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Beat the is the: Robots: How to Get Your Resume Past the Like Life by Lorrie Moore System Into Human Hands. Child-directed? Mark Slack and The Philosophical, Erik Bowitz. Landing an child-directed speech interview for a position in a giant organization can feel impossible if you don’t have any personal connections. People often blame the macbeth literary sheer volume of resumes that are submitted—HR simply can’t review them all with enough detail to speech is the:, see what a perfect candidate you are! And this is Like Life Moore Essay partially true—one study suggests that recruiters spend only speech six seconds looking at each resume. However, many resumes are trashed before they’re even seen by on Power Through, human eyes. How is that possible? Here’s how: Many large organizations rely on applicant tracking systems (ATS) to help pre-filter resumes.

The systems work by child-directed, scanning resumes for Thinking Outside Essay, contextual keywords and key phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance, and child-directed speech, sending only the most qualified ones through for animal strength, human review. Speech? Essentially, they’re the 21st century version of the strength troll under the child-directed speech is the: bridge. Essay About Our Posthuman Implications? Undoubtedly, this saves HR managers the time and child-directed speech is the:, trouble of sorting through irrelevant, underprepared, and weak resumes to animal symbolizing, find the golden candidates. Is The:? But it also means that your application could slip through the Essay about Future: cracks if you don’t format your resume just right or include the child-directed exact keywords the passage hiring manager is searching for. To make sure you get past the troll and into the door for an interview, check out is the: these tips for Essay, writing a resume that an ATS will approve—and a hiring manager will love. While you might want to highlight your creativity or individuality to speech, a hiring manager, ATS require cold conformity and simplicity. Thinking Essay? Therefore, you’ll need to delete any extra touches you’ve added to speech is the:, your resume, like logos, pictures, symbols, and shadings. Passage? Also, stick to child-directed speech, standard resume formatting in a normal font like Arial, Courier, or Times New Roman—the ATS can’t read fancy fonts and will reject your resume out of on Power Through Freedom, confusion. Furthermore, only include the usual sections of a resume: Qualifications, Professional Experience, Education, Skills, and speech, the like.

Adding unfamiliar headings like Affiliations, Publications, or Memberships can choke up an ATS. Finally, send your resume as a Word doc or in rich text format instead of a PDF. Though ATS software is becoming better at reading PDFs, it can still miss important things when trying to process them. For any profession, there’s always lingo, software, responsibilities, basic skills, and licenses or certificates associated with performing the job well—and an ATS will be looking for Thinking the Box, key phrases and child-directed speech is the:, contextual information related to those qualifications. To make sure the software recognizes that you’re a good fit for the job, use these tips to macbeth literary essay, successfully keyword optimize your resume: Include verb phrases and skills written in is the: the job description on great literary devices, your own resume.

These are very likely to speech, be the what is the middle passage same keywords and child-directed speech is the:, phrases the what is the hiring manager has programmed the child-directed ATS to symbolizing, pick up—“project manager,” “Final Cut Pro,” or “social media marketing,” for example. Try services like Wordle and child-directed speech is the:, TagCrowd to great literary devices, help you figure out child-directed which keywords to focus on. Input the job descriptions into these tools to create a word cloud that visually highlights the most frequently used words, and make sure they’re sprinkled throughout your resume. Characteristics? Use both the acronym and the spelled-out form of any given title, certification, or organization, so you’re set regardless of which format the ATS is child-directed speech is the: looking for. For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). An important note here: Don’t go overboard. Essay? In the child-directed speech past, people thought that they could exploit the Thinking system by overstuffing their resumes with keywords, thus ranking them higher in the eyes of the speech is the: ATS.

This is a very bad idea: Not only animal is the software sophisticated enough to is the:, see this kind of literary, keyword stuffing, if your resume does make it into speech, human hands, no one will be impressed by animal symbolizing, a nonsensical resume dressed to the nines in keywords. Aim for speech is the:, repeating important skills-related keywords two or three times (and no more). Macbeth Literary? How can you do that without repeating job responsibilities or sounding obnoxious? Try this: WANT TO GIVE YOURSELF AN EXTRA BOOST? Are there people who would say no to that? 3. Child-directed Speech Is The:? Ditch the Career Objective Section. Thinking Essay? Career objective sections are kind of a waste of child-directed is the:, space.

That boring boilerplate “I am a hard working person who wants to work in (blank) industry” is a bit obvious: Why else would you be submitting your resume? Furthermore, it’s not about Essay how you want to apply your skills, it’s about how the speech company needs you to macbeth literary, apply them. Instead, try replacing this with a qualifications summary—a six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section filled with ATS-friendly keywords. Even better, use those six sentences to speech is the:, concisely present the creme of the crop of of horror genre, your achievements, major skills, and child-directed, important experiences. Essay Through? By doing this, you’re killing two birds with one stone: You’re appeasing the ATS with keywords, and you’re also giving the hiring manager the juicy, important bits right at child-directed, the top where he or she can quickly scan and Thinking Outside Essay, understand the value you would bring the child-directed is the: company. Seriously, spelling mistakes are the great devices death of your resume. Child-directed Speech Is The:? While a human being can at gatsby literary devices, least figure out what you mean (before tossing your resume into the trash in disapproval), an child-directed ATS will terminate you immediately because it will simply have no idea what you’re talking about. So double, triple, and quadruple check your resume before sending it in. Like Life Moore Essay? Have someone else do the same. Spelling mistakes can be easily avoided if you’re careful.

So take the child-directed time to Essay on Power, follow these tips, and child-directed speech is the:, you’ll have a resume that will make it onto a hiring manager’s desk—and ultimately snag you the interview. Great Literary? Feeling on child-directed, a roll with your resume? Why not check out how to optimize your contact information or beef up your skills section? Photo of Essay about Future:, person on child-directed speech is the:, laptop courtesy of Sawitree Pamee/EyeEm/Getty Images#46; Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz are Senior Resume Consultants and Essay Through Freedom, content managers of the child-directed speech is the: Resume Companion Blog. Resume Companion is a leading online resume building company with over Thinking Outside the Box Essay, 650,000 registered users, and over 8 million resumes created to date. Is The:? Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

While you#39;re here, you may as well check out symbolizing strength all the child-directed amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Simple Software for Better Interview Skills. Learn how to land the job with Big Interview’s powerful video tutorials and child-directed speech, virtual interview practice software. The Art of Writing a Great Resume Summary Statement. Guest contributor and professional resume writer Kimberly Sarmiento will help you make your resume stand out Thinking Outside the Box Essay, with a summary statement. In resume writing, you know you need more than just a list of jobs and speech, education, but how to begin? Or rather, how should your resume begin? First, nix the objective statement. It is almost impossible to write an literary, objective statement without either telling the hiring manager something they already know or focusing on what you want to child-directed is the:, get from a job. Both are things you should absolutely avoid in a resume. Instead, use a summary statement or what I like to Future: The Philosophical Implications, call your “written elevator speech.” Why You Should Use a Resume Summary Statement.

Professionals who work with career coaches and child-directed is the:, those who have done some solid web research have come to understand that they need to master their “Elevator Speech”. This speech is a short summary of an employee’s value proposition and should be thought of as a “sales pitch” that is ready to go anytime you run into a potential hiring manager or networking contact. A carefully prepared “Elevator Speech” is Essay Our Posthuman Future: Implications, customized to the person giving the child-directed is the: speech and about Our Posthuman Future: The Philosophical, contains information that makes the professional stand out while still focusing on child-directed things the employer wants to know (excels in cutting costs, not excellent deep sea diver). The same holds true for your “Written Elevator Speech” or resume summary statement. Moore Essay. This “speech” is given at the top of your resume — in the prime resume real estate where a recruiter or hiring manager always looks first. The summary statement serves as an introduction to the reader that seeks to answer the question “Tell me about yourself” in just a few lines of text. The resume summary statement will help your resume stand out by: a. Catching the reader’s attention immediately. b. Ensuring a clear understanding of your top selling points at speech is the: a glance (important when hiring managers are skimming through dozens of resumes at a time and attention spans are short) c. Putting emphasis on your career highlights and key strengths in an easy-to-scan format. d. Briefly communicating your professional objective if relevant (if the objective is not obvious) Every resume can benefit from a summary statement. For some candidates, it can be critical.

1. Career Changers — A summary statement can help a hiring manager quickly see your transferable skills. Without a summary statement, a recruiter might look at your most recent experience, assume you’re not a fit because your experience isn’t traditional, and toss your resume. 2. Recent College Grads — A summary statement can help you customize your resume for Thinking different opportunities. This is child-directed speech is the:, especially helpful if your background is somewhat general. You can use the summary to highlight skills and essay, experience most relevant for each position.

3. Experienced Professionals with Diverse Backgrounds — For experienced professionals, a summary statement can become the “executive summary” of your resume, tailored for speech each position. This allows you to pull the most relevant and impressive skills and career accomplishments and feature them at literary essay the top of your resume. Elements of a Strong Resume Summary Statement. The Basics — Your summary statement should consist of a title and a few lines of text. The text can be in speech paragraph form and/or use bullets. The summary statement should appear directly below your contact information at the top of the resume. and should reflect a general (or specific) idea of macbeth literary your career goals. Your Title — When working with my clients on their resumes, I typically recommend starting with a title that communicates their professional identity. Think of it as a headline that will catch the reader’s eye and speech is the:, help them see your fit for the position at hand. Examples include Social Media Brand Strategist, Senior Marketing Executive, Multifaceted Art Director, and Global Operations Professional. See Resume Summary Statement examples below for additional titles that may spark ideas for you.

The Format — The main body of your summary statement should be approximately 3-4 lines of text and should NOT be written with first-person pronouns. If you are tempted to make your summary statement longer to squeeze in more details, resist the temptation. Industry research tells us that most hiring managers spend only seconds reviewing a resume before they make up their minds to call a candidate or not. We also know that when they see large chunks of text, their eyes will skip over it. Therefore, it is vital to limit the length of essay a summary statement to ensure it gets read. Resume Summary Statement Examples. Below are several examples of “written elevator speeches” or summary/branding statements with titles. A versatile and is the:, creative writer fuses a background in journalism and academics with expertise in business writing to characteristics of horror, deliver quality, customized material spanning news, marketing, web content, curriculum, and career development. Provides sales support and highly-rated client service and excels in child-directed is the: meeting deadlines in quick-turnaround settings. FINANCIAL OPERATIONS SUPPORT PROFESSIONAL. Blends academic training in economics and business administration with hands-on experience in sales and macbeth literary, operations support to offer employers a track record of delivering on tasks accurately, efficiently, and quickly.

Known for speech is the: providing best-in-class customer service and characteristics of horror, communications in a variety of business settings. A proven leader of US and international sales organizations offers expertise in developing successful growth strategies and training both individual representative and team leaders in product benefits and customer service techniques. Speech Is The:. Also known for creating dynamic marketing/brand strategies that engage consumers and take away business from the competition. Effectively manages PL on multimillion-dollar, multi-product lines of is the middle passage business. How to is the:, Write Your Resume Summary Statement.

Since you have limited space, it’s important to Like Life by Lorrie Moore Essay, carefully plan what goes into your summary statement. Your statement must be concise AND represent the strongest elements of speech is the: you as a professional. Here are three steps to Essay Through, writing a strong summary statement for your resume: Step 1: First, think of three or four things that define you as a professional. Child-directed Is The:. This can be a strong sales record, excellent customer service, expertise in drawing engineering plans, or an ability to essay, manage large-scale technical projects. These professional traits will vary according to profession and skill level.

Managers and executives should focus on business skills as well as technical expertise — even if they fall into a technical industry. Entry-level and recent graduates can include academic training and experience to support professional abilities. Step 2: Next, think of the speech is the: things you enjoy the most in your work. When you write your summary statement, you aren’t just telling the Like by Lorrie employer what you are good at, you are also telling them what you want to do day in and day out. Ergo, no matter how well you do something – don’t talk about speech it if you don’t want to do it.

My wisest clients have pointed it out to me when I have focused too much on something they don’t particularly enjoy and by Lorrie Moore Essay, we rework their summaries accordingly. Step 3: Align your summary statement with the child-directed speech is the: company’s job requirements. Once you identify the skills you want to focus on, do a little research and Like by Lorrie, see if they line up with job requirements listed for the positions you are seeking. If you are a project manager, you probably want to establish early that you are skilled at managing resources and ensuring assignments get completed on-time/on-budget. This might not be the thing you want to child-directed, focus on the most, but it is essential to Outside the Box Essay, work in. More Tips on Resume Summary Statements. 1. Child-directed. Customize for Your Experience Level. Each of the above example statements effectively sets up the skill sets, achievements, and even certifications/degrees that the applicants highlight throughout their resumes.

When writing your statement, it is important to consider where you are in your professional progression. While a job description might want an MBA, PMP, or other certifications, whether or not you mention such things in Essay Future: The Philosophical Implications your opening statement will depend greatly on how much experience you have to back your application. When the job seeker is child-directed speech, young and needs to characteristics of horror, rely on academic experience to strengthen their qualifications, it is best to call that out from the start. Consider the child-directed speech example below: Blends lab management experience with academic training at the University of Florida to offer solid skills in clinical experiments and research activities. Incorporates a background in about The Philosophical Implications office administration to provide employers with proven organization, communications, and scheduling expertise. In this instance, the is the: job seeker focused on things learned through education and transferable skills that could be applicable from part-time work experience. On the other hand, when the job applicant has strong experience, there is no need to rely on the academic training any longer and it doesn’t need to be mentioned. 2. Focus on your most important selling points. Some requirements can be covered in the body of the resume and just aren’t important enough to place in that opening paragraph. One example I see a lot is proficiency in MS Office.

Even if you are a technical professional, software and hardware skills need their own section on the resume and don’t belong in the opening statement. The summary statement is for the strengths and genre, accomplishments that truly make you stand out child-directed is the:, as a candidate. Consider the Outside the Box following examples of resume summaries for child-directed speech technology professionals: A proven leader of IT startups and established operations offers expertise in Life defining technical strategies that support overall business objectives. Supports efforts to develop and market technical solutions to both internal and external clients. Oversees team development and vendor selection/maintenance for multimillion-dollar operations. COMPUTER/HARDWARE SPECIALIST /TEAM SUPERVISOR. Leverages technical expertise on hardware setup/configuration to provide exceptional user support and resolve critical operational issues. Experience includes managing security and after-hour support for classified materials and communications. Known for creating and implementing training that expands team member capabilities and speech, instructs users on system utilization/improvement. Works with government, civilian, and corporate stakeholders.

Of course there are other things you might want to call to Like by Lorrie Essay, the reader’s attention early, including language proficiencies, award-winning performance, or being named on child-directed one or more US patents. While these qualifications can be contained in about the body of a resume (and should still be placed there) , it could be relevant to highlight them early to child-directed speech, establish your unique value as an the Box, employee. Please note again that none of these opening paragraphs are written with first person pronouns. While you do write the paragraph in present tense, you write it as if you are the understood subject of the resume. This allows the speech is the: focus to remain on the employer. Use of “I, me, my” places the focus on the applicant and the goal of the resume is to Thinking, sell the speech is the: employer on what you can do for THEM. By telling the reader what you “do” and characteristics of horror, what you are “known for,” you get the reader thinking about speech how you can do those things for them. This message should be reinforced throughout the Outside the Box Essay resume as you use achievements and certifications to reinforce your opening paragraph and highlight examples of when you have done the things that summary statement promotes. Remember, aside from a cover letter, the summary statement is the very first thing the hiring manager reads about you.

It is your handshake long before you meet the interviewer. It is your first impression long before you get a chance to pick out your best outfit. It requires more than “I am seeking a job as….” It is your first chance to answer the is the: question “Tell me about Life Essay Yourself” and you want to make the most of it. HUMOR: Also, if you’re struggling for ideas, why not let Barney Stinson inspire you with some “creative” ways to highlight your awesomeness. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As an interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of New York.

She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. 20 Comment to The Art of Writing a Great Resume Summary Statement. Nice one Pamela. Speech Is The:. One more thing I would like to add here is one should never try to add any fake information in macbeth literary essay their resume which can put them in speech trouble. @terrylewis – thats great. Maybe you can share it here once you’re done. @Arman – that’s correct.

Faking info will very likely come back to bite you. So resist the temptation to be too “creative”. What an exceptional post Pamela. I have seen many articles on resume tips but nothing like this one. Just want to add more tip here that job seekers should never try to add any fake information in their resumes just to impress the recruiter. This is the part that is very difficult for me, i work in the service area, i work for a very prestigious hotel brand and Essay, i don’t know how to convert what i do into a summary. I want to advance in my career, i want to move in child-directed speech int administrative part of the hotel, not front office.

No I’m not a front desk agent nor a concierge. I am having so much trouble coming with the Thinking Outside the Box Essay perfect resume so i can apply to better jobs.! Here’s a way to possibly get unstuck and draft your summary statement: 1) Brainstorm a bit about the most important qualities required for the job(s) that you want. Child-directed. If there’s a job description, scan it for keywords. 2) Think about the Box Essay your 3 most valuable transferable skills/strengths/areas of expertise and child-directed, how they relate. 3) Draft a sentence about each of Essay Our Posthuman Future: The Philosophical those three selling points. 4) Combine/arrange/edit them into a summary statement using the examples in the post for inspiration.

Depending on your level of experience, your statement may be a few simple sentences or a brief bulleted list. Please feel free to post a draft of your summary statement here and speech is the:, I would be happy to give some feedback. Keep track of the interviews. Maintain a record of the .information about the interview so that you can refer to it in genre future. Many times you would have more than one interview with an organisation and it would help if you have jotted down somewhere what happened in child-directed the previous interviews. As the Essay on Power Through Freedom human memory fades with time it is preferable that you record the child-directed speech is the: information within 24 hours of the interview. While maintaining the summary of interviews include the following information:• Name and position of interviewer(s) After the Interview. It is not over until you finally get the job. So don’t just sit back and relax. Now is the time to do the follow up procedures to finally get selected and gain the job of your dreams.

Get Selected at Job Interviews. • Job profile/description: duties, responsibilities, powers, salary, other benefits etc. • Category: positive, negative, average. • Date of Thinking Essay contact with the is the: organisation. • Specific points discussed: stressed on some qualifications, achievements more than others. Pamela you are genius…Just read your blog….It is simply amazing. Already started working on creating my own personal branding statement. It would be great if you can suggest what should be the caption or heading for literary essay personal branding statement. Child-directed. For instance, the categories/headings which appear in characteristics genre a Resume/CV are Core Competencies, Professional Experience, Academics, Personal Information etc. Is it a good idea to write heading ” Senior Banking Professional ” followed by child-directed speech is the:, branding statement under this heading.

Since, I am a banker with 8 years of experience in Outside the Box Essay executing cross- functional assignments in is the: Retail ( Marketing Campaigns for middle Retail banking ), Corporate Banking (Commercial Credit to SMEs ) and Strategy (Launch of Wealth Management Business) with MBA as background. Keeping my fingers crossed …to discover a nice branding statement for me… THANKS A LOT…. Outstanding post Pamela! I am a young creative professional and is the:, find it very difficult to put my skills and experience into a summary when its such a broad field. After reading your article I now have a better understanding of what companies look for in a resume. Of Horror. Thank you! Outstanding post Pamela and very helpful but I am some time confused that – What type of CV format should I opt for child-directed is the: HR post please help as I am working as an HR? What type of Thinking frequent question can be asked during an interview?

How can we describe a healthy interview? How can I create my own profession brand as an HR? It seems like the examples used are trying to show some corporate bean counter that you know a lot of child-directed big words. Of Horror. Is this really what sells? I don’t want to jump through a bunch of hoops to dazzle some corporate sell out. What ever happend to keeping it simple? Great article. Child-directed Is The:. I’m running into trouble highlighting my transferable skills that I got from being a corporate lawyer because I now want to literary, work on speech research teams for news shows, or in production. Its difficult trying to connect the two.

Can you write an what, example here. Good article, exposed some weaknesses in my resume, I’m make the changes today! Thanks. Helpful article, though I find myself wondering at speech the images you chose for the sections. They are all part of a larger work by Pablo Picasso, titled “Guernica,” which was his attempt at what is the middle passage a propaganda piece criticizing war. Speech Is The:. The painting depicts innocent people being firebombed by German and Italian warplanes. Clearly shown are tormented soldiers, a dead child in the arms of a ravaged woman, and citizens and about Our Posthuman, livestock burning alive. Perhaps this is a strange choice of artwork to child-directed speech, use for Essay Through Freedom this article. Awesome. shares some other resume design skill in AmoLink resume. Child-directed Speech. Hope it’s useful to all of us.

I found it odd also. This is why doing arts papers while studying for your business degree is so important. Something incredibly ironic about what is the someone who is an expert in child-directed is the: selling yourself plastering her blog post with images from a painting as brutally about suffering as this. I guess whoever pieced this page together thought “oh, it’s art, so it must be sophisticated.” And they say I’m irrational for characteristics genre thinking business people aren’t necessarily very bright. Thank you for the inspiring article!

I have been struggling to find a job that fits my professional profile and when I finally find it, I get no attention… at all! Now, I migh have identified some of child-directed speech my common mistakes. Anyhow, I have a big problem. I am a BA in about Future: International Relations and I have no idea how to name my professional title…. Any ideas? I rarely get sidetracked by advertisements or odd artwork in blog posts, mainly because I’m inundated with it. But my concentration was quickly. diverted to the slightly barbaric images as soon as I could make out child-directed speech is the:, an.

Pamela Skillings is characteristics, co-founder of Big Interview. Is The:. As one of the country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. Essay. Continue reading.

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The differences of the CMS, WSET, Master Sommelier, #038; Master of Wine. While the pile of child-directed speech acronyms that come with computers are mind blowing these days, those that come with wine have most likely gotten to be of similar annoyance for characteristics of horror genre, anyone drinking this fine beverage. Speech. Years ago, I was quite baffled by them myself and around 2010, I wanted to characteristics of horror expand my wine knowledge from child-directed speech what I’d taught myself up to that point. I lived in San Francisco at the time and I started to look in to various programs only to shake my head and not really understand what the hell any of this Wines #038; Spirits Education Trust or Court of Master Sommeliers groups were let alone the differences between a Master of Wine and a Master Sommelier. I had forgotten about wanting to further my knowledge until two things happened several years ago. I was on an official trip to Like Life by Lorrie Essay a wine region and found that while I kept up with the others, there were some holes in child-directed is the:, what I knew. The more I looked at Thinking Outside these holes, the more they grew. Not only was I seeing them in my writing, I was also starting to see them in child-directed is the:, others who had pieced their knowledge together through scratching around on genre, the internet like digital chickens. I didn’t want to speech is the: come across like this anymore and so I started to look in to where to macbeth literary essay go from the point I was at. Admittedly, I came at all of this more than a little backwards.

As it currently sits, in addition to having written for a number of well-known publications, I’m also a Certified Sommelier with the Court of Master Sommeliers. Speech. This is Thinking the Box Essay, Level 2/4 of their overall program and it really isn’t the typical way to go about speech is the: this so I’m writing this article in hopes that I can give some guidance and clarify things for people who are in literary, or will be in the same shoes that I was in. There are a number of wine schools out there these days but for me, it came down to doing either the Wine #038; Spirits Education Trust (WSET) track or the Court of Master Sommeliers (CMS) track. I went with the is the: CMS. Of Horror Genre. My reasons for child-directed is the:, this are varied but the core difference between WSET and CMS is macbeth literary essay, that the WSET has way more class time while the CMS is much more independent study. The CMS also has a heavy service component to it (thus “sommelier” being in the name) whereas the WSET doesn’t and is more academic.

If one is a wine writer, the WSET would make more sense. If one works in the restaurant trade, the CMS makes more sense. For me, while I’m a wine writer and I don’t work in the restaurant trade, the CMS ultimately made more sense as I talk about wine a lot, do private wine tours from time to speech time, and just needed more of a public-facing aspect to is the passage my wine knowledge. For anyone else, if you’re not really in the restaurant trade, then the proper trajectory would be WSET 1,2,3,4. If you want the sommelier aspect, go for CMS 1 #038; 2 after WSET 3. Note that CMS 3 after WSET 4 won’t really do too much for you as the programs really diverge after CMS 2 and WSET 3.

It’s important to note that despite being originally founded by speech is the:, the same groups in England, the WSET 1-4 levels don’t correspond with the CMS 1-4 as WSET 3 and CMS 2 are more or less the same in Life by Lorrie Moore Essay, theoretical knowledge. Level 4 of CMS is the Master Sommelier while the Master of Wine would be something like Level 5 in WSET terms. The MW used to be like a Level 6 as there was at child-directed speech is the: one point a Level 5 Honors with the WSET but they’ve done away with that and those who do well in Through Freedom, Level 4 will be invited to consider starting the Master of Wine program. It’s also important to note that WSET 4 gets considerably more intense in terms of the science behind wine and as such forms a quite large departure for those looking in to the sommelier path. Like I said, this is all a bit screwy so let me elaborate in more detail on the specific aspects. You can also take a look at this chart that was put out by the WSET #038; CMS recently.

This is a purely academic program but it’s really designed for those who want to start learning the speech basics of wine. You don’t have to start at Level 1 or 2 though and can take a test to start at Level 3. I think most people who know a little about wine would start at Level 2. Those who really want to step in gradually in more casually, the Level 1 was created for you. Outside Essay. The levels each get progressively more involved and I’ve heard that the tastings get quite difficult (and are actually harder than the CMS) as you go for child-directed is the:, the Level 4 Diploma given that how the wine was made is of greater importance than just identifying it. These classes aren’t terribly cheap, but in the wine world you get what you pay for and with the higher levels, a good chunk of that cost is paying for the wines. While in-person classes are usually the preferred way to go about these, there are the online course which are significantly cheaper although you still need to go to the classroom once for the tastings as well as once for the exam.

For the Level 4, you will need to search out characteristics genre wines to taste. This can be hard when not living in a major wine trade city such as London or New York or in say, Istanbul where it’s even trickier due to their ridiculously restrictive alcohol laws at the moment. There are some aspects to speech the WSET program that can be a turn off. The first time I looked in to doing this was when living in San Francisco. At the time I was writing for a magazine who was going to what is the middle pay a portion of the fee to write an article about “Becoming a Sommelier” (in hindsight I was pitching great ideas to these idiots way ahead of the curve…) What fit the budget was going to be the WSET 2. The problem is that in passing this level, you can’t call yourself a sommelier. Child-directed. You can’t call yourself one after Levels 3 or 4, or even the Freedom Master of child-directed Wine for that matter as this is not a service-oriented program. I didn’t like the Like Life by Lorrie Moore interactions that I had with some of the child-directed is the: schools putting on the classes. As one of my co-exam sitters for essay, the CMS 2 said, “WSET feels like a sausage factory.” In some ways, it’s true as people who get the certifications can then open up sanctioned franchises of the program. So, there’s something of child-directed speech a pushiness to get you to take the courses. This is a shame as from what I’ve seen and heard, the actual body of Essay on Power Through material in child-directed, the course is quite sound and this may just be an aspect that is more “American” than what you find in characteristics, Europe.

But earning these levels is a solid base given that enough people in the wine trade have heard this rather clumsy acronym to know what it is although pronunciation varies a great deal by language. Here in Spain for instance, they’ve invented the word, “viset” to name it as “doble uve-ese-e-te” is a mouthful of marbles. The Court of Master Sommeliers has all the knowledge of the WSET but with all the service of that thing we call the, “sommelier”. This term has gotten to be quite sexy in recent years and so a lot of child-directed people are opting for Essay Freedom, this certification as I did. I don’t really need to go on at length about the pedigree that the name of this organization carries.

The fact that a film, “Somm” and child-directed is the:, now a TV series, “Uncorked” have been made to show what people go through to reach the Thinking the Box Essay Master Sommelier level says enough. This is speech is the:, not a course I recommend unless you really want to be in some form of wine service trade. Taking all the levels is mandatory and many people will find them considerably more difficult than they had originally envisioned. While it may be different in the US, for Europe, the organization really presses you for relevant experience prior to genre attending the speech Level 1 #038; 2 courses. They are not elitist by any means, but this is a vocational certification with a huge degree of knowledge behind it. Despite being a lover of wine for years and a professional for the last few, I only passed the characteristics of horror genre Level 1 on my first go (learn how this works) and had to go back and study to pass the child-directed Level 2. The CMS functions primarily as a certifying body and isn’t like the WSET where people take it to Like Life Moore follow an academic trajectory.

This is child-directed, not an easy tract and the classes are just a couple of days which aren’t designed to teach you everything you need to Thinking Outside Essay know. They’re something of a review and you need to come in to the course with a large degree of knowledge already. Is The:. That said, it’s an excellent program with a great track record and the Master Sommeliers truly are that no matter what people in the general public may think about this oh-so fancy title. Macbeth Literary. I just mention all of these reservations because again, these certifications cost a bit and if you are much more focused on the wine knowledge part of speech is the: things, go the Essay WSET route. Here’s a very basic breakdown of how I feel the levels of the CMS work: Introductory Level 1 – “What is speech, wine?” Do you know what phylloxera is? What is the Box Essay, liqueur de tirage? This level is all about child-directed speech understand what exactly wine is and Like Life by Lorrie Essay, how it’s made. Read more on the full exam. Certified Level 2 – “Where is is the:, wine?” Know what state in Australia, Wrattonbully resides?

Can you name an characteristics genre, excellent year for Bordeaux? Know what grapes are used in child-directed is the:, Moulin-a-Vent? The level of detail and breadth of the knowledge expands massively to know what wines come from where and what style. Read more on the full exam. Advanced Level 3 – “Who is wine?” Can you name a Grand Cru producer in Essay on Power Through Freedom, Corton to child-directed speech pair with duck breast?

What was a good year for Mt. Difficulty? If you have these off the top of your head, you might be prepared for macbeth literary essay, this level although the blind tasting is nearly at the Master level. Master Level 4 – “ You are wine.” There’s not really any way to sum up this level as the knowledge base is far beyond what I have at the moment and the few who attain are so deep in to wine (as well as the rest of beverages one must add) that it’s hard to fathom. So what is is this title? Well, like the WSET, it’s an speech, academic title and there is no “sommelier” aspect to it. One of the is the middle passage most famous MW’s, Jancis Robinson always jokes, “Don’t have me pour a bottle of wine! I would spill it everywhere.” But this encompasses every facet of child-directed speech wine from viticulture, to vinification, to marketing #038; sales, to global wine trends, to I don’t even know what but if it has to do with wine, it’s in this this degree. This is the degree that usually those who write about Essay Through wine ultimately pursue but there are a number of child-directed speech winemakers with it as well.

There are nearly 400 people in characteristics genre, the world who have earned this title and there are a few who didn’t go the WSET route but for speech is the:, the general majority, they seem to go through WSET. The Master of what passage Wine then takes at least three years (and usually more), more papers, more exams, and just more of child-directed is the: everything. It is not for literary, the feint of heart. It is also by invitation only so just having the WSET 4 doesn’t mean you can hop into studying for the MW. Child-directed Speech. Again, they want to see a bit of experience in some form of writing or having made wine, totally at least three years. You also need to be recommended by an MW or someone else respected in the wine trade. A huge change is that while the Like Life by Lorrie Essay WSET has a great many classes, the MW is all about independent, sometimes lonely study. As this degree takes so long to accomplish and if someone has completed the child-directed WSET 4 some time ago, you might see them put “Master of Wine Student” in about Future: Implications, their bio or resume.

Be very suspect of this because unless they are officially enrolled in child-directed speech, the MW program, this is a serious fudge. Not having the WSET 4 is usually a dead giveaway, as well as being under 30… Press anyone for more details on this as going around saying this is a disservice to those who truly are enrolled in and pursuing this insanely rigorous program. It’s a common question as to what is the difference between the Master of Thinking Outside Wine and Master Sommelier. Basically, the MW is child-directed speech is the:, academic with heavy theory and Through Freedom, the MS is speech is the:, service with heavy compendium. What Middle. While I obviously haven’t taken these exams, it seems to me an is the:, example of this would be, for the MW you would be asked, “What were the advantages to a producer in making a Grand Cru Brut Nature Champagne in 2000?” whereas the MS would be asked, “Recommend a Grand Cru Champagne Brut Nature from 2000 and why it would pair with this plate of Gruyere cheese.” As you can see, similar knowledge base, but very different implementations. There are just over 200 people in the world who have passed the MS. It’s extremely difficult as taking that classic theory aspect you see in the MW out of the macbeth literary essay equation makes everything about speech holding a massive amount of information about producers and Thinking Outside the Box Essay, regions in your head. This makes sense as it’s how you need to know things when working the floor, although the Master level is one unto itself. But that’s about “it”. Hopefully this outlines these various programs in a way that’s useful to child-directed speech people out there so that they can get where they want to go a lot faster than I did. It’s a lengthy journey whichever path you choose, but if you love wine and working in it, it’s one that’s most definitely worth the effort.

19 responses to Essay Through Freedom “The differences of the CMS, WSET, Master Sommelier, #038; Master of child-directed speech is the: Wine” I think that’s a fair write-up of the WSET although the level of education was very high during my level 3 classes. I have no experience of the CMS program as everytime I try to apply for a course, it seems to Essay Our Posthuman Future: The Philosophical conflict with my WSET schedule, irritatingly. I assumed that as I am about to embark on child-directed is the:, my WSET Diploma, I would walk quite convincingly through levels 1-2 of the CMS structure – courses which I would take to hone the service side of my skillset. I will ensure I show these levels the correct level of literary respect they are due, all this article has done has confirmed my desire to by educated in both aspects of the trade! The problem in speech, comparing two similar yet different systems is that they don’t fully correlate with one another. Like Life By Lorrie. In theory, if you have the WSET 3, then the CMS 2 theory shouldn’t be too much of a problem. I have encountered people who have it and have not passed CMS 2 theory though and it’s much more producer-oriented. Also, the entire world of wine is free game as opposed to speech is the: the WSET where it seems that only if it’s been in the book do you need to characteristics genre know it.

The tasting might be another story as for some reason, for the CMS it appears to be more difficult than the child-directed speech is the: WSET even though the WSET has a much more intense structure. Some argue to the contrary however so largely I think it depends on the person. I’ve been looking hard for an analysis like this. I live in SF, work in Napa, give tours of Like Life Moore Essay wineries to tourists. Taste several times a week and understand the farming and viticulture enough. Usually graduates of any program only say good things about the program THEY went to. School spirit. I get it. So your somewhat critical comparative analysis was useful. Child-directed Speech Is The:. Are these the two main players or are there others?

I want to genre work for a winemaker in child-directed, either sales or a farming capacity someday, not in a restaurant (any more), but the CMS course structure is the one that fit in my schedule. Dilemmas. Thinking. Your thoughts? These are the two main options. There’s also the Certified Wine Specialist but as you mention, the only people I’ve seen mentioning that are worthwhile are people who have it.

I looked over it a little bit and while it doesn’t look bad, it didn’t do much to pull me in. In your case, it sounds like WSET up to Level 3 would be the best fit. The Diploma is unnecessary if you want to work in sales. Speech. I have my issues with how WSET runs though which is why I haven’t attended their classes but I know plenty who have. Through Freedom. They seem more concerned about their image than anything else as I was actually contacted by their communications person to make some edits to this post.

Some I made, others I didn’t but none of the other groups mentioned here as so concerned about such things. All in all a good article though my experience with WSET is child-directed is the:, not comparable to yours. The experience probably varies depending upon school, but I found WSET to be very educational with no “sausage factory” feel at all. Each level in WSET is a large step up, with Diploma a very large step. But you do finish the WSET program with a much better understanding of wine, why it varies by region and is the passage, how to taste. For most consumers, that’s really all we want. As for the MW program, it’s not by invitation only. Child-directed. Each year, there is an application period (which coincidentally just opened) when people interested in the program can fill out an application take a 90 minute theory exam and a 90 minute tasting exam. A letter from someone in the wine industry is also required but a good letter alone will not get you in, those exams are important. Nor is Diploma required.

There are several Sommeliers, wine makers and of horror, others in the program without the child-directed speech is the: Diploma. If you’re an avid consumer like me, Diploma is middle, probably required (and true, most people in the program seem to have it) but a strong wine knowledge that allows you to do well on those exams is what gets you in. I am new to child-directed speech is the: this aspect of the Life by Lorrie Essay food industry and your article was very enlightening. I plan to put up my own wine shop and now, I have an idea of child-directed what I should take up before doing so. Thank you very much! Wonderful, glad that it helped! Very good article.

You mentioned that taking all the of horror levels is mandatory. Can you elaborate on speech is the:, this? I was only interested in pursuing level 1 and Like by Lorrie Moore Essay, level 2 at the most. That means you have to start at CMS 1 and go from there. Speech. They don’t allow any challenges to the order, at macbeth essay least not officially. With WSET you can theoretically jump in even at speech the Diploma level. Thinking Essay. With the Master of Wine, you can just start there if able to prove a lengthy history working in wine. I am a recent Certified Sommelier who is taking the WSET Level 2 next month. I was told I could skip WSET Level 1, but had to take the exam for Level 2 and pass before proceeding to WSET Level 3.

I’ve not heard that but I did all this in the Europe chapter where they do the 1 #038; 2 in the same session unlike the is the: US where it’s split up. So, it could be the case now that they’ve made a number of changes to the Certified starting in January. If you are certified through the Court, then I recommend that you jump straight into WSET Advanced (lvl 3), save you some time and money. That’s the route I am taking right now. It will be a slight step up in knowledge, but you will breeze through the tasting. It’s actually a bit of on Power Through a step backwards as you need to memorize the WSET “answers” to things which are far more rigid and is the:, out of the Box Essay touch with reality. Also, the WSET tasting grid sucks. Excellent article – I am a Certified Somm with CMS but chose to take on an intensive training at International Culinary Center in NYC – They offer the level 1 and level 2 (Certified) on the next day. I took 1 2 within 48 hours. Speech Is The:. Grueling! Perfect score on level one, and “lucky I passed” on level 2 – sheer exhaustion.

I work on the floor, I write a column, conduct a learning session and buy for a retail boutique. Although not mentioned, there are great regional courses that will enhance any on these broad learning certifications at my level. Again, great read. Susan, thanks for stopping by. Indeed, the biggest challenge with these exams is trying to fit them in around daily life! I’ve completed WSET3 and CSW (Certified Specialist of Essay Wine). IMO, the quantity of child-directed information are similar, but the CSW test is easier (100 multiple choice for CSW; WSET3 is multiple choice, short answer, long answer, plus tasting). Although there’s a lot of overlap between them, there’s also a good bit of difference in details – so if you can afford the cost, and want to get some additional knowledge to help with future certifications – it’s worthwhile to take CSW. Plus, it enables you to pursue the about Future: Certified Wine Educator Certification – which is well respected (some MS guys proudly append CWE to their names, right after MS).

Other certifications that one can consider: French Wine Scholar and speech is the:, Italian Wine Scholar (both are offered by the Wine Scholar Guild), which is extremely in depth for their respective countries of interest – I understand some CMS Advanced candidates take it to help them prepare. I’ve completed the French Wine Scholar program, and am currently working on Italian. Is there one track you’d recommend WSET over The Philosophical Implications CSW? For example, personal interest versus working in the industry as a wine educator? Wine educator vs wine marketing? Working in a restaurant vs. being a wine buyer for one? I would think there would be a major difference between the two in terms of area of child-directed focus or purpose for Essay, certification, but from what I’ve read about child-directed is the: both, the is the middle only difference seems the WSET also focuses on spirits. First of all, I would say you explained the topic very clearly.

Now I do have a question. Is The:. Where do you put the AIS, the Italian sommelier association. As I’ve not done the AIS, nor know anyone who has done it and the AIS, I can’t say for certain. What. I have several friend who have done just the AIS though and based upon what they tell me, it’s on par with the child-directed speech CMS Certified but more emphasis on Italian wines, which would make sense.

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essay tables Once your statistical analyses are complete, you will need to summarize the is the: data and results for Like Life Moore Essay presentation to your readers. Data summaries may take one of 3 forms: text, Tables and Figures. Text: contrary to what you may have heard, not all analyses or results warrant a Table or Figure. Some simple results are best stated in a single sentence, with data summarized parenthetically: Seed production was higher for speech is the: plants in the full-sun treatment (52.3 +/-6.8 seeds) than for those receiving filtered light (14.7+/- 3.2 seeds, t=11.8, df=55, p0.001.) Tables: Tables present lists of Essay Our Posthuman, numbers or text in columns, each column having a title or label. Do not use a table when you wish to show a trend or a pattern of speech is the:, relationship between sets of Essay Through Freedom, values - these are better presented in child-directed is the:, a Figure. For instance, if you needed to present population sizes and sex ratios for your study organism at a series of sites, and you planned to focus on the differences among individual sites according to (say) habitat type, you would use a table. However, if you wanted to show us that sex ratio was related to population size, you would use a Figure.

Figures: Figures are visual presentations of results, including graphs, diagrams, photos, drawings, schematics, maps, etc. Graphs are the most common type of figure and will be discussed in detail; examples of other types of figures are included at the end of this section. Graphs show trends or patterns of relationship. Organizing your presentation: Once you have done your analyses and decided how best to present each one, think about how you will arrange them. Your analyses should tell a story which leads the reader through the steps needed to logically answer the question(s) you posed in your Introduction. The order in which you present your results can be as important in convincing your readers as what you actually say in the text. How to refer to Tables and Figures from the text: Every Figure and what passage Table included in the paper MUST be referred to from the text.

Use sentences that draw the reader's attention to the relationship or trend you wish to highlight, referring to the appropriate Figure or Table only parenthetically: Germination rates were significantly higher after 24 h in is the:, running water than in controls (Fig. 4). DNA sequence homologies for the purple gene from the Essay four congeners (Table 1) show high similarity, differing by at most 4 base pairs. Avoid sentences that give no information other than directing the reader to the Figure or Table: Table 1 shows the speech is the: summary results for male and macbeth literary essay female heights at Bates College. Abbreviation of the child-directed is the: word Figure: When referring to a Figure in the text, the word Figure is abbreviated as Fig., while Table is not abbreviated. Both words are spelled out completely in descriptive legends.

How to number Tables and Figures: Figures and Tables are numbered independently , in by Lorrie Essay, the sequence in which you refer to them in the text, starting with Figure 1 and Table 1. If, in child-directed is the:, revison, you change the presentation sequence of the essay figures and speech is the: tables, you must renumber them to on Power Through reflect the new sequence. Placement of Figures and Tables within the Paper: In manuscripts (e.g. lab papers, drafts), Tables and Figures are usually put on separate pages from text material. Is The:? In consideration of your readers, place each Table or Figure as near as possible to the place where you first refer to it (e.g., the on Power next page). It is child-directed permissable to place all the illustrative material at the end of the Results section so as to macbeth avoid interrupting the flow of text. The Figures and child-directed Tables may be embedded in the text, but avoid breaking up the text into small blocks; it is better to have whole pages of text with Figures and Tables on their own pages. The Acid Test for Tables and Life Figures: Any Table or Figure you present must be sufficiently clear, well-labeled, and described by child-directed speech is the: its legend to be understood by your intended audience without reading the results section, i.e., it must be able to stand alone and be interpretable. On Power Freedom? Overly complicated Figures or Tables may be difficult to understand in or out of context, so strive for simplicity whenever possible. If you are unsure whether your tables or figures meet these criteria, give them to a fellow biology major (not in your course) and ask them to interpret your results. Descriptive Legends or Captions: To pass the acid test above, a clear and complete legend (sometimes called a caption) is essential. Like the child-directed is the: title of the paper itself, each legend should convey as much information as possible about Through what the Table or Figure tells the reader : the first sentence functions as the title for the figure (or table) and speech is the: should clearly indicate what results are shown in the context of the study question, the summary statistics that have been plotted (e.g., mean and SEM), the Essay organism studied in the experiment (if applicable), context for the results: the treatment applied or the child-directed speech is the: relationship displayed, etc. location (ONLY if a field experiment), specific explanatory information needed to interpret the macbeth essay results shown (in tables, this is frequently done as footnotes) and child-directed is the: may include a key to characteristics any annotations, culture parameters or conditions if applicable (temperature, media, etc) as applicable, and, sample sizes and statistical test summaries as they apply. Is The:? Do not simply restate the axis labels with a versus written in between.

Figure 1. Height frequency (%) of what is the middle passage, White Pines ( Pinus strobus ) in the Thorncrag Bird Sanctuary, Lewiston, Maine, before and child-directed speech after the Ice Storm of '98. Before, n=137, after, n=133. Four trees fell during the storm and were excluded from the literary essay post-storm survey. In the examples later in this section, note the completeness of the child-directed is the: legends. When you are starting out, you can use one of these examples (or an appropriate example from a published paper) as a model to follow in constructing your own legends. NOTE : Questions frequently arise about how much methodology to include in the legend, and how much results reporting should be done. For lab reports, specific results should be reported in the results text with a reference to on Power Freedom the applicable Table or Figure.

Other than culture conditions, methods are similarly confined to the Methods section. The reality: How much methodology and child-directed results are reported in the legends is journal specific. Macbeth? Hot-off-the-press journals like Science and Nature so limit the child-directed is the: body text that virtually all of the Methods are presented in Essay, the Figure and speech is the: Table legends or in footnotes. Much of the results are also reported in literary essay, the legends. Format and placement of legends: Both Figure and Table legends should match the width of the Table or graph. Table legends go above the body of the Table and are left justified ; Tables are read from the child-directed top down. Figure legends go below the graph and Essay Future: The Philosophical Implications are left justified ; graphs and is the: other types of Figures are usually read from the bottom up. Use a font one size smaller than the body text of the document and Like Life by Lorrie be consistent throughout the document. Use the same font as the body text. The Anatomy of a Table.

Table 4 below shows the typical layout of a table in child-directed is the:, three sections demarcated by lines. Tables are most easily constructed using your word processor's table function or a spread sheet such as Excel. Gridlines or boxes, commonly invoked by word processors, are helpful for setting cell and column alignments, but should be eliminated from the printed version. Tables formatted with cell boundaries showing are unlikely to be permitted in a journal. Example 1: Courtesy of macbeth essay, Shelley Ball. Example 2: Courtesy of Shelley Ball.

Example 3: Courtesy of Greg Anderson. In these examples notice several things: the presence of a period after Table #; the legend (sometimes called the caption ) goes above the Table; units are specified in is the:, column headings wherever appropriate; lines of Life Essay, demarcation are used to set legend, headers, data, and footnotes apart from child-directed is the:, one another. footnotes are used to clarify points in the table, or to convey repetitive information about entries; footnotes may also be used to denote statistical differences among groups. The Anatomy of a Figure. The sections below show when and how to what is the passage use the four most common Figure types (bar graph, frequency histogram, XY scatterplot, XY line graph.) The final section gives examples of speech, other, less common, types of Figures. Parts of a Graph: Below are example figures (typical line and bar graphs) with the various component parts labeled in red. Refer back to these examples if you encounter an unfamiliar term as you read the following sections.

Some general considerations about macbeth Figures: Big or little? For course-related papers, a good rule of thumb is to child-directed is the: size your figures to fill about one-half of a page. Use an Like Life Moore easily readable font size for axes and ticks. Readers should not have to reach for a magnifying glass to read the legend or axes. Compound figures may require a full page.

Color or no color? Most often black and white is preferred. The rationale is that if you need to photocopy or fax your paper, any information conveyed by colors will be lost to speech is the: the reader. However, for a poster presentation or a talk with projected images, color can be helpful in distinguishing different data sets. Every aspect of your Figure should convey information; never use color simply because it is pretty. Characteristics Of Horror Genre? Title or no title?

Never use a title for Figures included in a document ; the legend conveys all the necessary information and speech is the: the title just takes up extra space. However, for posters or projected images , where people may have a harder time reading the small print of a legend, a larger font title is very helpful. Life By Lorrie? Offset axes or not ? Elect to offset the axes only when data points will be obscured by being printed over the Y axis. Error bars or not ? Always include error bars (e.g., SD or SEM) when plotting means. In some courses you may be asked to plot other measures associated with the mean, such as confidence intervals. When plotting data analyzed using non-parametric tests, you will most likely plot the child-directed speech is the: median and quartiles or the range. These might be dotplots or box and whisker plots. Tick marks - Use common sense when deciding on major (numbered) versus minor ticks.

Major ticks should be used to Through Freedom reasonably break up the range of values plotted into integer values. Within the major intervals, it is usually necessary to speech is the: add minor interval ticks that further subdivide the scale into logical units (i.e., a interval that is a factor of the major tick interval). Essay About The Philosophical Implications? For example, when using major tick intervals of 10, minor tick intervals of 1,2, or 5 might be used, but not 3 or 4. When the speech is the: data follow a uniform interval on the x-axis (e.g., a times series, or equal increments of concentration), use major ticks to match the data. No minor intervals would be used in this case. Legend width - The width of the figure legend should match the width of the graph (or other content. Style considerations - When you have multiple figures, make sure to standardize font, font sizes, etc. such that all figures look stylistically similar.

When you have multiple graphs, or graphs and Like Life Essay others illustrative materials that are interrelated, it may be most efficient to present them as a compound figure. Compound figures combine multiple graphs into one common figure and is the: share a common legend. Each figure must be clearly identified by capital letter (A, B, C, etc), and, when referred to from the Results text, is specifically identified by that letter, e.g., . (Fig. 1b) . Characteristics Genre? The legend of the compound figure must also identify each graph and is the: the data it presents by letter. Four Common Figure Types. Bar graphs are used when you wish to compare the of horror value of a single variable (usually a summary value such as a mean) among several groups. For example, a bar graph is appropriate to child-directed speech is the: show the mean sizes of plants harvested from plots that received 4 different fertilizer treatments. (Note that although a bar graph might be used to show differences between only 2 groups, especially for pedagogical purposes, editors of many journals would prefer that you save space by presenting such information in the text.)

In this example notice that: legend goes below the Freedom figure; a period follows Figure 1 and the legend itself; Figure is not abbreviated ; the measured variable is labelled on the Y axis. In most cases units are given here as well (see next example); the child-directed categorical variable (habitat) is labelled on the X axis, and each category is designated; a second categorical variable (year) within habitat has been designated by different bar fill color . On Power Through? The bar colors must be defined in a key , located wherever there is a convenient space within the graph. error bars are included, extending +1 SD or SEM above the mean. Child-directed? statistical differences may be indicated by a system of letters above the bars, with an accompanying note in the caption indicating the test and characteristics the significance level used. the completeness of the legend, which in this case requires over child-directed is the:, 3 lines just to describe the treatments used and variable measured. axis labels, with units; treatment group (pH) levels specified on X axis; error bars and group sample sizes accompany each bar, and each of these is well-defined in characteristics, legend; statistical differences in this case are indicated by lines drawn over the bars, and the statistical test and significance level are identified in the legend. Frequency histograms (also called frequency distributions) are bar-type graphs that show how the measured individuals are distributed along an axis of the measured variable. Speech? Frequency (the Y axis) can be absolute (i.e. number of passage, counts) or relative (i.e. percent or proportion of the sample.) A familiar example would be a histogram of child-directed speech, exam scores, showing the characteristics number of child-directed speech is the:, students who achieved each possible score. Frequency histograms are important in describing populations, e.g. size and age distributions.

Notice several things about this example: the Y axis includes a clear indication (%) that relative frequencies are used. (Some examples of an absolute frequencies: Number of literary essay, stems, Number of birds observed) the measured variable (X axis) has been divided into categories (bins) of appropriate width to visualize the child-directed speech population size distribution. In this case, bins of 1 m broke the population into 17 columns of varying heights. Setting the bin size at 0.5 m would have yielded too many columns with low frequencies in each, making it diffcult to visualize a pattern. Conversely, setting the bin size too large (2-3 m) would have yielded too few columns, again obscuring the Essay about Our Posthuman underlying pattern. A rule of thumb is to start with a number of bins that is speech is the: equal to the square root of the largest value in your data set(s) to be plotted. the values labeled on the X axis are the bin centers ; in Thinking Essay, this example, bin 10 m contains values that range from 9.50 -10.49 m. sample size is clearly indicated, either in the legend (as in this case) or in the body of the graph itself; the Y axis includes numbered and minor ticks to allow easy determination of bar values. These are plots of X,Y coordinates showing each individual's or sample's score on two variables. When plotting data this way we are usually interested in knowing whether the two variables show a relationship, i.e. do they change in value together in a consistent way?

Note in this example that: each axis is labeled (including units where appropriate) and includes numbered and minor ticks to allow easy determination of the values of plotted points; sample size is child-directed is the: included in the legend or the body of the graph; if the data have been analyzed statistically and a relationship between the variables exists, it may be indicated by plotting the regression line on what the graph, and by giving the equation of the regression and its statistical significance in the legend or body of the figure; the range of each axis has been carefully selected to maximize the child-directed is the: spread of the Essay Through Freedom points and to minimize wasted blank space where no points fall. For instance, the X axis is truncated below 50 g because no plants smaller than 52 g were measured. Child-directed Speech Is The:? The ranges selected also result in Thinking, labeled ticks that are easy to read (50, 100, 150#133;, rather than 48, 96, 144#133;) Which variable goes on is the: the X axis? When one variable is macbeth literary clearly dependent upon another (e.g. height depends on age, but it is hard to speech is the: imagine age depending on height), the convention is to plot the dependent variable on Essay Our Posthuman Future: The Philosophical Implications the Y axis and the independent variable on the X axis . Sometimes there is no clear independent variable (e.g. length vs. width of leaves: does width depend on width, or vice-versa?) In these cases it makes no difference which variable is on which axis; the speech variables are inter -dependent, and an X,Y plot of Thinking Outside the Box Essay, these shows the relationship BETWEEN them (rather than the effect of one upon the other.) In the example plotted above, we can imagine that seed production might depend on speech plant biomass, but it is hard to see how biomass could depend directly on seed production, so we choose biomass as the X axis. Alternatively, the The Philosophical relationship might be indirect: both seed production and plant biomass might depend on some other, unmeasured variable. Our choice of axes to demonstrate correlation does not necessarily imply causation . Line graphs plot a series of related values that depict a change in Y as a function of X. Two common examples are a growth curve for an individual or population over time, and a dose-response curve showing effects of child-directed, increasing doses of a drug or treatment. When to connect the dots?

If each point in the series is obtained from the same source and is dependent on the previous values (e.g. a plot of a baby's weight over the course of a year, or of muscle strength on successive contractions as a muscle fatigues), then the points should be connected by a line in a dot-to-dot fashion. Essay On Power Through? If, however, the series represents independent measurements of child-directed speech is the:, a variable to show a trend (e.g. mean price of computer memory over time; a standard curve of optical density vs. solute concentration), then the trend or relationship can be modeled by calculating the best-fit line or curve by characteristics genre regression analysis ( see A Painless Guide to Statistics ) Do not connect the dots when the measurements were made independently. In this example notice: a different symbol is used for each group (species), and the key to the symbols is placed in the body of the graph where space permits. Symbols are large enough to be easily recognizable in the final graph size; each point represents a mean value, and child-directed this is stated in the legend. Like Life By Lorrie? Error bars are therefore plotted for each point and defined in the legend as well. because measurements were taken on independent groups for each species, the points are NOT connected dot-to-dot; instead a curve is fitted to the data to show the trend. Notice here that: this time the child-directed dots ARE connected dot-to-dot within each treatment, because cumulative percent germination was measured within the same set of seeds each day, and middle thus is dependent on the measurements of the prior days; a different symbol is used for each treatment, and symbols are large enough (and connecting lines fine enough) so that all can be easily read at the final graph size; in addition to the key to symbols, two other kinds of helpful information are supplied in the body of the figure: the child-directed is the: values of the highest and Outside Essay lowest final cumulative percents, and a dashed line (baseline) showing the lowest cumulative % germination achieved. This baseline is defined in the legend. Some Other Types of Figures.

Figure 9. Aerial photo of the study site ca. Speech Is The:? 1949 and in 1998 (inset) showing the regeneration of the Our Posthuman Future: Implications forest. Child-directed Is The:? Photos courtesy of the USDA Field Office, Auburn, Maine. Notice here that: A photograph is a figure.

Any photograph from another source requires attribution in the legend. Photos must have sufficient resolution to reproduce well by standard photocopying.

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Framing Effects in Younger and Older Adults. A growing literature on decision making in older adults suggests that they are more likely to child-directed is the:, use heuristic processing than are younger adults. We assessed this tendency in the context of a framing effect, a decision-making phenomenon whereby the language used to Our Posthuman Implications, describe options greatly influences the speech, decision maker#x02019;s choice. We compared decision making under a standard (#x0201c;heuristic#x0201d;) condition and also under a #x0201c;justification#x0201d; condition known to reduce reliance on characteristics of horror heuristics. In the standard condition, older adults were more susceptible than younger adults to framing but the child-directed, two groups did not differ when participants were asked to provide a justification. Thus, although older adults may spontaneously rely more on about Our Posthuman Future: The Philosophical Implications heuristic processing than younger adults, they can be induced to take a more systematic approach to decision making. THE term framing effect refers to a phenomenon whereby the choices people make are systematically altered by the language used in the formulation of child-directed options. On Power Through Freedom! For example, in the well-known Asian disease task (Tversky #x00026; Kahneman, 1981), participants in the so-called positive frame condition make a treatment choice based on a description of child-directed is the: lives saved (e.g., 200 out of a total of 600 people will be saved); by Like contrast, in the so-called negative frame condition, participants make a treatment choice based on child-directed speech is the: a description of lives lost (e.g., 400 out of Outside the Box a total of 600 people will die). Despite the identical underlying basis of the child-directed speech is the:, two versions of the problem, people make different choices: They are more likely to be risk averse (i.e., to move away from a risky option) when questions are framed as gains (i.e., positively) and more risk seeking (i.e., to is the middle passage, move toward a risky option) when questions are framed as losses (i.e., negatively). The literature on speech these and other framing-effect problems is extensive (for reviews, see Levin, Schneider, #x00026; Gaeth, 1998; also see K#x000fc;hberger, 1998). However, the research has mainly used college students as participants and the performance of older adults has rarely been the central focus of the research.

Although older adults were included in some studies with professionals, experts, and patients (e.g., Loke #x00026; Tan, 1992; McNeil, Pauker, Sox, #x00026; Tversky, 1982; Roszkowski #x00026; Snelbecker, 1990), the age of the samples in these studies was also confounded with other characteristics such as expertise and some medical conditions. Previously, we (Kim #x00026; Hasher, 2005) demonstrated superior performance by older adults in decision making using attraction-effect tasks, suggesting that older adults can, under some circumstances, show performance better than that of is the middle younger adults, perhaps because they have greater life experience in speech is the: decision making (e.g., Hertwig, Barron, Weber, #x00026; Erev, 2004). Through! In the current study, we were also interested in examining whether older adults can perform better than younger adults in decision making in the context of a framing effect. As in our previous study, it is is the: conceivable that older adults are less likely to show framing effects than younger adults because they have greater life experience in decision making. However, an alternative hypothesis is also possible. In the framing-effect literature, there is characteristics of horror some evidence that even people with experience or expertise are not immune to is the:, framing effects (e.g., Loke #x00026; Tan, 1992; Roszkowski #x00026; Snelbecker, 1990). Further, a number of by Lorrie Moore Essay explanations have been proposed for framing effects (e.g., see K#x000fc;hberger, 1997, for speech, a review); there has been some agreement that, in many instances, #x0201c;framing#x0201d; is the product of heuristic information processing (e.g., McElroy #x00026; Seta, 2003). Implications! This proposal is strengthened by demonstrations that framing effects can be reduced when circumstances press for detailed processing, for example, when participants must provide a rationale for their selections (e.g., Sieck #x00026; Yates, 1997; Takemura, 1993). Speech! Thus, because there is Essay on Power Freedom evidence that older adults tend to rely on heuristic processing more than younger adults (e.g., Johnson, 1990), it is conceivable that older adults are more likely to child-directed speech, show framing effects.

Verbal framing could be a case in Implications which greater life experience at making decisions does not benefit older adults. If it is such a case, then our question becomes whether asking for a rationale for a decision can increase reliance on speech is the: detailed processing and thus make it possible for older adults to make decisions that are similar to of horror, those of younger adults. One hundred and speech eighty-six undergraduate students (aged 17 to 28 years) from the University of Toronto and 186 senior citizens (aged 58 to Like Essay, 78 years) from the Toronto area participated in speech this study. Older adults had significantly higher vocabulary scores ( M = 29.43, SD = 9.27), as assessed by what is the passage the Extended Range Vocabulary Test (ERVT), version 3 (Educational Testing Service, 1976), than younger adults ( M = 19.39, SD = 7.04), t (368) = 11.75. Younger adults received credit for an introductory psychology course and older adults received $10 for their participation. We used two problems, each with a positive and negative frame. We adopted one problem, the #x0201c;fatal disease#x0201d; problem, from Wang, Simons, and Br#x000e9;dart (2001). We did not use the well-known Asian disease problem in this study because of the demographic characteristics in the Greater Toronto area, in which a considerable portion of the population is Asian.

We adopted the child-directed, other problem, the #x0201c;cancer treatment#x0201d; problem, from McNeil and on Power Through Freedom colleagues (1982; see Appendix). Note that, for both problems, the option labeled as B is the one that previous work shows is chosen reliably more in the negative frame than in the positive frame. The experiment was a 2 (Age: young and old) #x000d7; 2 (Frame: positive and child-directed is the: negative) #x000d7; 2 (Justification: with and without justification) between-subjects design. Is The! There were 53 participants in each without-justification group and child-directed speech 40 in each with-justification group. Participants in the with-justification condition were asked to provide a rationale in writing for their choice prior to actually indicating their choice (Sieck #x00026; Yates, 1997).

Participants who were in the without-justification condition were not asked to provide a rational for their choice. Each participant received both problems in a counterbalanced order in Moore either their positive or negative frame. Because research has shown that a reliance on child-directed analytic strategies is more likely at optimal times of day whereas a reliance on heuristic strategies is more likely at nonoptimal times (e.g., Bodenhausen, 1990), and because optimal times are different for younger and on Power Through Freedom older adults (e.g., Yoon, May, #x00026; Hasher, 1999), we tested at child-directed is the:, normatively optimal times for Essay about Our Posthuman The Philosophical Implications, each group, that is, in the morning for older adults and in the afternoon for child-directed, younger adults. Our goal was to increase the likelihood that analytic strategies would be used by characteristics both groups in the standard condition. For Each Problem: Problem-by-Problem Analysis. The dependent variable was the proportion of younger and older adults selecting Option B in each problem (see Table 1 ). We used a chi-square test to assess whether the choice proportions were significantly different across the child-directed, two frames (especially, whether the choice proportion is significantly higher in the negative frame than in the positive frame), indicating the presence of Like by Lorrie a framing effect. In the without-justification condition, younger adults did not show a reliable framing effect in the fatal disease problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 106) = 0.99, and child-directed speech they showed a marginal effect in characteristics genre the cancer treatment problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 106) = 3.13, p = .08. (The effect size of the original Asian disease problem is actually exceptionally large; its effect size was categorized as an child-directed is the: outlier in the meta-analysis of K#x000fc;hberger, 1998. According to him, an average effect size of Asian disease types of problems, i.e., problems with risk manipulation by a reference point, is around medium.

To give room for middle passage, an effect to child-directed speech, go up or down with younger and Essay Future: Implications older participants, we selected problems with effect sizes slightly lower than medium in the current study. Perhaps this is the child-directed speech is the:, reason why we did not find framing effects in Essay on Power Through younger adults in each problem.) Older adults, by contrast, showed a significant framing effect for both the fatal disease problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 106) 2 (1, N = 9.95, p #x0003c; .01, and the cancer treatment problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 106) = 16.06, p #x0003c; .01. In the with-justification condition, younger adults did not show a framing effect for either the problem of fatal disease, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 80) = 0.25, or of cancer treatment, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 80) = 1.26. Similarly, older adults did not show a framing effect = for either the is the:, fatal disease problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 80) = 1.32, or the cancer treatment problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 80) = 1.35. Across Problems: Pooled Data Analysis. We combined the choice data from the two problems to enable a powerful test of our hypotheses. (In order to Essay Freedom, examine the independence of participants#x02019; responses across two problems, we used McNemar#x02019;s test. Speech! McNemar#x02019;s test is a test used to examine whether repeated categorical responses in two different conditions are independent of each other. Is The Middle! The test results showed that responses or choices are independent, i.e., significantly different, from each other across the two problems for younger and older adults, respectively, in each justification condition.

Thus, these results should ensure that our collapsing of data across problems does not violate the child-directed speech is the:, responseindependence assumption of Outside the Box logistic regression.) We analyzed these pooled data by using logistic regression to examine main effects and interactions among three independent variables: frame (positive and negative), age (young and old) and justification (with and speech is the: without justification). Macbeth Literary Essay! First, we carried out model selection by using stepwise and backward selection methods to child-directed is the:, find a logistic regression model that best fits the data (e.g., SAS Institute, 1989). The final model we selected (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit #x003c7; 2 = 1.58, p = .95, df = 6) excluded the macbeth literary essay, three-way interaction (Age #x000d7; Justification #x000d7; Frame) and the one two-way interaction (Age #x000d7; Justification), and it included only three main effects (frame, age, and justification) and two two-way interactions (Age #x000d7; Frame and Justification #x000d7; Frame). Of these five parameters in the final model, three (one main effect and child-directed is the: two interactions) were statistically significant. Specifically, the main effect of frame was significant, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 744) = 6.84, p #x0003c; .01, indicating an overall framing effect. Like Life Moore! This effect, however, was qualified by two hypothesized interactions#x02014;Age #x000d7; Frame, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 744) = 4.66, p #x0003c; .05, and Justification #x000d7; Frame, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 744) = 4.53, p #x0003c; .05. The Age #x000d7; Frame interaction indicates that participants#x02019; age had an effect on the magnitude of the framing effect. To probe this further, we performed a separate logistic regression analysis for each age group. The main effect of frame was significant only for speech, older adults, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 372) = 22.29, p #x0003c; .01, but not for younger adults, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 372) = 3.13, p = .08, suggesting that older adults were more = vulnerable = to= this framing effect than younger adults.

The Justification #x000d7; Frame interaction indicates that the justification manipulation had an effect on Moore Essay the magnitude of the child-directed speech, framing effect. Like Essay! Separate analyses that we performed for each justification condition revealed a significant main effect of frame only for the without-justification condition, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 424) = 23.14, p #x0003c; .01, but not for the with-justification condition, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 320) = 2.12. Child-directed Speech! These results suggest that the justification manipulation significantly reduced the Essay on Power Freedom, framing effect for both younger and speech is the: older adults. In the current study we examined whether there are age differences in vulnerability to a framing effect. Literary! Faced with a problem couched in terms of the is the:, number of Essay The Philosophical people who will die as a result of two treatments#x02014;the classic negative frame#x02014; older adults were more risk seeking than younger adults and, by contrast, when given the identical problem couched in terms of the speech, number of Essay Our Posthuman The Philosophical Implications people who will live#x02014;the positive frame#x02014;older adults were more risk averse than younger adults. We observed a very similar pattern in the second problem, with older adults in this instance proving more likely to focus on short-term survival in the negative frame and on long-term survival in the positive frame. In other words, older adults#x02019; decisions were more influenced by the language frame, at child-directed, least for is the, problems such as those used here, both of which may well have an emotional context.

Furthermore, as we expected on speech the basis of earlier studies asking younger participants to provide a rationale for their decisions (e.g., Sieck #x00026; Yates, 1997; Takemura, 1993), the what middle, justification manipulation significantly reduced the present framing effect for both younger and child-directed speech is the: older adults. Characteristics Of Horror Genre! Clearly, older adults can use analytic processes that enable them to base their decisions on is the: a problem#x02019;s deeper structure, rather than on its superficial language. The current data are consistent with the genre, resource allocation hypothesis proposed by Hess, Rosenberg, and Waters (2001). According to this hypothesis, because older adults have limited cognitive resources, they tend to rely on heuristic information processing in order to conserve their mental energy for important tasks. Child-directed Speech! As a result, Hess and colleagues argued that older adults can perform as well as younger adults in a relatively low resource-demanding task when they are highly motivated to process information systematically.

Our data fit with this explanation, if this decision situation can be thought of as one making a low demand, in Like Life Essay that older adults were more likely to show framing effects than younger adults because they tended to rely on heuristic information processing more than younger adults, but their performance improved up to the level of younger adults when they were encouraged to child-directed speech is the:, process information systematically. Our current findings have important practical implications for Life by Lorrie Moore Essay, older adults#x02019; decision making, especially in is the: medical decision domains. This is a domain full of risky decisions that have to be made. Thus, knowing that older adults are more vulnerable than younger adults to how decision alternatives are verbally presented (framed), medical practitioners may need to of horror genre, pay greater attention to how they present medical information and treatment options when they communicate with elderly patients. Child-directed Speech! However, our current finding that older adults#x02019; heightened susceptibility to Through Freedom, verbal framing can be ameliorated by a simple justification manipulation suggests that a relatively easy, everyday solution may be available to older adults#x02014;along with others#x02014;to reduce some biases in choice. This research was supported by Grant R37 AGO4306 from the National Institute on Aging.

We thank all the people who helped us in child-directed speech is the: the data collection and entry processes of this project, including Rachelle Ta-Min, Ursula Wiprzycka, Ji-A Min, and many others.