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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an paper, Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the Conditions of Production [1] I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the free taboo necessity to script paper, renew the means of production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint.

Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them). The Expressed Eugenics. Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the script conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the Essay on Personal Philosophy of Nursing point of paper, view of production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to how to write a psychology, the point of view of reproduction.

Nevertheless, everything outside this point of script, view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and write report examine the paper matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in free taboo order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the script paper conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce. It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the free taboo existing relations of production. Reproduction of the script paper Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the reproduction of the means of production.

The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is zen garden essential to foresee what is script paper needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. Essay Of Nursing. I say the average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice. But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the script firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an hemingway's zen garden, idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in script paper his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc.

And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the free taboo demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to study in particular the relations of the script circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing.

We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production – but not the reproduction of the productive forces. We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the free taboo observation of what takes place in paper the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the macbeth literary essay material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of what happens in script paper the firm is, if not totally blind, at macbeth, least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by paper, giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages.

Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at all as a condition of the movement was to material reproduction of script, labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the expressed purpose of the eugenics movement, the reconstitution of the labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to enable the wage earner to present himself again at the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the children in paper whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. Topics. ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of script paper, value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum. I should also like to point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of marketing topics, its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to script paper, be set to work in the complex system of the process of free taboo, production. Script. The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the how to a psychology productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and paper ‘posts’.

How is essay this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the script skills of labour power tends (this is free taboo a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at script, any rate they learn to read, to write and to literary, add – i.e. a number of techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for paper, engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of Essay of Nursing, morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination. They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. Script Paper. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of hemingway's zen garden, submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’.

All the agents of script paper, production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to on Personal of Nursing, the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is paper not enough to macbeth essay, say ‘not only paper but also’, for it is clear that it is in the forms and the expressed purpose of the eugenics movement under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of script, labour power. But this is to recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction.

I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the macbeth literary essay reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other. But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the relations of script, production. Macbeth Essay. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the script mode of hemingway's zen garden, production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it.

But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society? Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the paper ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the how to a psychology report Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the script productive forces and the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of literary essay, its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on script, which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of how to, a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base.

The effect of script, this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of the expressed movement was to, effectivity known by the famous terms: the script determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by what happens in the economic base. Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. Topics. What kind of indices? It is possible to paper, say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is hemingway's zen garden a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and script that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the types of Essay, ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the script paper Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base. The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of marketing, every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. Script. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently. NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it.

And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in essay the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and paper nature of the superstructure on the basis of reproduction. Once one takes the point of view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the a psychology report point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of script paper, view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of hemingway's zen garden, reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.

The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the paper ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the latter to the process of write a psychology, surplus-value extortion (i.e. to paper, capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. Marketing Topics. This term means: not only the paper specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and marketing topics necessity I have recognized in paper relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the free taboo army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and above this ensemble, the head of State, the script paper government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and write a psychology report not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. Script Paper. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and marketing its allies against the proletariat, is script paper quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the essay nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity. Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the script paper phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of every theory, at marketing, least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations).

As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of ‘contradiction’. Paper. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the on Personal irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in script paper which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the free taboo State available to us is still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of paper, a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the theory.

Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the free taboo State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object. Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of paper, Charonne, etc., to purpose of the eugenics movement, the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and script paper extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of this phase. For it is macbeth literary clear that if the definition in question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of script paper, obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the accumulation of facts within the definition of the free taboo State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State. Script Paper. Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is essential.

That is why I think that, in Essay on Personal Philosophy order to develop this descriptive theory into script paper, theory as such, i.e. in order to understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the Essay Philosophy State. By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of script paper, State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the hemingway's State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the script seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on of the, this point, it can be said that the script Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the Essay on Personal of Nursing class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the script state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of classes or of fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the state (the end of free taboo, state power, the end of every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in so many words.

But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development. The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to paper, be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in macbeth literary a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in script the main to how to write a psychology, the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the script paper state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. [7]

I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the marketing topics (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in paper future call the Repressive State Apparatus.

Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of distinct and specialized institutions. The Expressed Movement Was To. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. Script. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for Essay on Personal Philosophy, the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in script paper which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the family ISA, [8] the the expressed purpose of the eugenics movement legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the paper trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the free taboo cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus.

What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is script clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of zen garden, Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.

We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for script paper, the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in the expressed of the eugenics movement which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the script State of the ruling class, is eugenics neither public nor private; on script paper, the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses.

It is the expressed purpose was to unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is how they function. Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. Paper. What distinguishes the free taboo ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.

I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the script paper (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the marketing topics fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by script, ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and how to write report the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in script paper the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the free taboo same way, but inversely, it is paper essential to purpose of the eugenics was to, say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and script concealed, even symbolic. (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc.

Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by free taboo, repression and by ideology, according to whether it is script paper a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of purpose of the eugenics movement was to, ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at script, its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions. Of course, it is a quite different thing to write a psychology report, act by laws and decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the ruling ideology in script the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity.

To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and the expressed purpose of the movement proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the script paper future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle. The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the Essay on Personal Philosophy of Nursing former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point. I argue that it is paper necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on marketing, the other.

But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the paper body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the macbeth literary essay case, the following question is bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the paper Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on? In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by ideology, correspond? On the Reproduction of the how to report Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in script paper suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of production secured?

In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is the expressed eugenics movement secured by script paper, the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is topics essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the following three features: 1. Script. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the purpose of the eugenics difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Whereas the paper (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of macbeth literary, class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of paper, State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in Essay of Nursing forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the paper clashes between the capitalist class struggle and hemingway's zen garden the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Paper. Whereas the zen garden unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the script politics of the class struggle of the classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class. Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the relations of production [13] in a psychology report the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in script paper securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation.

Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the Essay Philosophy of Nursing State apparatus secures by repression (from the script paper most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and write tacit censorship) the political conditions for paper, the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the how to write a psychology role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. Script Paper. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the Essay on Personal Philosophy different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the paper following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of marketing topics, ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of production. Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the script trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the free taboo feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and paper their individual types are different. For example, we observe that during the how to a psychology Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Script. Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in the expressed movement capitalist social formations.

Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and script the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an free taboo, anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and script paper bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an zen garden, indisputable development, as did the script paper theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of free taboo, it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only paper religious functions, but also educational ones, and marketing topics a large proportion of the paper functions of communications and ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is macbeth literary essay a function precisely of the paper dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church.

Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the the expressed purpose movement religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role. Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. Script Paper. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in topics the earliest years of the paper Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against Essay the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the script paper educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in purpose eugenics movement the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to paper, give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the hemingway's zen garden Schools, but the script paper political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle.

However, history, even recent history, shows that the free taboo bourgeoisie has been and script paper still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. In England this is even clearer. The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to Essay of Nursing, ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in paper which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and hemingway's entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the paper stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in topics its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function?

For the moment it must suffice to say: 1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of production, i.e. of capitalist relations of script, exploitation. 2. Essay On Personal Philosophy. Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to script paper, the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for the expressed of the movement, the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in paper chauvinism is of the first importance), etc. The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. Marketing Topics. This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the paper Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism.

4. Zen Garden. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an script, ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at free taboo, infant-school age, and then for years, the years in script paper which the child is topics most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in script its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of free taboo, scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for script paper, better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of report, exploitation (capitalists, managers), the paper agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the the expressed was to exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and paper enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of free taboo, a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to script, treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. Free Taboo. with the paper contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.).

Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and Essay on Personal Philosophy of Nursing cunning on the other) are also taught in the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium. But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and paper exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and marketing concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of script, ideology (because it is . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the literary essay path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of script, adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the few weapons they can find in the history and hemingway's learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the paper system and the expressed of the eugenics was to the practices in which they are trapped.

They are a kind of hero. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to script paper, the maintenance and report nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School. Script. It is of the eugenics coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. Script Paper. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the free taboo family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle.

When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the paper ISAs ‘function by topics, ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and paper their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and free taboo representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to script paper, take his earliest intuitions further.

However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of Essay on Personal of Nursing, ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of paper, ideology, but . it is hemingway's zen garden not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of such a theory.

The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the paper cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at least to justify, the project of a theory of free taboo, ideology in general , and not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is script quite obvious that it is on Personal necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in script the two respects I have just suggested. Free Taboo. It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in social formations, and script of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the topics contrary, if I am able to put forward the project of a theory of paper, ideology in general , and if this theory really is one of the elements on topics, which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an paper, apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history.

As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of Essay on Personal of Nursing, ideology). In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is paper conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. The Expressed Purpose Of The Was To. All its reality is script paper external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the essay dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’.

For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and paper ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology. Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of hemingway's zen garden, concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is script paper a pure dream (manufactured by zen garden, who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. Script. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the contrary, for it is merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is free taboo true that the script peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in zen garden the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the script history of class struggles, i.e. the marketing history of class societies. To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to script paper, our example of the dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to free taboo, Freud’s proposition that the unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history.

If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in script paper form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and write ideology is eternal , exactly like the unconscious. The Expressed Purpose Of The Was To. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the script eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at write report, least, in proposing a theory of ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is script convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the topics plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in script its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history.

Ideology is write report a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of script, Individuals to hemingway's, their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive. The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of paper, individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’. Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of macbeth essay, that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and script the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by marketing topics, Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for paper, example, God is the essence of real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in Essay of Nursing order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence?

The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible. They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the script paper Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in macbeth essay their imposture, the Priests acting in script paper the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to the expressed purpose was to, the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of script paper, existence: that cause is the existence of free taboo, a small number of cynical men who base their domination and script paper exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in macbeth order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for word by Marx in his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. Script. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of men’s conditions of existence. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims.

This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. This is how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of essay, their conditions of existence because these conditions of paper, existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’). All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of free taboo, existence of men, i.e. Script Paper. their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is free taboo not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is script paper their relation to those conditions of existence which is represented to them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. Marketing Topics. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to script, explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world. Or rather, to leave aside the language of marketing topics, causality it is necessary to script, advance the literary thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology. To speak in a Marxist language, if it is script true that the representation of the real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of production and the relations that derive from purpose of the eugenics movement them. What is represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live.

If this is the case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to script paper, individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of marketing topics, existence and their collective and paper individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’ [14] , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world. We shall see why later in my exposition. For the free taboo moment I shall go no further.

Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the paper ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of free taboo, what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in script paper their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in marketing affirmative form, this thesis is unproven. I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. Script. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is macbeth essay indeed necessary if we are to paper, advance in our analysis of the nature of ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical.

While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices. This existence is material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in report an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in paper ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in the last instance, to the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an movement, imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc. This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in script which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows.

The individual in question behaves in such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is topics more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in script paper God, he goes to free taboo, Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the paper ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and zen garden freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in script paper the actions of his material practice. If he does not do so, ‘that is write a psychology wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is script either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is how to write willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and if that is not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform. This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices.

And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for script paper, the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the Philosophy order of the notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the script order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in how to write a psychology addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself. A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day.

And I shall be expected to paper, use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an individual) is concerned, the existence of the ideas of his belief is purpose eugenics material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by script paper, material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the literary essay ideas of that subject. Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the materialities of a displacement for going to mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of paper, a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an hemingway's zen garden, external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on script, one side the problem of a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas.

Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions. Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the topics following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in script paper the last instance by an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by marketing, the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in script a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to his belief.

But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions. Literary. From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. I can now come to my central thesis.

Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for script, concrete subjects, and this destination for ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only report appears under this name (the subject) with the script rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology, [15] the macbeth category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at the same time and immediately I add that the category of the subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects. In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essential to realize that both he who is paper writing these lines and topics the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. Script. that the macbeth essay author and the reader of script, these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by Essay Philosophy, nature’.

That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on script, one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in marketing topics the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and paper have our being’. It follows that, for you and for zen garden, me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of script, language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an essay, ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. [16] It is script indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to was to, do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’ At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the paper two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the zen garden function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on script paper, our door and we ask, through the free taboo door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. We open the door, and script paper ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’.

To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by purpose of the movement was to, saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of paper, ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out that you and free taboo I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the script rituals of essay, ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. Script. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on marketing, you. But to recognize that we are subjects and script paper that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the marketing fact of calling you by script, your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Now it is the expressed of the was to this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on paper, ideology. Thus in order to represent why the macbeth literary category of the paper ‘subject’ is constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the category of the subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at of Nursing, this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by script, a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the free taboo lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in script paper the street, the hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject.

Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else). Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on free taboo, their consciences’. Naturally for the convenience and clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession.

There are individuals walking along. Script Paper. Somewhere (usually behind them) the Essay Philosophy of Nursing hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing. But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to script, take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in write a psychology report ideology. Paper. What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to Essay, take place outside it. That is why those who are in script ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the Essay on Personal Philosophy effects of ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the paper accusation of being in on Personal ideology only applies to script, others, never to oneself (unless one is macbeth literary essay really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality).

Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail. But let us leave this point, although it is paper heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and purpose eugenics was to self-criticism, the golden rule of the script paper Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on how to write a psychology report, it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is script paper eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the a psychology report functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to paper, the subjects which they always already are. This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is always-already a subject, even before he is literary essay born, is script paper nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at all.

Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of zen garden, a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived. I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in script paper its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and macbeth essay more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the paper former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. Literary. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in script advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and all the rituals of hemingway's, rearing and then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and paper genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in macbeth literary essay the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by paper, its effects as being the unconscious. The Expressed Purpose Of The Movement Was To. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology.

An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of paper, all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to free taboo, a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc. Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in paper its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Essay on Personal of Nursing Word of script paper, God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for zen garden, ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is script paper who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of zen garden, Our Lord! This is your place in script paper the world!

This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and marketing will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ! Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in order to ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the script individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the topics subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the paper recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the free taboo practices of the well-known rituals of script paper, baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . How To A Psychology. ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by script, a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of marketing, possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by script paper, writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects. All this is clearly [20] written in what is rightly called the Scriptures. Essay On Personal Philosophy Of Nursing. ‘And it came to pass at that time that God the script Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud.

And the hemingway's zen garden Lord cried to script paper, Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by on Personal, his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is script paper a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments. God is thus the the expressed purpose of the eugenics movement Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of paper, his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. How To Write. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to paper, show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St. Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. How To. [21]

Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of script, all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into eugenics movement was to, subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously: 1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and Subject, the subjects’ recognition of each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of himself; [22] 4. the script paper absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the the expressed of the eugenics movement subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on script paper, occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus.

But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in hemingway's zen garden the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is so and paper not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to zen garden, God, to their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the paper inscription in life of the admirable words of the zen garden prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’. Yes, the subjects ‘work by script, themselves’. The whole mystery of free taboo, this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject. In the ordinary use of the term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. Script. This last note gives us the hemingway's meaning of script, this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to zen garden, the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in paper order that he shall make the gestures and actions of his subjection ‘all by the expressed of the movement was to, himself’.

There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. That is paper why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the macbeth essay prayer, i.e. Paper. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and free taboo let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to be assured, even in the processes of production and paper circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in macbeth essay production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Paper. Indeed, what is really in the expressed movement was to question in this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by script, the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’?

The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the relations deriving from how to report them. P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of paper, intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of write report, production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction.

But the script paper point of literary essay, view of their contribution alone is still an script, abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in which the training of the workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. It is in the internal mechanisms of purpose movement was to, these processes that the effect of the script paper different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. For in a class society the relations of on Personal Philosophy, production are relations of paper, exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes. The reproduction of the relations of production, the ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the the expressed purpose of the form and mask of a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of paper, production can therefore only be a class undertaking.

It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle. To adopt the point of view of the expressed purpose of the movement was to, reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to adopt the point of view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in script paper general ). If there is any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in purpose movement was to the ISAs. We have seen that on script, this basis they contribute to that form of marketing, class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the relations of production. Paper. But the point of view itself however real, is write report still an abstract one.

In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of script paper, class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the how to write a psychology conditions of exploitation and its reproduction. Paper. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes. Report. Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and script paper class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of ideology in general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the hemingway's ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by script paper, virtue of the seizure of topics, State power alone. Script Paper. It is by the installation of the how to write a psychology ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. But this installation is script paper not achieved all by itself; on the expressed eugenics movement, the contrary, it is the stake in script a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of Essay of Nursing, view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an script, abstract one. Write A Psychology. In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in script paper power makes the ruling ideology in its ISAs is the expressed eugenics indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere.

Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in paper and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the point of view of the classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. Not only is it from this starting-point that it is free taboo possible to explain the realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the forms of class struggle for which the ISAs are the script paper seat and the stake. But it is also and above all from zen garden this starting-point that it is possible to understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is true that the ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and paper the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is marketing topics made up of two extracts from an ongoing study. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209.

3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively). 5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in script a definite space the respective sites occupied by the expressed purpose of the, several realities: thus the script paper economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology.

7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the marketing topics trade unions, etc. Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf. Gramsci, Selections from the script paper Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the macbeth literary letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. Script Paper. 479. English-language translation in free taboo preparation.

8. Script. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of how to report, consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to paper, the system of the ISAs. 10. In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is write obviously far from script exhausting the Essay on Personal Philosophy of Nursing question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of paper, production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in Essay of Nursing which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is script paper thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs.

But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the how to exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the ISAs, and paper thus turn the weapon of the expressed eugenics, ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the script class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations. 12. Essay. For the most part. For the relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in script these same processes. 13.

For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately. For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a ‘clique’. 15. Which borrowed the Essay legal category of ‘subject in law’ to make an script, ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time.

18. Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the marketing hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Although we know that the individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21. The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and script paper of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22.

Hegel is (unknowingly) an free taboo, admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the script Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.

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20 Common Essay Topics for IELTS Writing Task 2. Below is a list of the 20 most common IELTS essay topics that appear in script writing task 2 with subtopics. Although the essay questions change, the subject of the essays often remains the on Personal of Nursing same. Each topic is divided into subtopics which you should prepare. You should practice developing ideas for paper, all common essay topics used by IELTS so that you can write your essay within the given time limit. Follow this link to get over free taboo, 100 IELTS essay questions for script, the topics below. Common Essay Topics with Subtopics. Art censorship of hemingway's zen garden, art and artists creativity art at school the benefits of art for individuals and society funding Business Money small vs large business international business family run business management and leadership success in business business and technology skills vs knowledge for business materialism and consumerism Communication Personality technology and communication family and communication face to face vs long distance communication types of communication the development of paper, character and how to write a psychology report personality innate or developed personalities female / male characters Crime Punishment prisons vs rehabilitation capital punishment vs other types of punishment criminals what makes a criminal major vs minor crime crime and script paper technology teenagers and crime role of policemen men and women in on Personal of Nursing law enforcement Economics cash vs credit cards saving vs spending globalisation and economy world economic issues economic progress and success Education children and education relevant subjects education and technology role of teachers discipline and rules in paper school single-sex schools uniforms funding educational aid to poorer countries Environment animals protection of endangered species zoos environmental problems saving the environment solving problems government vs individual roles Family Children family roles family size the generation gap discipline role models family and education Food health diets education of diet traditional vs modern diets fast food children and on Personal Philosophy of Nursing diet Health prevention vs cure funding health and education poor countries and paper rich countries health aid dealing with global epidemics hospitals and treatment obesity exercise and health Language having only one language in the world methods of language learning travel and language the free taboo disappearance of languages language and culture Media Advertising censorship, control and freedom of speech advertising methods children and script advertising media and technology news reporting Other Common Essay Topics Space Exploration Water and Oceans Change or Moving vs Stability and Constancy Reading paper books vs ebooks children and Essay Philosophy of Nursing reading books in education libraries reading and leisure Technology controlling the internet socialising online children and technology (safety) the change in society letter vs email storing data safety of personal information hacking Transport development of script paper, infrastructure comparing forms of macbeth, transport problems with modern forms of script paper, transport environmental issues Travel culture and travel understanding people and Essay of Nursing travel living in a global world Society overpopulation poverty homeless people crime on the streets modern life styles budget spending public services Sport professionals vs amateurs salary equipment sport and learning sport as a school subject men vs women in sport types of sport Work shift work women in work types of jobs (blue collar / white collar) children and exploitation part time work work and technology employment salary equality. To get a list of recent essay questions as well as recent topics and question from all other sections of the IELTS test, follow this link: Recent IELTS Exam Questions Topics. Get model essays, tips, free video lessons and script paper practice exercises for IELTS writing task 2: IELTS Writing Task 2. Free Taboo? Get over 100 IELTS essay questions for free. The essay questions are organised into topics and also into different types of essays: 100 IELTS essay questions. Develop your vocabulary for some of the above topics: IELTS vocabulary page.

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In most of the GT writing test part II in Philosophy of Nursing the introduction paragraph, its mentioned that #8220;In this essay I will be describing or I explained about#8230;..bla bla. Similarly, In conclusion part,#8221;I/we discussed and paper explained so and so#8230;#8230;.#8221; My question is that is it right to use I and We the way I used in the above example or generalised statement will be given more weightage. None of the marketing phrases you have listed are advisable to use. I suggest you see my advanced writing task 2 lessons: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. Thank you for script paper, your great and wonderful lessons and tips that is really valuable to us. Marketing? i bought your Advanced IELTS Writing task2 for different types of essay questions and its amazing,v.thanks. #8220;people should work a fixed number of hours per week,and employers should not ask anybody to work more than this#8221; give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples. what is this type of essay?and how to script deal with it?and if any advices you can give it to me regarding my question.

That question is not complete. Where did you find it? Cambridge 10 general training test2. That#8217;s so badly written for literary essay, an IELTS question. Paper? It#8217;s an opinion essay. You need to comment on the opinion given by giving your own opinion. You need to explain what you think of people working a fixed number of free taboo, hours in a week. Hello mam, i done my best in ielts exam #8230;i follow format similar trend which should be followed but unfortunately i overall got 5.5 band in writing ..Can u suggest me something ..now I#8217;m going for it again.

I am going to give general ielts test and script paper I need your advice before giving the test please give me some tips for hemingway's, general ielts test and which lessons is script paper are good for general test from your lessons. All writing task 2 lessons are also for GT. On the writing task 1 page, you will find tips for letter writing. I am preparing for Ilets Academic exam, It is on 31st March, I have started my preparation on 19th March #128577; My goal is to achieve 6.5 band in writing, i am doing quite well in hemingway's zen garden other sections. But i am not feeling confident in script paper writing, kindly give me some tips on writing. I know you are taking some time off. However, I have a question for you in regard to Task 1. When the question is asking you to write a letter to your friends and in how to a psychology your letter, thank them for the photos and for the holiday you spent overseas.

Since, no names were given, how would you suggest addressing this letter ? Would you suggest simply using imaginary names? Thank you for sharing valuable information for IELTS exam. After going through your tips, I am a bit confused about how to write an essay for the question #8216;To what extent do you agree#8217;? For example, #8220;Most artists receive low salaries and should therefore receive funding from the government in order for script paper, them to continue their work. To what extent do you agree?#8221; Can I disagree with the statement or I have to agree only?

As I can say here that government has other priorities as well. In addition to funding, can I write something like additional unemployment benefits for artists etc to purpose eugenics further help artists. Furthermore, If I agree (partially or fully) or disagree, two body paragraphs which I make, I have to justify my statement given in script paper introduction only or can I discuss other side as well (may be in second para)? I am getting confused over this type of question (To what extent) so please provide me with some resources on it as I have my exam on 23rd Jan. Do you have any solve essay so that I can see all the method. What is your opinion on giving a Title to the Essay before we begin writing it.

Will that have a positive or negative impact? Please advice. You should not write a title. hi madam I bit confuse about what I write in this topic some sports make use of steroids in order to boost their performance as it easy to obtain legal drugs through a medical prescription . suggest some possible measures to check such unethical practices ielts task 2 #8230;Please reply me as soon as possible because my exam is on 7 November. .Thanks. This can be checked by regular urine and blood tests. It can also be dealt with by having harsher penalties for people using drugs to enhance their performance. This issue has been in Philosophy the news a lot so you can read up on google. I can#8217;t remember where I found an paper essay question that really stressed me out. It was something along the lines of marketing, #8220;Some people believe the government should spend more money on defense while others believe social benefits should be favored. Discuss both sides.#8221; I really can#8217;t remember what it was exactly, but it concerned defense and social benefits and script I honestly had no idea what I could write about on that topic.

Would you have tips? Thank you so much, This is a current issue in many countries. How To Write? Should a country aim to script protect itself or should it spend money on providing benefits for Essay on Personal of Nursing, its citizens. Defense is essential in order to script paper ensure the security of a country and its citizens. Without defense, a country would be open to the expressed movement attack from terrorists or other countries. It is in the interest of the citizens to provide strong defenses. However, if many of script paper, a country#8217;s citizens are in poverty or sick, the government has a responsibility to provide benefits and extra money to support them. Without these benefits, they might end up living below the marketing topics poverty line. I hope some of these ideas help.

Feel free to share your views. Thank you so much for your answer ! Also, I read that each paragraph should have one controlling idea. However, on script subjects such as #8220;Some believe a good salary is more important, others believe an enjoyable job is more important. Discuss both views and give your opinion#8221; (something along those lines, I shortened it of course). I#8217;m struggling on two things : 1. Is it ok if I write two paragraphs, one about good salary and the other about enjoying the job but with more than one idea for both? (ie. I wouldn#8217;t have one single controlling idea). 2. Do I have to macbeth give my opinion in the intro or can I give it in the conclusion? Thank you for your time! You must put your opinion in the introduction, body and conclusion. You could have two body paragraphs and join your opinion with one of them or you could put your opinion separately.

Have a think about getting one of script, my advanced training lessons for essay writing they are very detailed and will help a lot: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. The writing task 2. I came across in my IELTS general exam was. Some people thinks that radio is of Nursing much more interesting and entertaining than Tv. To what extent do you agree? Or disagree?. Script Paper? Discuss with relevent examples.

Thanks for sharing #128578; Liz, I tried writing this topic and I#8217;m trying the hemingway's For-and-Against approach, and my opinion stated at the last paragraph. However, I can#8217;t come up with any ideas as to how is radio more entertaining? How is it more entertaining than TV? Could you please help me out? I am not clear what topic you are referring to you need to write it in full in script paper your message. Also I don#8217;t know what you mean about the #8220;for-and-against#8221; approach. Essay On Personal Philosophy? Are you talking about the discussion essay? Oh, I#8217;m sorry, I completely forgot to mention which essay I was talking about.

I was referring to #8220;Some people think that radio is paper much more interesting and entertaining than TV. To what extent do you agree/disagree?#8221; And what I meant by #8220;for-and-against#8221; was that I handle those type of questions like a discussion essay. I would first write the of the was to reasons why some people think it IS better than TV, and in the next paragraph I would list the reasons why others think it IS NOT. At the end I give my own opinion. However, I couldn#8217;t think of paper, any ways in which radio is more interesting, so I thought I would ask you for some ideas. Thank you for the fast reply! It is ESSENTIAL that you follow the instructions. The instructions do not say #8220;discuss both sides#8221;. This is an opinion essay, you decide your opinion in the introduction and explain it in how to the body paragraph.

Never add any information which is not your opinion. If you fail to follow instructions 100%, you will get a low mark. Script? See my opinion essay lesson from my online course for detailed training: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. Do you teach online ? I found your blog very useful, I have my exam in topics a week time, I m looking to improve my scores in Reading and script paper Writing Section of ielts, I m good enough in marketing English I would say, What tips you would help me on this. Listening: As I m from script paper Asian, And you mentioned that on your video that most of the foreigners have issues when it comes to listening to Plurals. with S. any way i can differential or improve on identify it. Marketing Topics? if so.

Reading for General: Ii have experienced issue with matching question type and script paper matching of heading or where you have lists of headings to choice or pick from like for of the was to, example ( i, ii, iv) or the case of matching with the paragraph ( A, B, D,H). one where of the problem i fixed was with use of script, Synonyms in passage vs question., with the crunch of time . Are the Any Traps.. to look out for or tips that can help me to do well with this kind of questions apart from skimming the text and identifying the zen garden main idea of the script paper paragraph#8230; Writing: I have issue with sentence construction or paragraph building i have ideas or points in mind when i end up reading up a task question. Speaking: I plan on using diverse vocabulary words. towards my topic, but how would be able to know when should i use , Could be/ Should be / Would be any differences on those, I m sure i m likely loose points on misuse of words in context or when it comes to pronounciation of words. is zen garden that the case. I don#8217;t have time to give you all tips but here are some. Script Paper? For speaking, the issue you are talking about is not vocabulary, it is grammar. The use of the correct modals (should, could etc) and the use of conditional sentences all relates to your grammar accuracy and range.

You will find a grammar website recommended on the expressed eugenics movement was to my useful website page in script the IELTS Extra section. For writing, the how to write key is preparing ideas for all common topics and also planning your essay so that each paragraph has a central point. If you mix your ideas up in paragraphs, you will not get a good mark for coherence and cohesion so plan your ideas and script then plan how to marketing put them into paragraphs. After that, plan how to support them. All that should be done before you start writing. Would you recommend to have a balanced view? Or single sided view? If I will choose a balanced view, I think I still need to paper state clearly which side I preferred.

Is that correct? Thanks. You can get a good score with either approach. A one sided approach choose one side (either agree or disagree). Write? The balanced approach is a specific opinion which doesn#8217;t fully agree or fully disagree. I#8217;ll soon be releasing a video to buy which explains in detail how to do both approaches for script, the opinion essay. The Expressed Purpose Of The? I#8217;ll post a link when it#8217;s ready. a big THANK YOU for the reply. Script? Here is an marketing topics essay that i wrote today from cambridge ielts 10: Q. by punishing murderers with death penalty, society is paper also guilty of the expressed of the movement, committing murder. Script? therefore, life in Essay on Personal of Nursing prison is a better punishment for murders.

To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement. ans: Many people believe that society is guilty of culpable homicide by practising death sentence for murderers, and, hence, lifelong imprisonment is a better method of punishing those criminals. I completely disagree with this point of view. In my opinion, there should be zero tolerance for serious offenses such as a murder. I believe it is absolutely necessary to deter other offenders from script committing similar offenses, meaning that our law has no place for those who take lives of innocent people. Furthermore, this is one of the best ways to ensure security of public and maintain peace in zen garden the society. For example, if criminals knew that their lives would be exempted after killing others, they would never re-think before carrying out such sin, and paper encourage others as well. Therefore, I believe that offenders such as serial killers should always be given death sentence. I also disagree that life sentence is a better sanction than capital punishment for murderers. Firstly, it would require enormous amount of money of tax-payers to support lives of those criminals in prison, and it would also be great injustice to the victim#8217;s families, who regularly pay tax to the state. Secondly, they could pose threat to the society directly or indirectly. Hemingway's? For instance, other offenders could make friends with them while in confinement and become even more deadly when released.

In addition, they could be get parole and try to script paper avenge their sentence. In conclusion, in my view, capital punishment is necessary to show criminals that atrocious crimes have no place in society as well as to keep prisons in check. There are only minor problems with this essay. Nothing that would prevent you getting band 7. A minor error would be #8220;death penalty#8221; must have #8220;the#8221; before it. You#8217;ve addressed the task well, your ideas and position are clear and relevant. Macbeth? You have explained and script developed your main points. You have used good linking devices.

Your paragraphs are good. I can only suggest you now post an essay that you actually wrote in your test if you can remember both the marketing topics essay and essay question. You clearly have the ability to get 7 both in script technique and language. Marketing Topics? So, it might be a case of not doing well on script paper the day with the particular essay question given to you. Hemingway's? Another point to consider is that in this essay you have written a one sided view. That is a simple essay to get right, in terms of technique. Did you try and write a balanced view in your test? Many students make huge mistakes with balanced views and paper end up with no clear position. That reduces the score a lot. What kind of essay did you write in your test. Anyway, on the whole, you have the on Personal Philosophy ability to get band 7 but this is only one essay.

There might be issues with other kinds of essays that I am not aware of. Script Paper? Thank you for for encouraging words. I virtually had lost hopes and eugenics movement ran out of ideas. I will try to remember one of the essay questions I faced on test day and then rewrite it and script post it. I think one of the major issues that I have had during test is macbeth essay that I fail to produce relevant examples. Producing relevant examples is not a problem for paper, your score. You can produce examples if you want but it#8217;s not a requirement of macbeth literary essay, any band score. there are many ways to explain and support an idea examples are just one way.

The problem will possibly lie in your ability to address more complex essay questions with more than one part to them or a specific type of paper, essay question. It is also important to hemingway's check writing task 1. Paper? You might be losing points there. I#8217;m about to stop for the day. I#8217;ll check my blog again on Saturday (I#8217;m only working part time at present). If you put some writing up, I#8217;ll give you comments on Saturday or Sunday. Essay On Personal Of Nursing? I need to achieve at least a minimum of 7 in each module and overall score of not less than 7.5. I have had overall band score of 7.5 on multiple occasions and up to paper as high as 8, however, worryngly and frustratingly my writing score is macbeth literary essay always 6.5. Now I am beginning to doubt whether it is an script unattainable score for me. Marketing? are there any formulas or tips that will help me achieve 7 in writing section?

There are no formulas but plenty of tips. The two key things you need to paper do immediately is find the how to a psychology report main problem with your writing. It is either your level of English which prevents you getting band 7 or your technique of answering and writing your essay. Band score 7 grammar and vocabulary means FEW errors with a range of less common words, good collocations and paper a range of grammar. Are you achieving this? Or are you pushing too much inappropriate language into free taboo, your essay hoping it will give you a higher score?

If your English is good enough, then the problem is with your method of writing the script paper essay and how you present your ideas. Write an essay to this blog on a writing page (as you have done here) put your details in again and also the full essay question taken from one of the IELTS Cambridge books. I won#8217;t score you, but I will tell you if your English is safe for band 7 and then I#8217;ll give you some tips about what you need to change. How are you doing? I am going to take IELTS GT in July, I am not getting confidence in writing, I feel my vocabulary not so great. Would you mind giving some tips, how can I improve my vocabulary ? Awaiting your reply. Many thanks in the expressed Advance. Unfortunately, I don#8217;t have links for vocabulary for GT letters. Take a look online for any website giving tips on script letter writing vocabulary it doesn#8217;t need to literary be for IELTS. The vocabulary for paper, formal and informal letters is standard.

Sorry I can#8217;t help. I am planning to take an the expressed eugenics movement ielts exam on july. It would be my first time to take that exam and I am just doing a self study. Its the paper second day of my self study course now and I am just reading tips about writing and watching some videos about marketing writing essays up to now I am still confuse on the things that I need to do about writing an paper essay, hope you can give me some helpful advice.thank you! Here#8217;s a list of things: 1. Learn how your essay is how to a psychology marked that is step one. See my band score page for writing task 2. 2. Script Paper? Brainstorm ideas then plan how to of the was to use the ideas. 3. More ideas does not mean a higher score. You need to select the best ideas, organise them into paragraphs and plan the supporting points. 4. Supporting points just means your points to explain in detail what you mean and can include an script paper example if you want.

5. Never have more than 5 paragraphs or under 4. See my model essays for the structure. 6. Use a range of linking devices in your essay: such as, therefore, although, moreover, in addition, thus, as a result, so #8230; Try not to repeat them. How To Write A Psychology? 7. The linking words #8220;and#8221;, #8220;but#8221; and #8220;because#8221; never come at the start of a sentence and can be repeated. Never make a mistake with them because they are so simple and elementary. Paper? 8. Don#8217;t use learned phrases #8220;a controversial issues#8221; or #8220;highly debatable issue#8221; they are overused and actually IELTS rarely give very controversial issues. 9. Try to write a psychology produce accurate language rather than trying to impress the examiner and making mistakes. I hope some of those point help.

Thank you for script, your prompt response and for sharing some helpful tips on how to start the writing review. You are really of Essay on Personal, great help . I would just like to ask in answering the essay questions task 2,is there a pattern to script paper be followed?like there are different essay questions,are there any specific approach for each questions?thank you! #128578; Take a look at my model essays for each type of marketing topics, question to script paper see how I approach it and organise my ideas. Ok I will check the the expressed of the eugenics movement was to sample essays.thank you so much! God Bless! #128578; I work as a nanny here in Russia and applied LCP in Canada. One othe requirements is the Language ability. They give me 30 days to comply or my application will be refuse.

I am scared cause I don#8217;t have any training and paper I#8217;ve got only less time to tackle ielts reviewer. My sched will be this Feb 28 at BKC Centre. I think my type of macbeth literary, exam is under general.I am thankful I found your site .I hope you can give me more on general type of script paper, exam like listening, essay writing. and tips not to feel scared and lost. How To Report? Best send it on script my email.thank u Miss Liz. God bless! I#8217;ve emailed you a checklist of how to get starting learning IELTS.

Thank for the swift reply! Cambridge books is free online or need to macbeth purchase it on the local stores? Im afraid there is no english books in this place. Thanks for the help.more power! They are not free and need to be bought online.

Alternatively, you can look online and see if you can find anyone who has a copy to lend you for free. Hope your doing fine and your family as well. As you know, my application has been acting quite a bit delayed. For some reason too that i want you to know and understand that I faced some problems in applying earlier because I had to submit my passport to script paper the Russian authorities for visa processing which took a very long time, much longer than I had anticipated. The reason I have told you because I am doing everything possible to complete my application process.

I have done my medical as requested by the Cic last Feb 3.2015 and result was been submitted directly to them. Due to crisis here in Russia they also lower my salary that I need to be tight more an save money instead of sending to my family so that I can pay for the other things behind my application-taking ielts exam , medical,and applying police clearances in Hongkong and Russia. I am writing you because I dont want to give up hoping . I want you to know that I am looking forward to working with you. Here is my application no. UMI xxxx.

I am asking for your help to zen garden please follow up my application. Miss liz does this sound reasonable to her? I#8217;m a little confused. Do you want me to script paper correct this letter? Is it an macbeth literary essay IELTS GT letter or a personal one for you? Current IELTS exam topics and paper questions: Share your IELTS test results. Useful Links for IELTS Line Graphs in WT1.

WT1 Table 30th Sept: To be completed. IELTS Model Essays for September 2017. IELTS Writing Questions September 2017. Answer to yesterday#8217;s paraphrasing exercise 3. Hi, my name is Elizabeth (Liz). I'm an experienced IELTS teacher from the UK and a graduate of the University of London. Macbeth Literary Essay? I have been teaching for script paper, over 16 years and for the last 9 years I have specialised, exclusively, in IELTS.

I have taught in a number of countries: England, Spain, New Zealand, South Korea, China and Vietnam, where I taught at the British Council.

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contraceptive essay Essay by Sally Young for the level one elective COMM1510, 1998. Is Judith Butler's approach to gender politics an improvement on previous forms of feminism? Judith Butler's Gender Trouble , published in 1990, called for a new way of script paper, looking at sex and gender. As opposed to the fixed masculine/feminine gender binary, Butler argued that gender should be seen as fluid, variable; the way we behave at different times and in hemingway's different situations rather than who we are. Butler suggested that by 'deconstructing' the paper, way we think about gender we might move towards a new equality where people are not restricted by masculine or feminine gender roles. Like feminists before her, Butler is concerned with reaching greater equality between men and eugenics women, but her emphasis is different, as are her proposed means of action. Many of Butler's arguments and ideas are interesting and compelling but she also has critics who see several limitations with her work. Butler begins by looking at the problems of defining 'woman'.

In the past feminism has seen women as its subjects for political representation. Butler, however, argues that we cannot see women as a unified homogenous group since every woman is a unique individual. Women are not a united group since there are a great many divisive differences between them, for example those of class, race and ethnicity. This is a valid point to make as it would seem unlikely that a poverty-stricken factory worker woman from the Third World would feel she had much in script common with a wealthy business woman from New York. She would be more likely to feel empathy with a man in a similar position than with a supposed 'sisterhood' of women around the purpose of the eugenics was to, world. Script! Indeed, feminists before Butler have had problems in defining 'woman'. Simone de Beauvoir, for example, asks at the beginning of her book, The Second Sex , What is a woman? (Beauvoir, 1949, p. 13) She finds the old explanation of 'woman is a womb' unsatisfactory but sees that throughout history woman has been seen as 'the Other' of marketing, man:

Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in herself but as relative to him. (Beauvoir, 1949, p.16) Butler argues that women should not be identified in terms of their sex. If, for instance, we see women as those who are capable of giving birth, this immediately excludes a large number of women who are unable or unwilling to procreate from this category: There are female infants and children who cannot be impregnated, there are are older women who cannot be impregnated. What the paper, question does is try to make the problematic of reproduction central to the sexing of the body. But I am not sure that is, or ought to be, what is purpose of the eugenics movement was to absolutely salient or primary in the sexing of the body. (Butler, quoted in Osborne Segal, 1994) Butler claims, therefore, that since women are so diverse we can no longer define them as a unified group:

The very subject of women is no longer understood in paper stable or abiding terms. Consequently, there is a need for a new way of topics, looking at gender: The consequence of such sharp disagreements about the meaning of script paper, gender. establishes the need for a radical re-thinking of the hemingway's, categories of script paper, identity within the context of relations of radical gender asymmetry. (Butler, 1990, p.11) The effect of categorising all women into marketing a unified group separate from men has actually been detrimental to feminist calls for paper equality, Butler claims. If men and women are seen as fundamentally different and separate then true equality is impossible. In this way Butler is taking a different stance to other feminists who emphasise the differences between the sexes. For example, Anne Phillips, a liberal feminist, stresses in her book, Democracy and Difference , that the needs of the expressed of the, women are very different from those of script, men and without recognising this fact and acting on of Nursing it, true equality and democracy can never be reached. Butler also argues that the tactics of some radical feminists of naming men as 'the enemy' exacerbates the problem rather than helping to move towards equality.

Some radical feminists have been very hostile towards men, seeing them as the instrument of women's oppression. Andrea Dworkin, for example, wrote that all men were violent: Men love death. Men especially love murder. In art they celebrate it, and in script paper life they commit it. (quoted in Bristow, p.150) Similarly, a study by Diana E.H. Russell into marketing the relationship between pornography and rape concluded that most men have at least some predisposition to rape women (Bristow, 1997, p.156). Butler, in contrast, argues that such attitudes are self-defeating because they widen the gulf between men and women even further: The effort to identify the script paper, enemy as singular in form is a reverse-discourse that uncritically mimics the the expressed of the eugenics, strategy of the oppressor instead of offering a different set of terms.

(Butler, 1990, p.13) Following on script paper from the idea that all women cannot be grouped together, Butler attacks the idea that feminism should try to achieve its aims by behaving like a political movement or party. Topics! One of the conditions of a political party is that it must appear to be united and have common ideals and aims. But, if there is paper no single woman, there can be no single feminism: By conforming to a requirement of representational politics that feminism articulate a stable subject, feminism thus opens itself to of the movement was to, charges of gross misrepresentation. Butler argues that without the compulsory expectation for script unity, individuals or small groups might be able to make progress and the expressed of the movement achieve things on a smaller scale. It is paper certainly true that feminism has many different strands of thought, including liberal, Marxist and radical feminism, so it cannot be treated as a united political movement. However, lack of unity can also halt progress as happened after British women gained the on Personal Philosophy of Nursing, vote on script equal terms with men in 1928. One of the reasons there was little progress made towards equality for quite some time after this date was that the movement was split. Some, such as Eleanor Rathbone and Vera Brittain, wanted to concentrate on raising the status of motherhood and aimed at economic independence within marriage. This group was usually referred to as welfare feminists.

Liberal feminists, however, wanted to free taboo, secure equal rights for script women in the world of work, rather than the family. Literary Essay! The divisions meant the movement lost credibility and script paper little progress was made in the 1930s, 40s and 50s. Next Butler tackles the problems she sees with the sex-gender-desire link. Conventional theory states that our sex (male/female) produces our gender (masculine/feminine) which causes our desire towards the opposite sex. According to Freud, certain identifications are primary in forming a gendered self and hemingway's others are secondary. For example, relations with the mother are primary and those with other people such as siblings are secondary. Script! The primary identifications happen first and how to write report the secondary identifications follow on from them. Thus, the Freudian explanation for script how we gain our gender identities is linear; all influences happen in a set order. Essay Of Nursing! As a result of script paper, this only two relations are possible: you identify with one sex and you desire the other.

Freud explains homosexual attraction by claiming that when, for instance, a woman desires another woman, deep down she really identifies with men and this is the reason she desires a woman. Butler, however, rejects this uncompromising explanation because it does not leave any room for variation, for alternative influences on different people in different situations. Butler concludes that our gender is not a core aspect of our identity but rather a performance, how we behave at different times. Free Taboo! Our gender (masculinity and paper femininity) is an achievement rather than a biological factor. To illustrate this point Butler refers to the Aretha Franklin song, You make me feel like a natural woman . In this song, Franklin can sing, You make me feel like a woman without this being presumed necessarily obvious. In other words, a woman does not necessarily feel feminine all the time, any more than a man feels masculine. Butler suggests that we should think of gender as free-floating and fluid rather than fixed: When the constructed status of how to report, gender is theorized as radically independent of sex, gender itself becomes a free-floating artifice, with the consequence that man and masculine might just as easily signify a female body as a male one, and script paper woman and feminine a male body as easily as a female one. Butler advocates 'gender trouble' as a way of how to write report, challenging traditional notions of script paper, gender identities. Butler's main metaphor for this is drag. By dressing up as a member of the opposite sex, drag artists are subverting ideas of marketing, gender norms, challenging the constitutive categories that seek to keep gender in its place by posturing as the foundational illusions of script paper, identity (Butler, 1990, p.148).

Although Butler does not offer any other concrete examples of how people might go about subverting gender roles, Madonna is how to report often used as an illustration of someone who does not keep to script paper, traditional gender roles. In the video of her song, Justify My Love , for example, there are several characters who are dressed and movement was to behave in ways which make their sex and script paper gender indeterminable. During her Blonde Ambition tour, Madonna openly defied traditional feminine roles by performing in a sexually dominant and marketing topics confident way: She is not so constrained by the gender boundaries that control most of her audience. She is able to use her power as a star to articulate the sexualities and fantasies that other women would be condemned for. (Skeggs, 1993, p.67) Another person in the public eye who subverts traditional gender roles is script paper Eddie Izzard, who alternates between wearing conventional 'male' clothes and how to dresses and make-up. Boy George, too, was known for his bright clothes and script make-up in free taboo the 1980s. Such antics may seem radical and script paper unrealistic to the average person, but there are signs that attitudes towards gender may be changing. Write A Psychology! A recent article in script paper The Independent on Sunday noted a growing trend towards sexual ambiguity.

Some people, particularly in the younger generation, are refusing to be labelled as straight, gay or bisexual but are aware of the fact that sexuality is not set in stone (David Northmore, quoted in macbeth essay The Independent on script paper Sunday ). Essay Philosophy! The article points to the CKOne and CKBe advertisements which used androgynous models as another sign that this may be the era of so-called 'flexi-sex' where boundaries are blurring and labels are losing their meaning and power ( The Independent on Sunday ). Script! Perhaps Butler's approach to gender, then, has more relevance to every day life than it may at first appear. Perhaps it is time for a new way of tackling feminist issues. Indeed, the demands of other feminists may be seen as more radical than those of Butler since her ideas work within dominant culture rather than outside it. Some radical feminists have seen the only way forward as creating a culture exclusive of men. Sexual relationships, too, should only be entered into with other women, as summed up by the slogan attributed to to Grace Anderson: Feminism is the theory: lesbianism is the literary essay, practice (quoted in Charvet, 1982, p.129). Ideas such as these may well seem unrealistic to many women. Similarly, Shulamith Firestone wrote in her book, The Dialectic of Sex , that the script paper, only way women would ever be free would be if the means of zen garden, reproduction were taken away from the paper, woman's body and replaced by artificial means.

By taking such an the expressed purpose of the was to, uncompromising position, radical feminists expressing ideas like these may well isolate themselves from the majority of women. If we want to change the way society operates, change needs to paper, be made from how to write a psychology report, within that culture, not outside it: Of what use is such a notion for negotiating the contemporary struggles of sexuality within the terms of its construction. (Butler, 1990, p.30) Butler argues that the way we perceive gender roles lies at the very root of inequality of the sexes.

Her argument is that if we deconstruct the way society views gender roles, this might lead to changes in political culture and so improve the lot of women. Paper! In other words, if there were no longer conventional roles for either gender, it would not be unusual for Philosophy of Nursing a woman to be in a position of power at work or for a man to stay at home and look after children. Gradually, the patriarchal society which exists would change to script paper, become a truly equal one: If identities were no longer fixed as the premises of a political syllogism, and politics no longer understood as a set of practices derived from the alleged interests that belong to how to, a set of ready-made subjects, a new configuration of politics would surely emerge from the ruins of the old. (Butler, 1990, p.149) Butler's way of script, looking at gender identity is in many ways liberating and positive. However, there are also many points which can be raised to show the limitations of the expressed purpose of the eugenics movement, her ideas. Whilst Butler suggests that gender should be viewed as free-floating, the fact remains that most men develop predominantly masculine characteristics and most women develop feminine characteristics.

Homosexual people remain in the minority. The heterosexual matrix that Butler criticises is still maintained which gives some credence to the Freudian perspective of how gender identities are formed. If the paper, majority of people are heterosexual, then there must be some biological and sociological reason why this is so. Many feminists would argue that by viewing men and women as individuals, rather than groups, as Butler does, denies the common subordination and disadvantaged position of women around the world. The problem certainly varies in severity from country to country. Whilst no one would claim that the position of the expressed of the movement was to, women in Afghanistan, where the script, Taliban refuse to let women teach in schools and women are beaten for how to write being 'inappropriately' dressed, is comparable to paper, the situation in most Western countries, female subordination is still apparent world-wide. In Britain, for marketing topics example, political life is male-dominated. Script! Despite the increase in female MPs following the last general election, the Essay on Personal, vast majority of MPs are men. Female MPs face blatant sexist scrutiny from the press. The phrase 'Blair's Babes' attributed to paper, the newly elected female Labour MPs, for example, can only be seen as belittling and disrespectful.

Similarly, few women succeed in reaching the higher echelons of the career ladder. 1995 employment figures, for example, showed that only 33% of all administrative and managerial positions were held be women compared to free taboo, the high 75% of all clerical jobs which were carried out by women. To illustrate the worldwide subordinate position of women, a 1980 United Nations report stated that: Women constitute half the world's population, perform nearly two thirds of its work hours, receive one tenth of the world's income and own less than one hundredth of the world's property. When one considers figures such as these, it seems possible that women around the world do share some common ground despite Butler's demand that we should view every person individually. This point leads on to conflicting opinions about script paper how the position of women should be improved. Butler argues that there can be no single feminism and therefore action cannot be collective or united. However, representative democracy works on topics the premise that the larger the mass of opinion, the more influence that group will have. Paper! This is the zen garden, reason for the formation of political parties and pressure groups.

Many feminists would argue that it is paper only through group action that changes are brought about. Free Taboo! It was only by mass collective pressure by suffragettes that universal suffrage was gained, for example. Butler's ideas about individuals using performative acts to change the way people think about gender are seen by many as unrealistic because few people subvert conventional notions of gender identity on script paper a regular basis. 'Gender trouble' works on too small a scale to have a noticeable impact. Butler's ideas are vague and a major failing of her book is that it gives no concrete examples of exactly how people should go about subverting ideas of gender identity. She implies that gender identities can be made and re-made at will, an idea that many people, such as Ed Cohen, would reject. Again, this is an unrealistic proposal for the majority of people to carry out. Most people would consider that they cannot fundamentally change the way they behave and zen garden appear.

In this case, Butler's performative acts would seem contrived and false. Another criticism levelled at paper Butler is that her work reduces feminism to the expressed purpose of the movement, a debate over gender representation; a type of semiotic guerrilla warfare (Modelski, quoted in Segal, 1997) rather than concentrating on paper issues which really concern women. Liberal feminists, for example, would argue that what really needs to purpose of the, be done is to push for legislation which would make it easier for script paper women to work and enter politics. Others would suggest that improved childcare is necessary if women are to ever gain equality with men. Previous forms of the expressed purpose was to, feminism have usually had a concrete aim behind their rhetoric, which have in the past resulted in the Sex Discrimination Act of 1975 or the availability of the contraceptive pill on the NHS. Butler's ideas, on the other hand, simply suggest a new way of looking at gender, which could be seen as too abstract a way of tackling things. Today, most people would think of their gender as a core part of their identity; an integral part of 'who we are'. Previous forms of feminism have concentrated on the differences and inequalities between men and women. Script! Through political action and pressure, they have brought attention to write a psychology report, these inequalities and influenced legislation and script paper attitudes. It is due to the dedication of previous feminists that women in the western world today have the right to zen garden, vote, the paper, opportunity to have a career and to own property in their own right.

Butler, however, has a different approach to and explanation for the inequalities between the sexes. She suggests that the way we view sex and gender is fundamental to the conventional roles attached to gender. There is purpose of the movement sense behind her argument that until sex differences are disregarded and people cease to be classed into either male or female, true equality is impossible. Her ideas about the way gender identities are formed is also plausible since it explains the script paper, variations and differences between individuals. If, as Butler suggests, the sex-gender-desire link could be broken, everyone would become individual human beings rather than men and zen garden women. This is a liberating, if idealistic idea. If the script paper, findings about essay sexual ambiguity in The Independent on Sunday are to be considered a mainstream, rather than cult, phenomenon, perhaps her ideas are already being put into practice. However, the script, weakness of Butler's Gender Trouble is in its vagueness, both in written style and content. Butler fails to macbeth essay, illustrate how subversive, 'performative' acts might play an integral part in the lives on anyone outside a minority of drag artists and extrovert performers, used to shock tactics and making a statement. Butler's ideas seem particularly unhelpful when considering the problems which women face outside the developed West.

Trying to challenge the sex-gender-desire link is unlikely to rank very highly in the priorities of the paper, repressed woman of Afghanistan, for example, or the destitute woman with ten children in Peru. There is still much work to be done by political pressure and free taboo action aiming for legislation to help women in such areas. In developed countries, such as Britain, however, perhaps Butler's ideas do have a part to play. Paper! After all, in Britain today, most of the legislative obstacles to female participation in public life have been removed, yet inequalities still persist. Perhaps it is time for hemingway's a new approach to change people's attitudes towards gender, to challenge the status quo, to tackle 'hearts and minds' rather than laws. Paper! Perhaps then the hemingway's, new configuration of politics which Butler envisages might indeed emerge from the ruins of the paper, old (Butler, 1990, p.149).

Beauvoir, Simone de (1949), The Second Sex , Pan Books, London [1988]. Bristow, Joseph (1997), Sexuality , Routledge, London. Butler, Judith (1990), Gender Trouble: Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity , Routledge, London. Charvet, John (1982), Feminism , J.M. Dent Sons, London. Leach, Robert (1991), British Political Ideologies , Philip Allan, London. Segal, Lynne (1997), 'Sexualities', in Woodward, Kathryn, ed., Identity and Difference , Sage, London.

Skeggs, Beverley (1993), 'A Good Time For Women Only', in Lloyd, Fran, ed., Deconstructing Madonna , Batsford, London. 'Gender as Performance: An Interview with Judith Butler' (1994); interview by Peter Osborne and Lynne Segal, in purpose of the movement was to Radical Philosophy 67 (summer 1994). The Independent on Sunday , Real Life , 5 April 1998, p.1.

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How to write the perfect SAP CV: Top 10 tips and script SAP CV sample template. Writing an the expressed eugenics movement was to, effective SAP CV is an script paper, essential foundation for building a successful SAP career. Free Taboo. When being considered for a new SAP employment opportunity your curriculum vitae is normally the first thing an script paper, employer uses to decide if you are suitable for the SAP position on offer, so it is no surprise that the candidates who write the best SAP CVs are those who are invited for interviews and who ultimately get hired. Writing a great SAP CV is the marketing first step in script, the race for an SAP job; those with a poor CV will rarely even make it past the first hurdle. With the SAP market becoming saturated and competition increasing, having an macbeth, SAP resume that stands out is paper, now more important than ever. When writing anything, the most important thing to keep in mind is the audience you are writing for. With an SAP resume, the chances are high that the person who reads your CV at the start of how to most recruitment processes will be an script, SAP recruiter. As an SAP recruitment agent with over 10 years’ experience, who has personally placed over Essay of Nursing, 700 SAP Consultants in SAP roles, I’d estimate that I have probably read over 100,000 SAP CVs in my time, so I have a pretty good idea of what makes a top SAP CV.

I’m going to offer an script paper, honest insider’s perspective into how most SAP recruiters actually read your SAP CV…let’s consider that on a busy day an SAP recruiter might have to recruit for of the eugenics, three SAP vacancies, and script may receive up to hemingway's zen garden, 50 applications for each position. Will they read 150 CVs word for word, end to script paper, end? Of course not. The honest reality is that most recruiters (myself included) probably spend 30 seconds skim reading each CV and perhaps another 30 seconds crudely using the CTRL-F feature to search the essay CV for script, some other keywords. Of The Was To. Bearing this in mind, along with other SAP recruiter insiders’ perspectives, I’m going to provide my advice on how to write the script paper perfect SAP CV. Below are my top 10 tips for a successful SAP CV and an SAP CV example / SAP CV sample template: 1 – Optimise your SAP CV so that it can be quickly and clearly digested when skim-read.

It is very likely that the first round of screening (often by an SAP recruiter) will involve someone quickly glancing over your CV. Therefore the best tip I can give you when writing your SAP CV is to make sure that it is optimised to be read in this way. To do this you need to ensure that the zen garden key information in your SAP CV stands out. In my opinion the thing that should stand out the most in your SAP CV is your job title. At the very beginning of your CV, your job title should be clearly and script paper boldly mentioned e.g. Macbeth. SAP HANA Consultant, so that it obvious at a glance what you do; it should leap off the page. Your job title should then be mentioned as a clear and bold heading at the top of every job position / SAP project description that you mention throughout your CV. Paper. By doing this simple thing, the reader will be able to quickly and clearly understand what you do, where you have done it, and how many projects you have done it on. You’d be surprised at macbeth literary essay, how many SAP consultants there are who don’t do this in their CVs. Paper. This same principle should also be applied to Essay on Personal Philosophy, other key information from your CV. Underlining, bullet points, bold text, coloured text and header text can all be used to script paper, emphasise key information within your CV.

2 – Make the first impression count. The first impression is always the Essay on Personal most important one. Therefore, the first page on script paper your CV is the hemingway's zen garden most important page. Paper. It should be the page that you spend the most time perfecting. I have read many SAP CVs where the first page has been so poor and given off such bad signals that I have rejected the candidate without even making it to the second page! The first page should contain a summarised version of all key information that you are trying to get across to the expressed of the movement was to, the reader; it should be perfectly presented and engage the script reader. Think carefully about the opening sentence, is that really the most important thing you want to say to a potential employer? Because it should be!

Think of the first page of your CV as the shop window, people are much more likely to come into your shop and buy if they like the look of what you have displayed in your window. 3 – Ensure your SAP CV has the right structure and order. A logical and effective structure is marketing, essential for writing a good SAP CV. Whilst people have different opinions and personal preferences, in my opinion an paper, SAP CV should be set out with the following sections in the following order: Document Title: Curriculum Vitae, CV, Resume, Profile etc. The Expressed Purpose Was To. are all fine (this is script, down to regional and hemingway's zen garden personal preference). Basic details: Full Name, job title, nationality (plus details of any other working permissions held), Date of birth (optional), marital status (optional), address, photo (optional), contact number, email address, languages spoken (and proficiency). Profile Summary: This should be a concise section that briefly tells the paper reader who you are and what you do. It should mention information such as your job title / preferred position and give an overview of your key SAP skills.

For an SAP CV, it is good to mention things like the Essay on Personal SAP modules / SAP submodules that you specialise in, for script, example: “SAP CO Consultant specialised in SAP CO-PC (Product Costing)”. You should also mention details such as the number of full end-to-end SAP implementation lifecycles you have been involved in and how many SAP roll out projects you have participated in etc. to how to a psychology report, give the reader an paper, instant indication of essay your level of experience. Script. You should talk about on Personal Philosophy of Nursing personal strengths and unique selling points, and script paper a summary of your key results and achievements. This is the first opportunity to differentiate yourself and inject a personal touch to your CV. Keep it short and sharp, almost like a bullet point list of your profile highlights.

Skills Summary: This could be a table or a bullet-pointed list of hemingway's your key skills including details of all SAP modules and sub-modules that you have, SAP configuration (customising) experience in: SAP FI-GL, SAP FI-AP, SAP FI-AR, SAP CO-PA, SAP CO-PC for example, together with an indication of your level of experience or years of experience in each area. Paper. It should also include details of free taboo other useful SAP-related experience that you may have e.g. LSWM, IDoc etc. and script paper details related to project management or SAP Implementation methodology experience e.g. Prince 2, Agile, ASAP, SAP Solution Manager. It is also good to indicate your relevant certifications here. Work Experience: You should always list your work experience in topics, chronological order (most recent SAP project first). Each work experience segment should clearly display the basic key details: Start Date, End Date, Job title, Client Name, Brief Project Description, Key Activities and Results achieved. Education / Training Courses / Certifications: For a senior SAP Consultant, this section just needs to be brief and contain a list of the script basic key details. In addition to mentioning your SAP certifications here, it is purpose eugenics movement was to, also good to script, mention them within the skills summary section on the first page too. For a junior consultant / intern looking to enhance their SAP career, this section is more important and write a psychology report more detail can be given to describe experiences within your education / training which are relevant to your intended SAP career. References: Again this is a matter of opinion, but personally I think that including two short written references in paper, your SAP CV can certainly add something; a 3-4 line reference quotation, followed by free taboo the name, job title and company of the referee (only do so with prior consent from the referee).

Having a good written reference already included in your CV can help you stand out, especially if it is from someone senior at a large, well-known SAP client. Script. I wouldn’t include their contact details in the CV however, I recommend holding this back just for marketing, those who you want to contact them. Alternatively, you could include a URL / link to your LinkedIn references section here instead. Writing “references available upon request” is really just a waste of space in my opinion and it is better not to even have this section if you choose to do that. Interests: Providing details of your personal interests isn’t the most important component of script a CV, but it could still contribute to the reader’s overall opinion/decision on marketing your CV. A word of warning, what you choose to reveal here could possibly count against you without you ever realising, for example: innocently revealing that you are an active and passionate member of Greenpeace or an Animal rights charity may count against you if applying for script paper, a position with a Pharmaceutical or cosmetics company (where animal testing is involved), as they may deem this as a security risk. Mentioning that you love extensive, extended travel and take five holidays every single year might put off an employer who has a busy SAP project with tight deadlines and now assumes you’ll want to go away for 6 weeks in the summer, right in the middle of the expressed purpose a busy project milestone. On the other hand, describing your interests could also work in your favour: talking about SAP-related interests may add to script, your CV: being an active member of an SAP user group, writing SAP blogs, articles or books for example. Mentioning personal interests that the person who is hiring also happens to share by coincidence might also count in your favour. Revealing a rare or interesting hobby may add to the perception of your personality that comes across from the CV, not too rare or interesting though… mentioning taxidermy might creep some people out.

4 – Make sure you mention the SAP Key Words throughout the CV. As mentioned above, most SAP recruiters will only skim-read your CV and quickly search it for keywords. You therefore need to think carefully about which keywords are most important in zen garden, relation to the SAP jobs you are applying for and ensure that as well as making them stand out, you also mention these keywords as often as possible. If I am searching for an SAP SuccessFactors Learning Management System specialist for example, I would normally check the document for some specific keywords using the Ctrl-F search function. I would check for “SuccessFactors” and script “Learning Management System” and hemingway's see how many times each of paper these was mentioned. The important thing to note here is to the expressed purpose of the was to, also mention synonyms of these keywords in your CV as much as possible too, for example SuccessFactors is also referred to as SFSF (in its abbreviated form), as is Learning Management System to LMS. Paper. It is therefore important to have these variations well-represented in free taboo, your CV.

A lazy SAP recruiter, or perhaps one not familiar with the variations of names/abbreviations etc., could even dismiss your CV, simply because they don’t find the keywords they think they should be looking for! i.e. you might have LMS mentioned 100 times in your CV, but you haven’t mentioned “Learning Management System” once, a recruiter who doesn’t think/know to check for script paper, this could accidentally rule you out, so it is best to ensure all critical keywords, as well as possible variations of free taboo these, are well-represented in your CV. It is similar to SEO (search engine optimisation), but for your CV and script the lazy readers, rather than Google. 5 – Be prepared to adjust your CV slightly for each specific SAP vacancy. If your SAP recruitment agent asks you to the expressed was to, adjust or tweak your CV for a particular position, be open to this. Script. You don’t have to re-write the entire CV, but simply making a few changes to tailor the CV for the specific position you are applying for could make a huge difference. Never lie or exaggerate on your CV, what I am referring to here is a psychology report, more about emphasising certain specific experiences that are particularly relevant for the SAP job you are applying for at the time.

6 – Make sure your CV is the script right length. There is no fixed rule about the correct length for a CV as the length will depend on many factors. In general your CV should be as short and to-the-point as possible, whilst being long enough to contain all of the important information a potential employer may want to know. You’ll read a lot of generic articles telling you that your CV should only be 1-2 pages long, but in my opinion this does not apply to hemingway's, an SAP CV, an SAP CV is different as you need to go into paper more technical detail and clearly outline the the expressed eugenics movement exact SAP modules, SAP submodule, SAP-related tools, methodologies etc. that you have experience with. Script. You also need to go into enough detail about the nature of the SAP projects you have been involved in and your specific responsibilities within these projects. Keep in mind that your SAP profile should be an overview and free taboo not a lengthy memoir. If you are someone who can’t control the volume of text when writing in prose, then perhaps consider using concise bullet-pointed text wherever possible, to help you keep control of the paper overall length. An SAP CV is there to form the basis for Essay on Personal Philosophy, guiding an interview conversation and not there to replace it. 7-Make sure your CV has a professional look. The content is of course the most important factor when writing an script paper, SAP resume, however you’d be surprised at how many SAP CVs I’ve seen with decent content which have been ruined by the aesthetic presentation. Choose a sensible and professional font.

Its fine to go with something slightly different, but Times New Roman is certainly overused. Fonts such as Arial, Calibri, Candara, Georgia, Tahoma, Trebuchet MS or Verdana would be fine. I would avoid fonts like Berlin Sans FB, Comic Sans, Courier new and Vijaya. In my opinion a fairly conservative colour scheme is best, classic black text is free taboo, tried and tested, so I’m always bewildered when SAP Consultants send me rainbow coloured CVs. If you want to paper, emphasise or differentiate certain areas or headers using different colour text, using one or two additional colours is macbeth, more than enough. Personally, I prefer conservative options such as blue or grey for these parts, but it is script, a matter of personal taste. Subtly and sparingly using some brighter coloured text for headers/titles can also work, especially if you’re trying to integrate the main colour from your company logo/branding into the CV. 8- Make sure your CV is saved in free taboo, the right format!

I would recommend providing your CV to SAP recruiters in MS Word (.doc or .docx) format where possible, making sure the file isn’t password protected or locked for editing. As an alternative you could provide your CV as a PDF file, however PDFs cannot be edited unless the recruiter has the Adobe Acrobat MS Word converter (which many don’t). Script. Even in cases where PDF is converted to MS Word, it is free taboo, often troublesome to edit or reformat. You might be thinking to yourself that you’d prefer for your CV not to be changed by anyone else so this is a good thing, but in most cases this will do you more harm than good: An SAP recruiter should never change the script real content of topics your CV without asking your permission, and any decent recruiter would never do this. However, a recruiter may want to make some superficial changes to script paper, your CV to improve the presentation for example and having a non-editable file prevents this. Marketing. The recruiter might need to convert CVs into a certain format, or insert a client-specific coversheet on the front page of the script paper CV (which is a mandatory requirement for some client’s recruitment processes). Macbeth Essay. The recruiter may be required by the client to script, submit CVs without logos only, or they may wish to purpose of the movement, remove your direct contact details from the CV before submitting it to script paper, a client.

Preventing the recruiter from having the CV the free taboo way they need it will ultimately slow down your application and may even mean you miss out on an opportunity because of it. For those who are limited to script paper, PDF files, I would suggest removing any logo and contact details from your CV when sending it to a recruiter (ensure you provide your contact details within the how to write report email you send them though, so they can still reach you!). Occasionally I receive SAP CVs in script paper, Powerpoint or other even stranger CV file formats. The Expressed Purpose Eugenics Movement. I don’t understand why people do this, and certainly wouldn’t recommend doing so! 9- Always have an updated SAP CV ready – Speed is key! Writing the perfect SAP CV is of no use if you don’t have it with you when it is needed.

Make sure you have access to script paper, a copy of your CV at all times, you never know where or when you might need it. Similarly, you need to topics, make sure that you constantly keep it updated. Being away on script holiday and only having a copy of your CV on your home desktop could cause you to macbeth, miss out on the SAP career opportunity of paper a lifetime, or having to delay your application by 24 hours while you update your CV may also cause you to miss out. 10- Get someone else to free taboo, check over script paper, your CV! Your Curriculum Vitae is a reflection of report you, it should be logically ordered, consistent, well presented and without errors. Script Paper. Nothing would put me off more than an ABAP developer who’s CV was full of typos!

No matter how perfect you think your SAP CV is, always get a fresh pair of eyes to look over it. Have it proofread for spelling errors and grammar by a fellow SAP colleague, a professional proof-reader or perhaps your favourite SAP recruiter. So now you’ve read my top ten tips, giving my best, most honest advice, you’re ready to write the perfect SAP CV. I wish you the best of luck with writing it and hope to place you in your next SAP position myself when your new CV is ready.