is the archetypal local service that traces back to at least the free teens sex, Union Fire Company organized by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in why is the sun, 1736. 188 Cities and Legal Age in the State of Iowa Essay example towns have long been proud of their local firefighters, who are either paid employees or volunteers. It is a service that citizens everywhere demand from their local governments, and they are supportive of the local taxes needed to fund it.

So there is no reason for the federal government to intervene in this activity. Currently, local governments in the sun, America spend more than $42 billion annually on firefighting. Art Of Dynasty! 189 FEMA firefighting grants amount to just 1.5 percent of this total, so it is a small share. The problem is that along with federal grants come top-down regulations from Washington. Few people would want federal politicians controlling their local fire departments, but that will be a growing problem if the money keeps flowing. A 2010 news article in San Antonio on why is the sun a FEMA grant illustrates the problem:

The city was poised to spend its own money to build two new fire stations and already had hired a contractor, Bartlett Cocke. Then the Federal Emergency Management Agency awarded the Essay Art of The Wei Dynasty, city $7.3 million from the stimulus program in September 2009 to pay for the stations and speed up response times by firefighters to why is, keep residents safe. Essay On Buddhist Dynasty! But San Antonio hit a bureaucratic snag at FEMA that could delay the project by a year. Meeting the federally mandated environmental standards could increase the project’s cost by $2.2 million. And the city decided to rebid the construction contract to make sure it met FEMA’s requirements, which meant Bartlett Cocke was out of a job. Why Is The Sun Important! In San Antonio, Councilman Reed Williams, whose district includes the site for fire station 51, complained at Thursday’s City Council meeting that the stations are getting more expensive. The council approved a motion to increase the design costs of both stations by nearly $200,000 so the Entangled Fantasy, structures will be certified under standards set by the U.S. Green Building Council. “This thing’s going to the sun important, be a year late, and it’s going to cost us more money,” Williams said. Williams asked how much more the stations were going to cost in the stimulus program, compared to the original costs when the city planned to build the stations without federal assistance. City staffers didn’t have an answer at the ready, but Walsh said in an interview that federal requirements could add an estimated $2.2 million to the price tag.

190. Federal aid programs not only impose costly regulations, they also consume state and local time on free teens sex paperwork. You can see some of the firefighter paperwork at There are three different grants, each with different rules. Local officials must fill out federal grant paperwork explaining why they need the money and how they will spend it. Recipients have to the sun important, fill out regular financial reports, “Investment Justifications,” “Biannual Implementation Reports,” and other reports. The FEMA funding announcement for the firefighter grants is 75 pages long, and a workshop presentation is 94 pages.

FEMA has a “Get Ready Guide,” a “Self Evaluation Sheet,” and a “Vehicle Acquisition Guide” for the firefighter grants. Even after all the paperwork, there is no guarantee that a local government will receive funding. The key is to have a skilled representative on your side. Here is Driving the State of Iowa example a 2013 press release from Rep. Patrick Maloney (D-NY)indicating how the process works: Earlier this year, Rep.

Maloney secured an investment for $2,400,000 to why is the sun important, hire fifteen new firefighters through the Legal Driving Age in the State Essay example, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program— Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER). Although their grant application was initially denied, Rep. Important! Maloney worked closely with the Newburgh Fire Department and DHS personnel to failed, ensure the Department received this SAFER award. 191. The SAFER grant pays for firefighter salaries for a fixed period of time.

After the grant money runs out, the the sun important, town of Newburgh will have to find another funding source to in australia, keep its 15 new firefighters. Why Is The Sun! So the federal aid did not really solve any problem, it simply delayed the town from finding a stable long-term funding source. America would be better off without FEMA grants for firefighters and other local emergency services. Ending FEMA aid would cut paperwork, regulations, and pork barrel politics. Decisionmaking about local emergency services would be more efficient if the services were funded locally.

Americans know that police and firefighter services are vital to their communities—and that is exactly why we do not need federal intervention. Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in 1968 to why starbucks failed, help property owners in important, flood-prone areas purchase government-backed insurance. On! The NFIP provides coverage against flooding from overflowing rivers and from storms on the seacoasts. Flooding is “the most frequent and costly natural hazard in the United States. More than 90 percent of all natural disasters in the nation involve flooding.” 192. The NFIP was supposed to save taxpayers money by alleviating the why is the sun important, need for Congress to pass emergency aid packages after floods. Taxpayers were also not supposed to be burdened by the program itself because insurance premiums were to cover the why starbucks in australia, system’s costs.

Also, the NFIP included floodplain regulations that are imposed on communities adopting the program. The Sun Important! These regulations were supposed to mitigate the harm from floods. None of the promises panned out. Congress continues to pass large disaster aid bills after floods. Free Teens Sex! The NFIP has become hugely indebted, and will probably need a taxpayer bailout as payouts have far exceeded premiums in recent years.

Most importantly, rather than reducing the nation’s flooding problems, the NFIP has likely made flood damage worse by why is the sun important, encouraging more development in hazardous areas. Essay Art Of Dynasty! Since 1970, the estimated number of Americans living in coastal areas designated as Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHAs) by FEMA has increased from why is important, 10 million to more than 16 million. 193 Subsidized flood insurance has backfired by helping to draw more people and development into flood zones. Flood insurance is available to homeowners and businesses in the roughly 20,000 jurisdictions across the nation that have decided to participate in the NFIP. 194 In return for the benefit of subsidized insurance, communities become subject to federal floodplain regulations. People who live in SFHAs and have a federally backed mortgage are required to have flood insurance. However, compliance with this mandate is failed in australia very low. 195. There are currently 5.6 million flood insurance policies in place with a combined insured value of $1.2 trillion.

196 Policies are serviced by private insurance companies, but the the sun, insurance risks fall on federal taxpayers. Failed! 197 Many insurance companies do not participate in the NFIP, apparently because of the political instability that surrounds the why is important, system. 198. FEMA has trouble administering the NFIP. The GAO has had the NFIP on its “high-risk” list of troubled programs for years. One problem is that flood claims are handled by an outdated computer system, and FEMA has had major problems installing a new one called NextGen. The GAO reported in 2010 that “despite having invested roughly $40 million over 7 years, FEMA has yet to implement NextGen … as a result, use of NextGen was halted.” 199. FEMA collects about Essay on Buddhist $3.5 billion in annual NFIP premiums. 200 When the premiums are insufficient to pay claims, FEMA borrows from the U.S. Treasury. In recent years, the program has accumulated more than $24 billion in debt because payouts have far exceeded premiums.

201 Today, the program is in financial crisis and taxpayers will likely bear the burden of its large debt. The NFIP’s financial shortcomings are typical of government-run businesses. Why Is The Sun! Unlike private insurance, the NFIP charges artificially low rates, does not build capital surpluses, and does not purchase reinsurance to cover catastrophic losses. 202 Furthermore, the NFIP cannot reject applicants in free teens sex, order to the sun important, manage the system’s risk, and it is legally constrained in its ability to raise rates. The GAO says that “by design, NFIP is not an actuarially sound program.” 203. About one-fifth of NFIP policyholders pay “subsidized rates,” while the other four-fifths pay “full-risk” rates. 204 But even the why starbucks failed in australia, full-risk rates are below what market rates would be.

A 2011 insurance industry study found that overall NFIP premiums are only half the why is the sun, level needed to cover the system’s full costs, and property owners in high-risk areas pay just one-third of full market rates. 205 These artificially low rates subsidize people to live in high-risk flood areas. One problem is that “FEMA generally lacks information needed to establish full-risk rates.” 206 Rates are based on Flood Insurance Rate Maps, but FEMA’s maps have long been criticized as not being up to date. FEMA maps often do not reflect changes in the landscape caused by factors such as ongoing development and erosion. 207. Another problem with the NFIP is that it undermines federalism. Who Ran Against Nixon! If a jurisdiction is in the NFIP, it must comply with FEMA-approved building standards, land-use controls, and why is other regulations. The NFIP runs essentially a top-down local planning system called the Community Rating System (CRS). Against Nixon In 1968! Under the CRS, communities receive discounts on flood insurance rates based on how many of 19 “creditable activities” or federal mandates they comply with.

208. The Congressional Research Service says that with the NFIP, the federal “government became a de facto regulator of certain economic activity in flood-prone areas.” 209 However, local governments have been hesitant to enforce the tougher zoning rules and building standards because they are eager to the sun, receive the who ran against in 1968, higher tax revenues that stem from new development. The broader policy issue is that the NFIP undermines federalism by extending Washington’s regulatory power into what should be local decisionmaking. The most serious problem with NFIP is that it has encouraged development in hazardous areas. As Duke University coastal geologist Orrin Pilkey puts it, “we are subsidizing, even encouraging, very dangerous development.” 210 Federal flood insurance has incentivized individuals and developers to why is, build in hazardous areas they would otherwise not build in. Local governments have an incentive to against nixon in 1968, approve development in the sun important, hazardous areas because they are eager to increase their property tax bases. As more of the U.S. population has moved to flood-prone areas, more lives and property are put in harm’s way.

211 As development expands in seacoast areas it shrinks wetlands. Wetlands provide habitats for wildlife and Art of Dynasty form a defense against hurricanes along the seacoast. “The financial costs of the NFIP are considerable,” one study observed, “but they are likely dwarfed by the ecological damages that the program encourages.” 212 That is why cutting the the sun important, NFIP is one policy area where environmentalists and Essay on Buddhist Art of The Wei pro-market economists see eye to eye. The NFIP creates “moral hazard,” which is when people take risks that they would not otherwise take because they do not bear the full costs of failure. Government subsidies reduce individual costs and thus induce excessive risk-taking. The Congressional Research Service noted of the NFIP: “the assurance of federal assistance in the event or repeated disaster-related losses may create a ‘moral hazard’ by lowering the incentives to take appropriate steps to mitigate loss.” 213. The moral hazard problem is clear when you consider the why is the sun important, NFIP’s large payouts to property owners who have made multiple claims.

The NFIP cannot charge market rates, must accept all applicants, and is not allowed to why starbucks in australia, cut off properties that suffer repeated damage. Why Is The Sun! 214 Furthermore, unlike with private insurance, FEMA does not increase insurance rates after claims. Not surprisingly then, some property owners repeatedly rebuild in hazardous locations knowing that the government will bail them out after each flood. Repetitive loss properties account for only about 1 percent of all policies, but are responsible for about one-third of all NFIP claims. Who Ran In 1968! 215.

USA Today reviewed FEMA records in the sun important, 2010 and found thousands of homes that had collected multiple insurance payouts that added up to on Formation of Reputation, much more than what the properties were worth. One Mississippi home valued at $69,900 has flooded 34 times since 1978, and the owner has received $663,000 in NFIP payments over the years. 216 Any private insurance company would cancel coverage on individuals like this who are taking high risks, but the NFIP does not. Fox News anchor John Stossel has discussed his personal experience with flood insurance. 217 He built a beach house in a risky location along the ocean on Long Island in 1980. His architect told him that the government would pay for a new one if a disaster struck, so he went ahead. Sure enough, the ocean destroyed his house, and Stossel received the the sun important, government-funded bailout. As Stossel has noted, the NFIP is welfare for the well-to-do. A 2010 study looked at claims data over a 10-year period and Fantasy and Reality Essay concluded that “the benefits of the NFIP appear to why is the sun, accrue largely to wealthy households concentrated in a few highly-exposed states.” 218 One reason is nixon that many properties along U.S. seacoasts are vacation residences for well-heeled individuals. The NFIP is not the important, only federal program encouraging Americans to live in flood-prone areas.

Since the 19th century, the against, Army Corps of Engineers has built levees, flood walls, and other flood protection structures. These projects are supposed to create an why is the sun important, engineering solution to flooding. Fantasy And Reality! But, to an extent, the why is, huge investment in these projects has backfired because they have encouraged more Americans to live in flood-prone areas, believing that they are protected. The increase in perceived safety created by the Corps’ projects has also created a disincentive for Essay on Negotiation individuals to important, buy flood insurance and thus undermined the development of why starbucks failed in australia, a private flood insurance market. 219. Rutherford Platt observed that “structural flood control and shore protection projects often induce a false sense of the sun important, security leading to new investment in the area thought to be protected by the project.” 220 The result is that areas ostensibly protected by flood control projects “experienced greater losses when floods exceeded the free teens sex, design capacity of dams, levees, and why is important sea walls than would have occurred without the projects.” 221. These days, there are many federal agencies involved variously in subsidizing and regulating flood-prone areas, and and Reality the interventions often work at why is important, cross purposes. 222 The Army Corps of Engineers builds flood-control structures and subsidizes seacoast beach replenishment.

Those activities encourage more seaside development. A FEMA study after Hurricane Frederic in 1979 on the Gulf Coast found that “the federal government had originally encouraged development on such coastal barriers through flood insurance, sewer and water grants, beach nourishment, and other development incentives.” 223. In the 1990s, Topsail Island, North Carolina, was repeatedly hit by free teens sex, hurricanes, and each time FEMA came in to rebuild infrastructure, which encouraged more development. 224 And then there is New Orleans, where for decades massive flood control infrastructure built by the Corps encouraged development in dangerous, low-lying areas around the important, city. That greatly magnified the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. In his book, Platt discusses the tension between some government agencies subsidizing people to live in risky places and other agencies imposing regulations to prevent people living in Driving Age in Essay example, those places. He looks at Fire Island along the coast of important, Long Island, New York, which is vulnerable to Essay The Wei Dynasty, hurricanes. Important! Local activist groups “have each lobbied intensely to win government benefits for who ran nixon Fire Island while opposing any limits on the freedom of why is, private owners to build or rebuild along the oceanfront.” 225. People want to live on Legal Age in the State example this dangerous island, but they also want subsidized beach nourishment projects, flood insurance, and disaster aid. Platt concludes that the current patchwork of regulations and subsidies from why is important, federal programs has “proved futile in on Negotiation, achieving a safe and sensible balance of human presence and nature.” 226 But part of the solution is why is straightforward: governments should repeal programs that subsidize development in hazardous places.

People who choose to live in flood-prone areas should purchase insurance from private insurance carriers, which would charge premiums based on the actual risk. If companies will not offer flood coverage, that is a market signal that it is not a safe place to live. It is not a “market failure” if private flood insurance is not available for Legal Driving Age in the State of Iowa Essay dangerous locations, as some commentators have suggested. 227. Before the creation of the NFIP in 1968, little private flood insurance existed. Why Is The Sun Important! There were marketplace reasons for that, but government interventions also created a hurdle for private flood insurance.

228 Today, however, numerous experts think that flood insurance could be privatized. For one thing, private insurers today have more sophisticated computer models than in failed in australia, the past, and why is the sun much more is known about flood risks on a detailed basis throughout the who ran against nixon, nation. Why Is Important! There is currently a very small but growing market for Essay Formation of Reputation During Negotiation private flood insurance. 229. Federal and the sun important state governments can encourage the development of private flood insurance by getting out of the Essay During, way. Cutting disaster aid would increase individual and business demand for insurance.

Eliminating federal and state regulations that interfere with insurance pricing would increase the supply of insurance, as would reforming income taxes, which are biased against why is insurance companies holding capital to cover large but infrequent losses. 230 GAO has discussed steps toward partial privatization of free teens sex, flood insurance. 231 And a report by Deloitte noted that “flood insurance theoretically presents a tremendous growth opportunity for private carriers,” but only if reforms are made to federal policies. The Sun Important! 232. Congress enacted modest NFIP reforms in 2012, but then took steps backward in 2014. Under the 2012 Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act, FEMA was to who ran, gradually increase premiums to the sun, better reflect actual risk for more of NFIP’s policyholders. 233 Then in response to complaints about premium increases from constituents, Congress in 2014 passed changes to cap premium increases and to reverse other reforms.

234. Congress should revisit this issue. The NFIP should be phased out as barriers to private insurance are repealed. Free Teens Sex! Rep. Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) calls the the sun, NFIP “ineffective, inefficient and indisputably costly to hardworking American taxpayers.” 235 He says that he is considering “legislation to transition to a private, innovative, competitive, sustainable flood insurance market. 236. Rep. Candice Miller (R-MI) has introduced legislation to end the why starbucks failed in australia, NFIP.

237 She summarizes some of the reasons for repeal: It is ridiculous that the federal government remains in the flood insurance business. With no end in sight for the NFIP in racking up new debt, continuing subsidized rates for those who live in flood prone areas, skyrocketing rates for many who live in areas that never flood and the sun important 40 years of free teens sex, history showing clearly that the federal government is a very bad insurance company; it is time to take decisive action to the sun important, wind down the NFIP instead of offering up more bailouts… . I believe in the 10th Amendment and our nation must stop centralizing power in Washington on a wide variety of issues… . It is time to stop looking to Washington for one size fits all solutions and allow states to provide real and affordable solutions to residents who require flood insurance protection. In Australia! It is time to remove the federal government from the flood insurance business, end the unfair debt liability being placed upon all taxpayers by this unsound federal program, stop the practice of forcing unjustly high rates on why is the sun those living in areas under little risk of flooding, stop the politically motivated subsidizing of people who live in highly flood prone areas and restore power to nixon, the states. 238. One of the why is the sun important, rules that every doctor learns is “first, do no harm.” That rule should be applied to policymaking on Essay of Reputation natural disasters.

This essay focuses mainly on floods and hurricanes, which are the why is, nation’s most costly and prevalent natural disasters. The number of Americans living in risky locations on floodplains and seacoasts has grown in recent decades, and who ran against nixon in 1968 numerous federal policies have encouraged that trend. 239. Those policies should be repealed, starting with subsidized flood insurance. Why Is Important! The NFIP has fallen deep into debt, and why starbucks the program amounts to welfare for the well-to-do. Congress created the NFIP in 1968 partly in why is the sun, the belief that private sector could not provide flood coverage. Today, however, the insurance industry is more sophisticated and in a better to position to provide private coverage. Essay Formation Of Reputation Negotiation! Congress should phase out the NFIP in combination with regulatory and why is important tax reforms encouraging private participation in the flood insurance market. Congress should repeal Army Corps spending—such as beach replenishment and new flood control structures—that encourages development of flood-prone areas.

240 Army Corps spending is supposed to protect communities, but as we have seen in New Orleans and elsewhere, the agency’s projects can encourage development in dangerous, low-lying areas. 241 The Corps’ infrastructure has also depleted coastal wetlands, which are a natural defense against hurricanes. “First, do no harm” also applies to growing federal intervention in disaster preparedness, response, and relief. That intervention will backfire if it reduces the efforts of state and local governments and against in 1968 the private sector. If federal efforts continue to expand, “the result will be the why is important, displacement of the very things that make the system work most of the who ran against, time—state, local, and private sector preparedness and initiative.” 242. Unfortunately, the federal urge to spend has triumphed in recent years.

Most of the the sun, huge $60 billion Sandy aid package passed in 2013, for example, was for long-term infrastructure projects, not for short-term emergency relief. On Buddhist Dynasty! 243 There is no reason why state and local governments could not issue bonds and build rainy day funds to finance disaster response and rebuilding. Indeed, an advantage in ending federal aid would be to create a strong incentive for why is important states to prepare in advance for why starbucks failed in australia disasters, both by putting resources aside and by pursuing mitigation projects to reduce the the sun important, harm of Legal Age in the State of Iowa example, disasters. State and local governments and why is the sun important the private sector are in a much better position to handle most disaster response. Federal bureaucracies are typically poor at trying to centrally manage large and complex problems. FEMA is no exception: it is slow, risk averse, subservient to Essay, politics, and it does not have the local knowledge needed to the sun, effectively handle many disasters. First responders and Driving the State of Iowa Essay their assets are mainly owned and managed locally, and so a bottom-up structure makes sense. As noted, FEMA intervention can slow state and local relief and rebuilding after disasters because of all the extra paperwork required on each project. By reducing the federal role, we would reduce ambiguity in the system.

As we saw with Katrina, decisionmaking was hampered by the uncertainly over why is the sun bureaucratic rules and responsibilities. And Reality! Our disaster relief system has become “too complex for the sun important its own good.” 244 The federal government has made it that way. When you read FEMA and DHS reports, it is striking the Essay on Formation Negotiation, huge number of goals, plans, strategies, frameworks, agencies, systems, directives, offices, and other structures that are supposed to why is the sun important, come together during disasters. A better approach than such top-down planning would be to greatly cut the federal role and against nixon let state, local, and the sun private institutions perform their specialized functions and coordinate among themselves. The disaster response systems in Canada and Australia are more decentralized than ours. 245 The federal emergency management agencies in why starbucks in australia, those countries do not have operational roles. They do provide disaster aid to lower governments, but the thresholds for aid are more objective than in why is the sun, the United States. Miskel argues that a similar more decentralized approach in the United States would “give a stronger incentive for states to take emergency preparedness seriously because that helps reduce costs and to manage their disaster relief expenditures carefully.” 246. One encouraging U.S. development is the expansion of horizontal relationships between the states in disaster response.

All the why starbucks, state governments have joined the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC), which was created in 1996. The Sun Important! 247 EMAC expedites the legal process of states aiding other states with manpower and resources during a disaster. During Hurricane Katrina, for who ran nixon in 1968 example, Florida provided stockpiled commodities to Mississippi under EMAC procedures. 248. Over the past two decades, there has also been an expansion in mutual aid agreements between local governments to share police and fire assets during emergencies. 249 And, as discussed, private electric utilities across the country routinely aid each other with crews and equipment to important, speed repairs after storms. Such horizontal relationships make more sense than officials trying to vertically plan everything from Washington. On Buddhist The Wei Dynasty! Miskel argues, “the very last thing that the federal government should do is crowd initiative at nonfederal levels out of the why is the sun, system in free teens sex, the name of improving the federal response to catastrophic disasters.” 250. There are other ideas to help improve state disaster response. One is to reform Good Samaritan laws to ensure that emergency workers do not stay away from disasters in other states for fear of civil liability.

251 Another is to expand State Defense Forces (SDFs). 252 Currently, 22 states have SDFs, which are voluntary, part-time militaries under state command. The Sun Important! SDFs often consist of retired military service members and professionals such as doctors and engineers, who have disaster-relevant skills. During the Sandy recovery, SDFs from free teens sex, New York, Maryland, and other states played important roles. FEMA disaster aid to individuals and state and local governments should be eliminated. FEMA aid has often been wasteful, and the federal government has no unique skill in providing aid. Ending federal aid would have the positive effect of increasing the demand for why is the sun private insurance and in stimulating greater state, local, and private disaster preparation. Also, removing FEMA intervention would prevent the damaging situation that occurred during Katrina of FEMA repeatedly blocking private aid efforts. Since the 19th century, private donations have poured into American cities hit by disasters.

In recent decades, charitable groups such as the Red Cross and Salvation Army have channeled donations to victims. Historically, businesses have also played a large role in Between, relief, such as after the San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 and the Dayton Flood of 1913. More recently, the efforts of Walmart and other companies after hurricanes show that businesses are ready to use their logistical skills to why is important, aid communities when calamities strike. If private donations are not sufficient for the largest of disasters, state governments using their own funds are likely to provide more efficient disaster aid than the federal government. Besides, all federal aid ultimately comes from the failed in australia, taxpayers who live in the 50 states.

So it makes more sense for the states to raise their own funding and to plan ahead for the financial demands of future emergencies and disasters. In sum, FEMA funding for disaster aid to states and individuals should be ended and flood insurance privatized. Those activities represent more than 90 percent of FEMA’s current budget. Some of the remaining activities include flood mapping, continuity of operations, the public alert system, training programs, and technological and radiological hazards preparedness. Those activities should be moved to other agencies, and FEMA closed down. Outside of FEMA, numerous federal agencies would continue to play crucial roles in disaster response. Those include the Coast Guard, the active duty military, the agencies that prepare for the sun pandemics and other health threats, and the agencies that handle such threats as terrorism, cyber attacks, and biological and chemical agents. The problem with federal disaster activities is a common one: the government tries to and Reality, do too much, and it ends up doing little well. Important! In government, less is nearly always more. The federal government should be tasked with only those roles for Essay Art of Dynasty which it can provide added value not provided by state and local governments or the private sector. But FEMA’s large and why is important growing budget consists mainly of counterproductive and inefficient aid programs that should be eliminated.

1 Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2015, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), Table 4.1. Free Teens Sex! Updated to the final 2014 figure. 2 Calculated from the why is important, Office of Management and Budget’s “Public Budget Database,” 3 Robert T. Essay On Buddhist The Wei Dynasty! Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, P.L. 93-288. For a discussion, see Francis X. McCarthy, “FEMA’s Disaster Declaration Process: A Primer,” Congressional Research Service, May 18, 2011. 4 James F. Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008), chap. 3.

5 Henry Hogue and Keith Bea, “Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and why is the sun important Legislative Options,” Congressional Research Service, June 1, 2006, pp. 4–5. 6 Rutherford H. Platt, Disasters and Entangled Essay Democracy (Washington: Island Press, 1999), p. The Sun Important! 1. Platt is citing research by free teens sex, Peter May. 8 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” November 2010, p. 3, 9 Janet Sharp Hermann, “Disaster Relief Then and Now,” The Freeman , May 1, 2000. 11 Patrick S. Roberts, Disasters and the American State: How Politicians, Bureaucrats, and the Public Prepare for the Unexpected (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp. 24–25. And see Judy G. Russell, “A Matter of Debate,”August 20, 2012, 12 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 3,

14 Emily C. Sharbek, “The Chicago Fire of 1871: A Bottom-Up Approach to Disaster Relief,” Public Choice 160 (2014): 155–80. 16 For a discussion, see Miskel, p. 49. 17 Jennifer K. Elsea and why is the sun R. Chuck Mason, “The Use of Federal Troops for Disaster Assistance: Legal Issues,” Congressional Research Service, November 28, 2008. 18 Quoted in Robert Higgs, “Why Grover Cleveland Vetoed the Texas Seed Bill,” Independent Institute, July 1, 2003. 19 Christoph Strupp, “Dealing with Disaster: The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906,” German Historical Institute, (Washington), March 22, 2006, p. 8. 20 Morgan O’Rourke, “The Big Shake Up: Revisiting the Great San Francisco Earthquake,” Risk Management , April 2006. 21 Douglas Coate, “Disaster and Recovery: The Public and Private Sectors in free teens sex, the Aftermath of the 1906 Earthquake in San Francisco,” Working Paper, Rutgers University, July 2010. 23 Margaret Gurowitz, “The Origins of Our Disaster Relief: The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906,” Kilmer House, Johnson and Johnson, August 20, 2008. 24 O’Rourke. Why Is Important! Generally, the policies covered fire, not earthquakes. 26 Dalit Baranoff, “Fire Insurance in the United States,”, March 16, 2008.

27 The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco, “The Great 1906 Earthquake and Fire,” 33 Edward Epstein, “The Great Quake: 1906-2006,” San Francisco Chronicle , April 18, 2006. 35 The actions of Gen. Frederick Funston were controversial for numerous reasons. First, he acted without checking with his superiors in and Reality Essay, Washington. The Sun! Second, he acted to send regular troops into failed, the city for policing purposes. The Sun Important! Third, his command of the free teens sex, city was very aggressive, and apparently led to the deaths of numerous people. 36 Christopher Klein, “The Superstorm That Flooded America 100 Years Ago,”, March 25, 2013. 37 Trudy E. Bell, “Aid and Ambivalence,” 2009,

Bell is a former editor of Scientific American and her website is devoted to the 1913 disaster. 38 Trudy E. Important! Bell, “Our National Calamity: The Great Easter 1913 Flood,” December 9, 2012, 42 Trudy E. Bell, “Aid and Ambivalence.” 43 Miskel, pp. Legal Driving The State Essay! 8, 9, 41,and 45. 44 Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers,” Cato Institute, March 2012, 45 Arthur E. Morgan, Dams and Other Disasters: A Century of the the sun important, Army Corps of Engineers in Civil Works (Boston: Porter Sargent, 1971), p. 233.

46 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 5. 48 Jim Sam, “Herbert Hoover and the Great Mississippi Flood,” Behind the Scenes blog, Hoover Institution, May 19, 2011. 49 Platt, pp. 12–18. 51 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 6. 53 The law’s full title is the who ran in 1968, Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of 1988, P.L. 93-288.

See Bruce R. Why Is Important! Lindsay and Justin Murray, “Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations,” Congressional Research Service, April 2011 , p. 4. And see Francis X. McCarthy and Between Fantasy Jared T. Brown, “Congressional Primer on Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies,” Congressional Research Service, May 2013. 54 Robert T. Why Is Important! Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of 1988, P.L. 93-288. For a discussion, see McCarthy. 55 This figure is for free teens sex 2004–2011. See Government Accountability Office (GAO), “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to the sun important, Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012.

56 Calculated from the Office of Management and Budget’s “Public Budget Database,” 57 These figures are for Essay on Formation of Reputation During Negotiation DRF spending 2004–2011. See GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. 19. 58 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance,”: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. Why Is The Sun! 34. 61 Matt Mayer, “New York Times: A Big Storm Requires a Big Government,” Heritage Foundation, October 30, 2012. 62 Matt Mayer, “States: Stop Subsidizing FEMA Waste and Manage Your Own Local Disasters,” Heritage Foundation, September 29, 2009, p. 7. 63 President George W. Bush, “The Department of Homeland Security,” June 2002,, pp. 1, 7, 16. 64 Budget of the U.S.

Government, Fiscal Year 2014, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2013), Table 4.1. 65 Jerry Markon, “DHS Headquarters Funding in Jeopardy,” Washington Post , July 4, 2014. 66 Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers.” And see Thomas Birkland and Sarah Waterman, “Is Federalism the Reason for Policy Failure in Hurricane Katrina?” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 38, no. Why Starbucks! 4 (2008): 692–714. 67 Daniel Hoople, “The Budgetary Impact of the Federal Government’s Response to Disasters,” Congressional Budget Office, September 23, 2013. 68 FEMA’s Sandy response is why is discussed in Steven P. Bucci, et al., “After Hurricane Sandy: Time to Essay Formation Negotiation, Learn and why is the sun Implement the Lessons in free teens sex, Preparedness, Response, and Resilience,” Heritage Foundation, October 24, 2013. 69 Ibid., p. 10.

About $10 billion of the why is the sun important, spending was for the NFIP. 70 James W. Fossett, “Let’s Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery,” Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, July 2013. 71 McCarthy and Brown, p. 5. 72 Bureau of the Census, Government Employment and Payroll, 73 Quoted in Bucci, et al., p. On Of Reputation! 6. 75 House of Representatives, Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Katrina, “A Failure of why is, Initiative,” February 15, 2006, p. Essay Formation Of Reputation During Negotiation! 13.

78 FEMA keeps a count at The Sun Important! I am including “major disasters,” “emergencies,” and free teens sex “fire management assistance declarations.” 79 Thomas A. Garrett and Russell S. Sobel, “The Political Economy of FEMA Disaster Payments,” Economic Inquiry 41, no. 3 (July 2003): 496–509. See also Russell S. Why Is! Sobel and Peter T. Leeson, “Flirting with Disaster: The Inherent Problems with FEMA,” Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 573, July 19, 2006, pp.

8–9. Who Ran Against Nixon! And see Gene Healy, “Obama’s Disaster-Prone Presidency,” Washington Examiner , July 2, 2012. 80 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to important, Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and why starbucks failed in australia Recover on Its Own,” p. 22. 83 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to the sun important, Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” p. 49. 84 Matt Mayer, “States,” p. 9. 85 James W. Fossett, “A Tale of free teens sex, Two Hurricanes: What Does Katrina Tell Us About Sandy?” Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of why is important, Government, January 2013. 86 James W. In Australia! Fossett, “Let’s Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery.” . 87 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” pp. 16, 20. 89 Bucci, et al., p. Why Is! 3. 90 Matt Mayer, “States,” p. 7.

91 These issues are discussed in McCarthy. 92 Quoted in Miskel, p. Driving Age In The State! 127. 93 Quoted in Platt, p. 58. 94 Quoted in why is the sun, Platt, p. 89. 96 Jeb Bush, “Think Locally on Between Fantasy and Reality Essay Relief,” op-ed, Washington Post , September 30, 2005.

97 Quoted in House of Representatives, , p. 322. 98 Matt Mayer, “Five Lessons from Hurricane Sandy,” November 29, 2012, p. 1. 99 Quoted in ibid., p. The Sun! 1. 101 Miskel, p. 15. 102 Brad Plumer, “Is Sandy the Essay on, Second-Most Destructive U.S. Hurricane Ever,” Washington Post , November 5, 2012. 104 GAO, “Disaster Management: Improving the Nation’s Response to Catastrophic Disasters,” GAO/RCED-93-186, July 1993, p. 3.

105 Miskel, p. 81. 107 This was a report by why is important, the National Academy of Public Administration, which is discussed in Miskel, p. Between! 87. 108 Quoted in Miskel, p. 85. 109 Miskel, pp. 41, 83–85. 112 House of Representatives, p. 1. 114 Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, “Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared,” March 1, 2006, chap. 14. 115 Miskel, p. 15.

116 House of Representatives, pp. 1, 11. 120 Miskel, p. 136. 123 Scott Shane, “Stumbling Storm-Aid Effort Put Tons of Ice on Trips to Nowhere,” New York Times , October 2, 2005. 124 John Cochran, “85M Pounds of Ice Growing Down the Drain,, July 15, 2007. And see Rep.

Bennie G. Thompson and the sun important Democratic Staff of the House Committee on Homeland Security, “One Year Later: Katrina’s Waste,” August 28, 2006, p. 14. 125 Abbie Boudreau and Scott Zamost, “FEMA Gives Away $85 Million of Supplies for Katrina Victims,”, June 12, 2008. 126 Rep. Bennie G. Entangled! Thompson and why is important Democratic Staff of the House Committee on Homeland Security, p. Legal Driving Example! 3. 127 House of Representatives, pp.

300–302. 128 House of Representatives, p. 299. 129 GAO, “Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Disaster Relief,” GAO-06-844T, June 114, 2006. And see Brad Heath, “Katrina Fraud Swamps System,” USA Today , July 6, 2007. 130 Associated Press, “Abuse Could Push Katrina Costs to why is, $2 Billion,” December 25, 2006. 131 Frank Bass and Age in the State of Iowa Essay example Eileen Sullivan, “Scammers Scooped Up $500M in Katrina Aid,” Associated Press, December 4, 2007. 132 Eric Lipton, “Breathtaking Waste and Fraud in why is important, Hurricane Aid,” New York Times , June 27, 2006. 133 House of Representatives, p. 286. 136 Sobel and Leeson. 137 House Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina, Rep.

Jefferson questioning of Michael Brown, September 27, 2005. 138 Ann Rodgers, “Homeland Security Won’t Let Red Cross Deliver Food,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette , September 3, 2005. 139 Scott Shane, “After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game,” New York Times , September 5, 2005. 140 Elizabeth Williamson, “Offers of Aid Immediate, but U.S. Approval Delayed for Days,” Washington Post , September 7, 2005. 141 Scott Shane, “After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game.” 142 Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), p. 6.

144 Associated Press, “Agency ‘Beyond Repair’ and Must Be Replaced, Republican Chairwomen Says,” April 27, 2006. 145 Platt, p. 277. 146 Platt, p. 277. 147 Chris Edwards, “Department of Homeland Bureaucracy,” Cato Institute, June 12, 2014. 148 Miskel, p. Free Teens Sex! 83. 150 Gregory J. Sanial, “The Response to Hurricane Katrina: A Study of the Coast Guard’s Culture, Organizational Design and Leadership in Crisis,” masters degree thesis, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2007. 151 Steven Horwitz, “Making Hurricane Response More Effective,” Mercatus Center, George Mason University, March 2008.

152 Sanial, p. 26. 154 Ibid., pp. 71, 70. 155 Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, p. 10. See also James F. Miskel, Disaster Response and why is the sun Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), pp. Legal Driving Example! 40, 96, 97. 156 House of Representatives, p. 343. 157 Ibid., pp.

312, 344. 158 Miskel, p. 25. 159 House of why is the sun important, Representatives, p. 328. 161 Michael Barbaro and Justin Gillis, “Wal-Mart at the Forefront of Hurricane Relief,” Washington Post , September 6, 2005, p. D1. 163 House of Representatives, pp. xi, 2. 164 Bucci, et al., 166 Quoted in Driving of Iowa, ibid., p. 4. 167 Partnership for Public Service, “The Best Places to Work in the Federal Government,” 2013, 168 Department of Homeland Security, Office of Inspector General, “FEMA’s Logistics Supply Chain Management System May Not Be Effective During a Catastrophic Disaster,” September 2014, p. 5.

171 Meghan Barr, “AP-NORC Poll: Friends, Kin Key to Sandy Survival,” Associated Press, June 24, 2013. 173 Department of Homeland Security, “DHS Announces Grant Allocation for Fiscal 2013 Preparedness Grants,” press release, August 23, 2013. 175 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin,” no. 393, March 10, 2014. And see Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin,” no.

394, March 18, 2014. 176 Office of Senator Tom Coburn, “Safety at Any Price: Assessing the Impact of Homeland Security Spending in U.S. Why Is The Sun Important! Cities,” December 2012, p. 5. 177 Ibid., pp. 14, 15, 19, 20, 21.

178 Department of Homeland Security, “Funding Opportunity Announcement: Homeland Security Grant Program,” DHS-14-GPD-067-000-01, 2014. 179 Matt A. Mayer, Homeland Security and Federalism: Protecting America from Outside the Beltway (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Security International, 2009), p. 64. 180 Department of Homeland Security, “Funding Opportunity Announcement,” Appendix A. 181 Coburn, p. 23. 182 Melissa Raines, “Hazmat Trailer, Truck to and Reality Essay, Be Sold,” Mount Vernon News , Au­gust 26, 2008. 183 Coburn, p. 26. 184 The Department of Defense has also been giving excess military equipment to local police forces. See Matt Apuzzo, “Officer Friendly, In a Tank? War Gear Flows to the sun, Local Police,” New York Times , June 9, 2014. 185 Jennifer Levitz, “Towns Say No Tanks to Militarized Police,” Wall Street Journal , February 7, 2014. 186 Coburn, pp.

4, 36–41. 187 Budget of the U.S. Government, FY2015, Appendix (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), p. 548. For general information, see 188, “ Citizen Ben : Firefighter,” 2002, 189 Bureau of the Census, State and Local Government Finances, Table 1,

The 2011 total is $42 billion. 190 Sandra Santos, “Red Tape Delays Some Stimulus Projects,”, June 29, 2010. 191 Office of Representative Sean Patrick Maloney, “Maloney Joins New Newburgh Firefighters at Live Burn,” press release, December 20, 2013. 192 FEMA, Congressional Budget Justification, FY2013, Flood Hazard Mapping and Risk Analysis, 193 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, “NOAA’s State of the Coast,” 2012, 194 GAO, “Flood Insurance: More Information Needed on Subsidized Properties,” GAO-13-607, July 2013, p. 4. 195 Rawle O. King, “The National Flood Insurance Program: Status and Remaining Issues for Congress,” Congressional Research Service, February 6, 2013, p. Age In The State Example! 3. 197 GAO, “Flood Insurance: Opportunities Exist to Improve Oversight of the WYO Program,” GA0-09-455, August 2009, p. 1.

198 Annmarie Geddes Baribeau, “The National Flood Insurance Program Is Under Water: Can the Private Sector Help?” Contingencies , July/August 2013, p. 30. 199 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. The Sun! 12. 200 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Attention Needed to Address Challenges,” GAO-13-858T, September 18, 2013, p. 1. 202 For some of the Formation of Reputation, differences between NFIP and private insurance, see Property Casualty Insurers Association of America, “True Market-Risk Rates for Flood Insurance,” June 2011. And see American Academy of why is the sun important, Actuaries, “The National Flood Insurance Program: Past, Present, and Future?” July 2011. 203 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 5. 205 Property Casualty Insurers Association of America, p. 4. 206 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continue Attention Needed to Address Challenges,” p. 9.

207 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 7. 210 Quoted in The Week , “After Hurricane Sandy: Is Flood Insurance Bad for Taxpayers?” editorial,, December 8, 2012. 211 National Oceanic and on of Reputation During Negotiation Atmospheric Administration. 212 J. Scott Holladay, “Flooding the Market,” Institute for Policy Integrity, New York University School of why is important, Law, April 2010, p. Essay On Buddhist Dynasty! 3. 214 Property Casualty Insurers Association of America. 215 King, p. The Sun! 20. And see GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 8. Repetitive loss properties are those with two or more claims payments of $1,000 or more over 10 years. 216 Thomas Frank, “Huge Losses Put the failed in australia, Federal Flood Insurance Plan in the Red,” USA Today , August 26, 2010. 217 John Stossel, “Taxpayers Get Soaked by why is the sun, Government’s Flood Insurance,”, September 20, 2009. 218 Holladay, p. Driving Essay Example! 6.

219 Eli Lehrer, “Watery Marauders,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, August 2007, p. 8. 221 Ibid., p. The Sun! xvii. 224 James Bovard, “Uncle Sam’s Flood Machine,” The Freeman , January 1, 2006. 225 Platt, pp. 194, 199. 227 Some commentators have suggested that the market failure of “adverse selection” is a barrier to private flood insurance.

But adverse selection is Legal Driving the State Essay based on the idea that insurance buyers have hidden information not available to insurance companies. Why Is The Sun! That is of Reputation not the case with flood insurance because flood risks are public knowledge. 229 Andrew G. Simpson, “Private Flood Insurance Agency Now Selling in 15 States,”, February 10, 2014. 230 Scott E. Harrington, “Rethinking Disaster Policy,” Cato Institute, Regulation 23, no 1. And see Scott E. Harrington and Tom Miller, “Insurance Regulation and Government Insurance,” Cato Handbook for Congress, 108th Congress . 231 GAO, “Flood Insurance: Strategies for Increasing Private Sector Involvement,” GAO-14-127, January 22, 2014. 232 Deloitte Center for Financial Services, “The Potential for why is important Flood Insurance Privatization in free teens sex, the U.S.,” 2014, p. 3. 233 For a discussion, see King. 234 Nedra Pickler, “President Obama Signs Flood Insurance Relief Bill,”, March 24, 2014. Why Is Important! The 2014 law was the Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act. 235 Mark A. Hofmann, “Congress to in australia, Consider Privatizing the NFIP,”, January 27, 2013. 237 Office of Rep.

Candice S. Miller, “Rep. Miller: Eliminate the National Flood Insurance Program,” press release, April 8, 2013. 239 For data on the seacoasts, see National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This is the population in Special Flood Hazard Areas. 240 I’ve argued that most of the functions of the Corps should be privatized. See Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers.”

241 Ibid. And see Michael Grunwald, “The Threatening Storm,” Time , August 2, 2007, and Michael Grunwald, “Setting the why is the sun important, Stage for More Katrinas,” Time , August 2, 2007.

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