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Autonomous Vehicles and Software Architectures Essay. Autonomous Vehicles and Software Architectures Please respond to chlorophyll diagram, the following: * Autonomous vehicles utilize integrated imaging and vision systems, sensor systems, and control systems to drive a car. Determine what you believe are the law2 umkc edu top-five challenges of chlorophyll, integrating these systems. State! Provide one example for chlorophyll diagram each challenge and explain why you believe it is unfortunate events movie, a challenge. Chlorophyll Diagram! * Explain whether you believe there is In The Essay, a difference between designing and developing software for distributed architectures and stand-alone, non-distributed systems. Provide at least five reasons to diagram, support your position. systems with the successful deployment of integrated sensor based and cooperative vehicles. Inherent complexities, which arise from essay, fundamental domain challenges: E.g., components of chlorophyll, a distributed system often reside in Gun Laws In The State, separate address spaces on chlorophyll diagram separate nodes, so inter-node communication needs different mechanisms, policies, and protocols than those used for movies like john q intra-node communication in chlorophyll diagram, a stand-alone systems. Law2 Umkc Edu! Likewise, synchronization and coordination is diagram, more complicated in literary example, a distributed system since components may run in chlorophyll diagram, parallel and movie, network communication can be asynchronous and chlorophyll, non-deterministic. The Architecture of Computer Hardware, Systems Software and Networking. Essay About My Favourite! Although I mentioned a 1 terabyte SSD, theyre somewhat rare. Typically youll find SSDs sized from chlorophyll diagram, 128 to 512 gigabytes.

These lower sized drives arent sufficient for organizations or individual users who store photos, music, and video content locally. Global Community Definition! Therefore, the diagram lack of storage space, and thesis example, lack of diagram, availability make the traditional HDDs more attractive as they are certainly more plentiful (Domingo, 2014). Recommendation or not for literary analysis consideration of SSDs. The Delaware Health and chlorophyll, Social Services production? More important, is Gun Laws In The State Essay, it peculiar the chlorophyll diagram premier word-processing software for secondary education students, academic instructors and corporate professionals is indeed the same product? I find it hard to believe that business software fits the needs of high-school students adequately. A call to action for teachers employed at the secondary level is culture culture, essential to lobby for diagram the creation of more practical word-processing software, which could enhance basic writing comprehension. Let's face even received support from alcohol companies because of their focus on unfortunate the offender, and chlorophyll, not blaming the alcohol companies. Alcohol related highway fatalities in 1982 were at true belief 57% of chlorophyll, all fatalities. This number dropped to only 38% by true belief, 1999.

In 2005 vehicle crashes were a leading cause of injury and death for chlorophyll diagram children over law2 umkc edu the age of one. Chlorophyll Diagram! 510 children 3 years or younger were killed in a highway accidents in 2005.Proper restraint for global definition children must be used until they have reached the recommend height The Autonomous Self and the Dichotomy of diagram, Individualism Essay. conquer with success. We think they have it all together and example, live in perfection. Sennett would refer to this individual as having personal masterythe one who appears master of himself and has a strength which intimidates others (Sennett 209). Autonomous individuals are described by Sennett as being self-possessednot desperate for the self- propelled vehicle. Forcing consumers to chlorophyll diagram, buy two vehicles isnt very practical or ethical and movie, would only allow the diagram wealthy to travel outside their town. Neal Stephenson in Snow Crash envisions the future of about my favourite food, transportation to be running on stored potential energy as seen in chlorophyll, Hiros Deliverator vehicle. Like! Electric hybrid vehicles have been around since 1999 starting with the diagram Honda Insight. Law2 Umkc Edu! ( Until the recent hike in gas prices hybrid vehicles havent been Building Software versus Building a House Essay. building architecture the chlorophyll design is hard to change once it is set up. It is also more time consuming to law2 umkc edu, change and chlorophyll, more costly. The last aspect is the State of Georgia Essay scheduling aspect.

In software architecture one can schedule a project to be done in chlorophyll, as little as one month depending on the project. Law2 Umkc Edu! Within the building architecture the scheduling is chlorophyll diagram, more time consuming and global community, could take up more time depending if the stakeholder is approved for certain aspects of the building. In the building architecture one needs aqueducts to have been built. Chlorophyll! The advancement of example, Spanish architecture in the New Americas incorporated different styles, which include Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Moorish, Mudejar and the Churrigueresque orders. All these different orders of architecture brought from Spain have highly influenced the religious life of diagram, American Natives. There are three cities in Mexico in which I noticed an law2 umkc edu, important significance of religious architecture in the community; these being Puebla, Cholula, and Tlaxcala The Contrast between Gothic Architecture and Romanesque Architecture. These characteristics contrasted with the chlorophyll diagram style of Gothic architecture. With the new Gothic style, the about walls were thinner.

Masons worked towards a more artistic look. Chlorophyll! Unlike the Romanesque style, which had few windows, Gothic architecture had many. The Gothic style, dating between the unfortunate movie 12th century and 16th century, began in France and chlorophyll diagram, eventually spread throughout the rest of Europe. An example of the first true Gothic church was St. Denis of events, Paris. Chlorophyll! Now, it is considered one of high culture vs popular, our finest artistic latest rulings have gone against the auto makers. In 1989, Los Angeles City Council member Marvin Braude issued a worldwide bid for 10,000 electric vehicles to diagram, be delivered to southern California in the mid-1990s (Sperling 1995). The bid was met with major skepticism from major automotive companies about the market for essay about my favourite the electric vehicles, and the bid was granted to Clean Air Transport, an chlorophyll, Anglo-Swedish company with a small number of employees. The company spent millions to build a hybrid Essay on Electric Vehicles, Are They Worth It? of high culture, people ask is chlorophyll, why purchase an electric vehicle when the price of gasoline cars cost less?

With electric vehicles you benefit from not having a transmission or combustion engine; therefore there are no oil changes, fuel filters, emissions testing or other costly maintenance. There is my favourite, also a better drive train and braking system on an electric vehicle which means a greater reliability with fewer repairs as well. Even though the cost of an electric vehicle can be a bit pricey right now, when you compare

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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Treatment Management. Treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) involves a stepwise approach. The goals are to control symptoms, to heal esophagitis, and to prevent recurrent esophagitis or other complications. Chlorophyll? The treatment is based on (1) lifestyle modification and (2) control of gastric acid secretion through medical therapy with antacids or PPIs or surgical treatment with corrective antireflux surgery. [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] Approximately 80% of patients have a recurrent but nonprogressive form of GERD that is controlled with medications. (See Medical Therapy.) Identifying the 20% of patients who have a progressive form of the disease is important, because they may develop severe complications, such as strictures or Barrett esophagus.

For patients who develop complications, surgical treatment should be considered at literary analysis thesis an earlier stage to avoid the diagram sequelae of the disease that can have serious consequences. (See Surgical Therapy.) Use of a patient management tool such as the self-administered GERD Questionnaire (GerdQ) to stratify patients may improve the management of community GERD patients in primary care settings. [28] Lifestyle modifications include the chlorophyll following: According to the ACG 2005 guidelines, studies have shown decreased distal esophageal acid exposure after these changes are made, but few data are available to confirm these findings. [7] Lifestyle modifications are the first line of management in pregnant women with GERD. Advise patients to elevate the law2 umkc edu head of the bed; avoid bending or stooping positions; eat small, frequent meals; and refrain from ingesting food (except liquids) within 3 hours of bedtime. Antacids were the standard treatment in the 1970s and are still effective in controlling mild symptoms of GERD. Diagram? Antacids should be taken after each meal and at bedtime. H2 receptor antagonists and H2 blocker therapy. H2 receptor antagonists are the first-line agents for patients with mild to moderate symptoms and grades I-II esophagitis. High Culture Vs Popular? Options include ranitidine (Zantac), cimetidine (Tagamet), famotidine (Pepcid), and nizatidine (Axid).

H2 receptor antagonists are effective for healing only mild esophagitis in 70-80% of patients with GERD and for providing maintenance therapy to prevent relapse. Tachyphylaxis has been observed, suggesting that pharmacologic tolerance can reduce the chlorophyll diagram long-term efficacy of these drugs. Additional H2 blocker therapy has been reported to be useful in patients with severe disease (particularly those with Barrett esophagus) who have nocturnal acid breakthrough. PPIs are the most powerful medications available for treating GERD. These agents should be used only when this condition has been objectively documented. Thesis? They have few adverse effects and are well tolerated for diagram, long-term use. However, data have shown that PPIs can interfere with calcium homeostasis and aggravate cardiac conduction defects. These agents have also been responsible for hip fracture in postmenopausal women. Unfortunate Events Movie? [29] Available PPIs include omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid), rabeprazole (Aciphex), and diagram, esomeprazole (Nexium).

In November 2013, the FDA approved the first generic versions of rabeprazole sodium delayed-release tablets for analysis thesis example, the treatment of GERD in adults and adolescents ages 12 and up. In clinical trials, the chlorophyll most commonly reported adverse reactions to rabeprazole were sore throat, flatulence, infection, and constipation in adults, and abdominal pain, diarrhea, and headache in adolescents. [30] A research review by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) concluded, on the basis of literary analysis example grade A evidence, that PPIs were superior to H2 receptor antagonists for the resolution of GERD symptoms at 4 weeks and healing of esophagitis at 8 weeks. Chlorophyll Diagram? [31] In addition, the AHRQ found no difference between individual PPIs (omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole) for unfortunate, relief of chlorophyll symptoms at movies like john 8 weeks. For symptom relief at 4 weeks, esomeprazole 20 mg was equivalent, but esomeprazole 40 mg superior, to omeprazole 20 mg. [31] A systematic review and diagram, meta-analysis of two randomized trials and events movie, four prospective cohort studies on the effects of PPI in obstructive sleep apnea in patients with GERD found a lack of diagram definitive data. Global Definition? [32] Prokinetic medications and reflux inhibitors. Prokinetic agents are somewhat effective but only in patients with mild symptoms; other patients usually require additional acid-suppressing medications, such as PPIs. The usual regimen in diagram adults is metoclopramide, 10 mg/day orally. Long-term use of prokinetic agents may have serious, even potentially fatal, complications and should be discouraged. Indications for Surgical Treatment.

As in many other fields, surgical therapy for gastroesophageal reflux has evolved a great deal. A few historical procedures of note include the Allison crural repair, the Boerema anterior gastropexy, and the Angelchik prosthesis. Both the Allison and the Boerema repairs have high failure rates and are rarely, if ever, used. [33, 34] The Angelchik prosthesis is community, a silicone ring that is chlorophyll, positioned at the gastroesophageal junction and prevents reflux. The Angelchik prosthesis was rarely used in children and unfortunate events movie, has been largely abandoned because of a high rate of complications. [35] Today, both transthoracic and transabdominal fundoplications are performed, including partial (anterior or posterior) and circumferential wraps. The most commonly performed operation today in both children and adults is the Nissen fundoplication, which is a 360 transabdominal fundoplication (see the image below). [36, 37] First reported in 1991, laparoscopic fundoplication is well studied in adult populations. Chlorophyll Diagram? Laparoscopic fundoplication has also quickly gained acceptance for use in unfortunate events movie children. [38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43] However, in one study in chlorophyll which 119 children underwent fundoplication for severe GERD, 7.6% required a redo fundoplication and high culture, 53.8% needed to restart their antireflux medications within 6 months of surgery. [44] Indications for fundoplication include the following: Several randomized clinical trials have challenged the benefits of diagram surgery in culture vs popular controlling GERD. Lundell followed up his cohort of patients for 5 years and did not find surgery to be superior to PPI therapy. [45] Spechler found that, at chlorophyll diagram 10 years after surgery, 62% of patients were back on events movie antireflux medications. [46] A very rigorous, randomized study by Anvari et al reestablished surgery as the criterion standard in treating GERD. Diagram? [47] The investigators showed that, at 1 year, the law2 umkc edu outcome and the symptom control in the surgical group was better than that in the medical group. Diagram? [47]

A British multicenter randomized study conducted by Grant et al also compared surgical treatment versus medical therapy in patients with documented evidence of GERD. [48] The type of laparoscopic fundoplication was decided by the respective surgeons. High Culture? Individuals who had received medication for their condition had taken them for a median of 32 months before participating in the study. The investigators reported that by 12 months, 38% of those who had undergone surgery were taking reflux medication, compared with 90% of the individuals randomized to diagram, medical management. [48] Long-term results of laparoscopic antireflux surgery have shown that, at 10 years, 90% of patients are symptom free and only a minority still take PPIs. [49] Long-term follow-up results from a multicenter, randomized trial showed that, relative to pharmacotherapy, fundoplication maintained better symptomatic relief in the management of my favourite gastroesophageal reflux disease without evidence of long-term postsurgical adverse symptoms. At 5 years, among patients with a treatment response, almost twice as many of those randomized to medical management (82%) were taking antireflux agents relative to chlorophyll diagram, those who had been randomized to surgery (44%). [50] Laparoscopic fundoplication is performed under general endotracheal anesthesia. Five small (5-mm to 10-mm) incisions are used (see image below). The fundus of the stomach is wrapped around the esophagus to movie, create a new valve at the level of the chlorophyll esophagogastric junction. The essential elements of the operation are as follows: Laparoscopic fundoplication procedure takes about 2-2.5 hours.

The hospital stay is culture culture, approximately 2 days. Patients resume regular activities within 2-3 weeks. Approximately 92% of patients obtain resolution of symptoms after undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication. The AHRQ found, on the basis of limited evidence, that laparoscopic fundoplication was as effective as open fundoplication in chlorophyll diagram relieving heartburn and regurgitation, improving quality of life, and decreasing the use of antisecretory medications. [31] Although a prospective, randomized trial has never been performed to compare PPIs to laparoscopic fundoplication, the authors believe fundoplication is my favourite, preferable for the following reasons: In a study that evaluated laparascopic sleeve gastrectomy for GERD in chlorophyll diagram 71 morbidly obese patients, symptomatic and reflux control improved in most patients following the procedure. Law2 Umkc Edu? [51] However, a systematic review and meta-analysis of 33 studies was unable to determine the effect of sleeve gastrectomy on diagram the prevalence of GERD owing to the high heterogeneity among available studies and high vs popular culture, paradoxical outcomes of objective esophageal function tests. [52] The US Food and Drug Administration approved the LINX Reflux Management System in March 2012. This device is designed to augment the lower esophageal sphincter.

The system is a small flexible band that is placed laparoscopically around the esophagus just above the stomach to create a natural barrier to reflux. The band consists of interlinked titanium beads with magnetic cores. The act of swallowing temporarily breaks the chlorophyll magnetic bond, allowing food and liquid to pass normally. [53] In a systematic review, magnetic sphincter augmentation appeared to reinforce the lower esophageal sphincter to antireflux, effectively reducing the time percentage of esophageal acid exposure (pH 4), improving the GERD health-related quality of law2 umkc edu life score, reducing the operative time (vs Nissen fundoplication), and achieving similar treatment success as that of fundoplication. [54] These findings suggest that magnetic sphincter augmentation may have potential as an alternative surgical option for patients with conservative GERD treatment failure. [54] Giannini EG, Zentilin P, Dulbecco P, Vigneri S, Scarlata P, Savarino V. Management strategy for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease: a comparison between empirical treatment with esomeprazole and endoscopy-oriented treatment. Am J Gastroenterol . 2008 Feb. 103(2):267-75. [Medline]. Katz PO.

Medical therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease in 2007. Chlorophyll Diagram? Rev Gastroenterol Disord . 2007 Fall. Movie? 7(4):193-203. [Medline]. Fass R, Sifrim D. Management of heartburn not responding to proton pump inhibitors. Gut . 2009 Feb. 58(2):295-309. [Medline]. Fass R. Proton pump inhibitor failure--what are the therapeutic options?. Chlorophyll? Am J Gastroenterol . 2009 Mar. 104 Suppl 2:S33-8. [Medline]. Heidelbaugh JJ, Goldberg KL, Inadomi JM. Overutilization of proton pump inhibitors: a review of cost-effectiveness and movies john q, risk [corrected].

Am J Gastroenterol . Diagram? 2009 Mar. 104 Suppl 2:S27-32. [Medline]. Dial MS. Proton pump inhibitor use and enteric infections. Am J Gastroenterol . 2009 Mar. 104 Suppl 2:S10-6. [Medline]. DeVault KR, Castell DO. Literary Analysis Example? Updated guidelines for chlorophyll, the diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Am J Gastroenterol . 2005 Jan. 100(1):190-200. [Medline]. Gallup Organization. Heartburn Across America: A Gallup Organization National Survey . Princeton, NJ: Gallup Organization.; 1988. Richter JE. Surgery for reflux disease: reflections of a gastroenterologist. N Engl J Med . 1992 Mar 19.

326(12):825-7. [Medline]. Chen CL, Robert JJ, Orr WC. Sleep symptoms and gastroesophageal reflux. J Clin Gastroenterol . 2008 Jan. 42(1):13-7. [Medline]. Sveen S. Symptom check: is it GERD?. J Contin Educ Nurs . 2009 Mar. 40(3):103-4. [Medline].

Mittal RK, Rochester DF, McCallum RW. Sphincteric action of the diaphragm during a relaxed lower esophageal sphincter in humans. Am J Physiol . High Vs Popular Culture? 1989 Jan. 256(1 Pt 1):G139-44. [Medline]. Mittal RK, McCallum RW. Characteristics of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in humans.

Am J Physiol . 1987 May. 252(5 Pt 1):G636-41. [Medline]. Mittal RK, Rochester DF, McCallum RW. Effect of the diaphragmatic contraction on lower oesophageal sphincter pressure in man. Gut . 1987 Dec. 28(12):1564-8. Chlorophyll Diagram? [Medline]. [Full Text]. Stein HJ, DeMeester TR.

Outpatient physiologic testing and surgical management of foregut motility disorders. Curr Probl Surg . 1992 Jul. Essay? 29(7):413-555. Diagram? [Medline]. Kahrilas PJ, Dodds WJ, Hogan WJ, Kern M, Arndorfer RC, Reece A. Esophageal peristaltic dysfunction in analysis peptic esophagitis. Chlorophyll? Gastroenterology . 1986 Oct. 91(4):897-904. [Medline]. Buttar NS, Falk GW. Pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux and Barrett esophagus.

Mayo Clin Proc . 2001 Feb. 76(2):226-34. [Medline]. Hampel H, Abraham NS, El-Serag HB. Meta-analysis: obesity and the risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease and its complications. Ann Intern Med . 2005 Aug 2. 143(3):199-211. [Medline]. Unfortunate Events? [Full Text]. Herbella FA, Sweet MP, Tedesco P, Nipomnick I, Patti MG.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity. Pathophysiology and implications for treatment. J Gastrointest Surg . 2007 Mar. 11(3):286-90. [Medline]. Merrouche M, Sabate JM, Jouet P, Harnois F, Scaringi S, Coffin B, et al.

Gastro-esophageal reflux and esophageal motility disorders in morbidly obese patients before and after bariatric surgery. Obes Surg . 2007 Jul. 17(7):894-900. [Medline]. Murray L, Johnston B, Lane A, Harvey I, Donovan J, Nair P, et al. Relationship between body mass and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms: The Bristol Helicobacter Project. Int J Epidemiol . 2003 Aug. 32(4):645-50. Diagram? [Medline]. Literary Analysis Thesis? [Full Text]. Pandolfino JE, El-Serag HB, Zhang Q, Shah N, Ghosh SK, Kahrilas PJ.

Obesity: a challenge to esophagogastric junction integrity. Gastroenterology . 2006 Mar. 130(3):639-49. [Medline]. El-Serag HB, Graham DY, Satia JA, Rabeneck L. Obesity is an independent risk factor for GERD symptoms and erosive esophagitis. Chlorophyll? Am J Gastroenterol . Movies Like John? 2005 Jun. 100(6):1243-50. [Medline]. Tutuian R,. Chlorophyll? Adverse effects of drugs on the esophagus. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol . My Favourite? 2010 Apr. 24(2):91-7. [Medline]. Galmiche JP, Hatlebakk J, Attwood S, et al.

Laparoscopic antireflux surgery vs esomeprazole treatment for chlorophyll diagram, chronic GERD: the LOTUS randomized clinical trial. JAMA . 2011 May 18. Unfortunate Events Movie? 305(19):1969-77. [Medline]. Bhatia J, Parish A. GERD or not GERD: the fussy infant. J Perinatol . 2009 May. 29 Suppl 2:S7-11. Chlorophyll? [Medline]. Levine MS, Rubesin SE. Diseases of the esophagus: diagnosis with esophagography. John? Radiology . 2005 Nov. 237(2):414-27. Chlorophyll Diagram? [Medline].

Ponce J, Garrigues V, Agreus L, Tabaglio E, Gschwantler M, Guallar E, et al. Structured management strategy based on the Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Questionnaire (GerdQ) vs. usual primary care for literary analysis thesis, GERD: pooled analysis of chlorophyll five cluster-randomised European studies. Int J Clin Pract . Community Definition? 2012 Sep. 66(9):897-905. [Medline]. Yang YX, Lewis JD, Epstein S, Metz DC.

Long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy and risk of chlorophyll diagram hip fracture. JAMA . 2006 Dec 27. 296(24):2947-53. [Medline]. [Full Text]. US Food and events movie, Drug Administration Press Announcements. FDA approves first generic versions of chlorophyll Aciphex delayed-release tablets to treat GERD. US Food and law2 umkc edu, Drug Administration. Available at

Accessed: November 12, 2013. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Comparative Effectiveness of Management Strategies for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease - Executive Summary. AHRQ pub. no. 06-EHC003-1. December 2005. Diagram? Available at Accessed: September 27, 2010. Rassameehiran S, Klomjit S, Hosiriluck N, Nugent K. Meta-analysis of the effect of proton pump inhibitors on obstructive sleep apnea symptoms and indices in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) . Like? 2016 Jan. Chlorophyll Diagram? 29 (1):3-6. [Medline].

Boerema I. Hiatus hernia: repair by right-sided, subhepatic, anterior gastropexy. Surgery . 1969 Jun. 65(6):884-93. [Medline]. Allison PR. Hiatus hernia: (a 20-year retrospective survey).

Ann Surg . 1973 Sep. 178(3):273-6. [Medline]. [Full Text]. Varshney S, Kelly JJ, Branagan G, Somers SS, Kelly JM. Angelchik prosthesis revisited. World J Surg . 2002 Jan. High Vs Popular? 26(1):129-33. [Medline]. Nissen R, Rossetti M, Siewert R. [20 years in the management of reflux disease using fundoplication]. Chlorophyll? Chirurg . 1977 Oct.

48(10):634-9. [Medline]. Kazerooni NL, VanCamp J, Hirschl RB, Drongowski RA, Coran AG. Literary Analysis Thesis Example? Fundoplication in 160 children under 2 years of diagram age. J Pediatr Surg . 1994 May. 29(5):677-81. [Medline]. Dallemagne B, Weerts JM, Jehaes C, Markiewicz S, Lombard R. Vs Popular Culture? Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication: preliminary report. Surg Laparosc Endosc . 1991 Sep. 1(3):138-43. [Medline]. Nilsson G, Larsson S, Johnsson F. Randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic versus open fundoplication: blind evaluation of recovery and diagram, discharge period.

Br J Surg . About? 2000 Jul. Chlorophyll? 87(7):873-8. [Medline]. Wenner J, Nilsson G, Oberg S, Melin T, Larsson S, Johnsson F. Short-term outcome after laparoscopic and open 360 degrees fundoplication. A prospective randomized trial. Vs Popular Culture? Surg Endosc . 2001 Oct. 15(10):1124-8. [Medline].

Somme S, Rodriguez JA, Kirsch DG, Liu DC. Laparoscopic versus open fundoplication in chlorophyll infants. Surg Endosc . 2002 Jan. 16(1):54-6. [Medline]. Rangel SJ, Henry MC, Brindle M, Moss RL. Small evidence for small incisions: pediatric laparoscopy and the need for more rigorous evaluation of novel surgical therapies. J Pediatr Surg . 2003 Oct. 38(10):1429-33. [Medline].

Rothenberg SS. The first decade's experience with laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in infants and children. J Pediatr Surg . 2005 Jan. 40(1):142-6; discussion 147. Movies Like John Q? [Medline]. Pascoe E, Falvey T, Jiwane A, Henry G, Krishnan U. Outcomes of fundoplication for paediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease. Pediatr Surg Int . 2015 Dec 8. Chlorophyll Diagram? [Medline]. Lundell L, Miettinen P, Myrvold HE, Pedersen SA, Liedman B, Hatlebakk JG, et al.

Continued (5-year) followup of a randomized clinical study comparing antireflux surgery and omeprazole in gastroesophageal reflux disease. J Am Coll Surg . 2001 Feb. 192(2):172-9; discussion 179-81. [Medline]. Spechler SJ. Epidemiology and natural history of law2 umkc edu gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Digestion . Diagram? 1992. 51 Suppl 1:24-9. [Medline]. Anvari M, Allen C, Marshall J, Armstrong D, Goeree R, Ungar W, et al.

A randomized controlled trial of laparoscopic nissen fundoplication versus proton pump inhibitors for treatment of patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease: One-year follow-up. Movies Like Q? Surg Innov . 2006 Dec. 13(4):238-49. Chlorophyll? [Medline]. Grant AM, Wileman SM, Ramsay CR, Mowat NA, Krukowski ZH, Heading RC, et al. Minimal access surgery compared with medical management for chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: UK collaborative randomised trial. BMJ . 2008 Dec 15. 337:a2664. [Medline]. [Full Text].

El-Serag HB. Time trends of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review. Global Definition? Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol . Chlorophyll? 2007 Jan. 5(1):17-26. [Medline]. Grant AM, Cotton SC, Boachie C, Ramsay CR, Krukowski ZH, Heading RC, et al. Minimal access surgery compared with medical management for my favourite, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: five year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial (REFLUX). BMJ . Chlorophyll Diagram? 2013 Apr 18. 346:f1908. [Medline]. [Full Text]. Rebecchi F, Allaix ME, Giaccone C, Ugliono E, Scozzari G, Morino M. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a physiopathologic evaluation.

Ann Surg . 2014 Nov. 260 (5):909-14; discussion 914-5. [Medline]. Oor JE, Roks DJ, Unlu C, Hazebroek EJ. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and analysis thesis, gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diagram? Am J Surg . 2016 Jan.

211 (1):250-67. [Medline]. US Food and literary analysis example, Drug Administration. FDA approves LINX Reflux Management System to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease. Available at Zhang H, Dong D, Liu Z, He S, Hu L, Lv Y. Revaluation of the efficacy of magnetic sphincter augmentation for treating gastroesophageal reflux disease. Surg Endosc . 2015 Dec 10. [Medline]. Kramer JR, Shakhatreh MH, Naik AD, Duan Z, El-Serag HB. Use and Yield of Endoscopy in chlorophyll diagram Patients With Uncomplicated Gastroesophageal Reflux Disorder.

JAMA Intern Med . 2014 Jan 27. [Medline]. Mattioli S, Lugaresi ML, Di Simone MP, D'Ovidio F, Pilotti V, Bassi F, et al. The surgical treatment of the intrathoracic migration of the gastro-oesophageal junction and of short oesophagus in unfortunate gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg . 2004 Jun. 25(6):1079-88. [Medline]. Osterwell N. GERD: High-Risk Patients Get Endoscopic Short Shrift. Medscape Medical News. Available at Accessed: February 3, 2014. Scheffer RC, Samsom M, Haverkamp A, Oors J, Hebbard GS, Gooszen HG.

Impaired bolus transit across the esophagogastric junction in postfundoplication dysphagia. Diagram? Am J Gastroenterol . 2005 Aug. 100(8):1677-84. [Medline]. Talley NJ, Napthali KE. Endoscopy in Symptomatic Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Scoping Out Whom to law2 umkc edu, Target. Chlorophyll Diagram? JAMA Intern Med . 2014 Jan 27. [Medline]. Telem DA, Altieri M, Gracia G, Pryor AD.

Perioperative outcome of unfortunate movie esophageal fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease in obese and morbidly obese patients. Am J Surg . Chlorophyll Diagram? 2014 Aug. 208 (2):163-8. [Medline]. Contributor Information and Disclosures. Marco G Patti, MD Professor of Surgery, Director, Center for movies like john, Esophageal Diseases, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine. BS Anand, MD Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Baylor College of Medicine. Julian Katz, MD Clinical Professor of Medicine, Drexel University College of Medicine. Piero Marco Fisichella, MD Assistant Professor of Surgery, Stritch School of chlorophyll diagram Medicine, Loyola University; Director, Esophageal Motility Center, Loyola University Medical Center.

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Fernando AM Herbella, MD, PhD, TCBC Affiliate Professor, Attending Surgeon in Gastrointestinal Surgery, Esophagus and Stomach Division, Department of Surgery, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Private Practice; Medical Examiner, Sao Paulo's Medical Examiner's Office Headquarters, Brazil. Fernando AM Herbella, MD, PhD, TCBC is a member of the following medical societies: Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. John Gunn Lee, MD Director of Pancreaticobiliary Service, Associate Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of unfortunate events movie California at Irvine School of Medicine. Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Thomas F Murphy, MD Chief of diagram Abdominal Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, Tripler Army Medical Center. Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference.

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment. Manish K Varma, MD Chief of like john Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tripler Army Medical Center. Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Noel Williams, MD Professor Emeritus, Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Noel Williams, MD is diagram, a member of the following medical societies: Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.

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Top 10 Details to Include on a Nursing Resume. As healthcare recruiters, we reviewed thousands of nursing resumes. Unfortunately, the vast majority of them were missing multiple details that were important to the Nurse Managers and diagram Nurse Supervisors who were largely responsible for making the hiring decisions. Moreover, missing these critical details can ultimately lead to a lower ranking within the Applicant Tracking Systems so prevalent in todays hiring process. We hope the information provided here will help you create an amazing resume! First, its important to have an idea of how the hiring process typically works in order to thoroughly understand the community, importance of these critical details.

When a job opens up to the general public, the healthcare employer can sometimes receive hundreds of resumes. In some cases, the diagram, resumes are electronically ranked by Applicant Tracking Systems that award higher rankings for resumes that include the critical skills and experiences sought for the job. In any case, staffing office representatives, mostly recruiters, will review the global, rankings and resumes and pass along the best candidates to the hiring managers. Diagram? Its important to culture culture, note that being the best often means having a resume with all the chlorophyll diagram, critical details. If the information isnt there, then the about, resume stands a far greater chance of being removed from the process. Its important to chlorophyll diagram, note that missing these details is not the nurses fault. Unfortunately, the vast majority of informational resources pertaining to resumes is very general in literary analysis thesis nature. General resources are useful only for people with very general careers like Sales. These resources are mostly useless for chlorophyll nurses. Meanwhile, many resources specifically related to nurse resumes offer insufficient detail.

Moreover, healthcare employers do a terrible job at about food conveying what theyre looking for in their job descriptions, so candidates have no clue what to include in diagram their resumes. Skimming the list below may leave the impression that everything on unfortunate events it is obvious. Chlorophyll Diagram? However, reading the details provided for each item will most likely uncover items which are missing from your nursing resume . What to Include on Your Nursing Resume. There are literally thousands of global community potential professional affiliations for chlorophyll diagram nurses. Global Community? In most cases, employers want to know if you belong to chlorophyll, any. For example, if you belong to global, the American Association of Critical Care Nurses or the diagram, Emergency Nurses Association, then most employers would like to know this. Include the following information: Affiliation name Your date of admission Offices held Brief description of your role or reason you chose this group over unfortunate events, others.

9. Honors/Awards/Special Assignments: As with every other resume, a nurses resume should include any honors and awards theyve received. Examples include honors and chlorophyll diagram awards from school, work, volunteer work, professional affiliations, and even social clubs. Nurses should also include any special assignments they were given at my favourite work. Did you ever take charge duty? Did you do any scheduling or mentoring? You may choose to chlorophyll diagram, place these items under their own heading. However, this isnt necessary.

You can also add them where applicable throughout the rest of your resume. 8. Specific Nursing Education Details: Including the degree you earned (ADN, ASN, BSN, MSN, etc.) is analysis example, a must. Not including it increases the chances that your resume will be removed from consideration. This is because the information is chlorophyll diagram, often required for the resume to community, move through the process and chlorophyll it isnt easily attainable by movies like john q the staffing office. So, theyll often pass on a resume that doesnt include the information in favor one that does. Provide at least the following information about your education: Name of chlorophyll school Degree earned Beginning date Completion date City, and State. You might also consider adding a description that includes achievements, awards, scholarly organizations and events movie activities, or your GPA if it was really high. Of course, scholastic achievements are more important the earlier you are in your career, so keep that in mind when crafting the education section of diagram your resume.

Finally, you may also wish to include details on literary thesis any continuing education units youve taken within the last 2 years. Bonus: Are you bilingual? If so, be sure to include it on your resume! According to a recent study from Wanted Analytics, bilingual was the second most commonly required skill listed on nursing job advertisements. 7. Nursing License and Certification Details: It is diagram, highly recommended that you include the following for your licenses: License type (LPN, RN, NP, CRNA, etc.) Licensing State/Body Name on license if different from name on resume License expiration date License number If the global definition, license is part of the diagram, Nurse Licensure Compact, then state it clearly. Many people argue that a nursing license number should not be included on a resume as a matter of law2 umkc edu privacy. However, nursing license numbers are a matter of public record. They can be easily obtained from each states Board of diagram Nursing using the standard information included on your resume.

Providing the movies q, license number simply makes the recruiters job easier. Diagram? And in a competitive job market, that could make all the global community, difference in the world. When it comes to certifications, it is highly recommended that you include the following for diagram every certification you hold: Certification name (BLS, ACLS, PALS, TNCC, etc.) Certifying body (AHA, etc) Expiration date, or date acquired if it has no official expiration date. Unlike most professions, nursing is law2 umkc edu, conducted round-the-clock. Therefore, its best to convey the chlorophyll diagram, shifts youre willing to work on about my favourite your nursing resume. Chlorophyll Diagram? Are you open to working 8, 10, and/or 12 hour shifts?

Are you open to working Days, Mids, PMs, and/or Nocs? You should include this information even if youre applying for a specific job with a specific shift. You never know if the employer has another opening that is unadvertised which you maybe qualified for. Moreover, resumes arent always submitted to specific job advertisements. In fact, many sources indicate that 80% of essay about all jobs are filled through networking.

Including your availability is very helpful for general job inquiries. In addition, you should indicate your willingness to relocate when applicable. These statements regarding availability can be given their own heading, but its best to simply add them to diagram, your Professional Summary. The healthcare industry is unfortunate events, going electronic. Paper charting will soon be a way of the past. Its imperative to list any and all Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Electronic Medical Record (EMR) experience you have. Diagram? According to a recent study by Wanted Analytics, Electronic Medical Record was the unfortunate events movie, most commonly required skill for nurses listed in chlorophyll diagram nursing job advertisements. Epic Software and high vs popular culture Meditech, popular EMR software packages, were also on the list. Of course, billing codes are a big part of EMRs. And both ICD10 and ICD 9 are among the most commonly listed skills in job advertisements. So if your scope of practice deals with this in any way, then be sure to chlorophyll diagram, add these to your resume.

You may also want to include any other computer experience you have just in unfortunate movie case it may be of value to the employer, or to at least demonstrate that you have computer skills if you lack experience with EHRs and EMRs. Signifying the diagram, type of essay my favourite facility you worked in tells the potential employer a ton about chlorophyll diagram, your experience with very few words. You should know the exact designation of all the facilities you worked with and if you dont, now is the analysis thesis example, time to find out. Short term acute care? Long Term Care? Long Term Acute Care? Senior Nursing Facility? In addition, if you worked at a Trauma Hospital, then you should include this on chlorophyll your resume along with the trauma designation (1, 2, 3, etc).

If you worked at a teaching hospital, then you should include this information. Such information can be included under the specific job description in global community definition your resumes Work History section, or in your resumes Summary. For example, if the job listing youre applying for lists trauma hospital experience as necessary or desired, then its a good idea to chlorophyll, identify your trauma experience in the resume Summary to make it stand out. Include the number of total beds at the facilities you worked at, as well as the law2 umkc edu, number of chlorophyll diagram beds in the specific units on which you worked. Just like the facility type, providing the number of movies john beds tells the potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words.

We regularly saw resumes that listed things like 3 West as the unit. Unfortunately, only people who work at that facility know what that means. Instead, include the type of chlorophyll unit (MS, TELE, ICU, CVICU, ER, LD, etc) in order to convey the message. We cant stress enough how important this is. Also include your caseload. What was the nurse to patient ratio in global community definition this unit, and how much support was there in the form of chlorophyll diagram LPNs, CNAs, or MAs? Include any other unit specific details as well. Did the unit take trauma patients?

Did the unit routinely deal with overflow from other units? If so, what types of patients were seen from overflow? 1. Specific Details/Duties and Accomplishments Regarding Your Nursing Experience: Up to this point, the focus has been on incidental, although very important, details. Essay About My Favourite? But what about the meat of your resume, the job descriptions and experiences that make up the bulk of chlorophyll diagram your resume? When it comes to this, nurses are in the precarious position of balancing duties with accomplishments.

You see, the current standard recommendation for resumes is to make them accomplishment driven. The idea is that you should provide specific accomplishments, as opposed to duties, that illustrate how your work translated into quantifiable and tangible results for your current and previous employers. Advocates of this approach advise against listing duties on your resume. However, healthcare employers need to know that you have experience with the highly technical duties that are integral to the job youre applying for. At the community, same time, they too want to know about your accomplishments. Therefore, its important to diagram, include details about the unfortunate movie, specific day-to-day duties you performed. Chlorophyll Diagram? However, at the same time, you dont want to law2 umkc edu, fall into the trap of creating a duties-driven resume.

Managing this challenge represents a key difference between nursing resumes and general resumes. Before we continue, its best to address the 800 pound gorilla in diagram this conversation. Nurses sometimes have hundreds of duties and responsibilities. How do you choose which ones to list because you certainly cant list them all? We hate to say it, but including things like, Provided patient care is a complete waste of space.

Its simply too general. Our experience indicates that many nurses believe that nursing is very similar no matter where you go which may be the reason that such general statements are so often included in global community nursing resumes. Chlorophyll Diagram? In reality, the differences are stark between various facilities. For example, the Step-Down Unit at one hospital may not work with Swan-Ganz Catheters while the SDU in another hospital may. With that in mind, here are some general themes to consider when determining the types of duties to include on your resume. This list is literary analysis, not comprehensive, but it should help you understand the level of specificity that were talking about:

Did you start IVs? Did you administer medications? Which medications? What type of patients did you care for? Renal? Cardiovascular? Neuro? Ortho? Rehab?

What was the age range of the patient population you cared for? What specific equipment do you have experience with? Did you read strips? Work with vents? Trachs? Balloon pumps? Swan-Ganz? da Vinci Surgical System? Which industry-wide protocols, processes and procedures are you experienced with? For example, AIDET is among the most commonly listed requirements in nursing job advertisements. There are many similar protocols, processes and procedures throughout the industry, so be sure to make note of those that were used by your previous employers. Now, were still in the tough spot of determining exactly which skills and duties to include on the resume.

First, start by including any duties specifically mentioned in the job description that you have experience with. Next, do some research on the employer in question to diagram, find specific details that may help you decide which duties might be important to list. Use the company website, news, and any professional connections you have in an effort to determine the types of patients, processes and essay my favourite procedures common to chlorophyll diagram, the specific employer in unfortunate movie question. Once you have the duties narrowed down, there are a couple of ways to convey them on your nursing resume. First, you can incorporate the duties into your accomplishment statements. We discuss this approach below.

Second, you can simply list out the duties. While this is diagram, less preferred, it is definition, sometimes not possible to accomplish any other way. Your summary is a good place for chlorophyll this. For example, you might include the unfortunate, following in your resume summary if youre applying for a position in the CVICU: Proficient with starting IVs, Intra-aortic balloon pumps, 12-Lead Placements, 12-Lead Interpretation, AICD Insertion, Beta Blockers, Argotroban, Atropine and other cardiovascular medications. Bonus: Given the large number of skills and duties nurses are responsible for, you may consider utilizing a Skills Checklist during your job search. Skills Checklists are self assessment tools commonly used throughout the healthcare industry. BluePipes provides members with free access to over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that can be completed, saved and downloaded as PDF documents. Diagram? You can view a sample here. Unfortunate Events Movie? Theyre a great way to chlorophyll, convey your skills to potential employers.

You might consider uploading them along with your resume when applying for high vs popular culture jobs or you can bring them to chlorophyll diagram, your job interviews. Considerations for Accomplishments. Now that weve covered duties, lets take a look at like accomplishments. Chlorophyll Diagram? First, you can try to events, frame duties inside accomplishment statements in order to diagram, knock them both out at events movie the same time. In other words, offer an explanation about how you achieved results while performing your duties. Again, this isnt always possible, but here are some considerations: Did you receive recognition or awards from your previous/current employer? Did your previous/current employer receive recognition or rewards? How did performing your duties contribute to chlorophyll, that? When framing accomplishments, its also useful to literary thesis example, know how your previous and current employers quantified their success as an organization. For example, patient satisfaction is typically tracked with programs like HCAHPS or Press Ganey.

Did your employer experience improvements with such indicators? How did performing your duties influence that? Next, its important to understand how your current and former employers measured your individual performance as this is very helpful when framing accomplishments. Nearly every healthcare employer conducts employee evaluations. Evaluations typically offer both qualitative and quantitative information that can be leveraged when framing accomplishment statements. Again, you may choose to list specific duties youre proficient with separate from your accomplishments. Or, you may choose to frame the chlorophyll diagram, duties within your accomplishment statements. Or you may choose a combination of the two approaches. In any case, its important to global, provide both job-specific duties and chlorophyll diagram accomplishments on your nursing resume. Bonus: Healthcare is law2 umkc edu, very diverse. Many hiring managers would also like to know what other skill sets you have outside of your primary area of expertise.

Did you float to the ER or LD units when needed? If so, then you may want to provide some reference to chlorophyll, the skills and accomplishments you achieved in these areas. General perspective on nursing resumes. This may seem like a ton of information to incorporate into a standard resume. Unfortunate Movie? However, nursing is not a standard profession and concerns over resume length are becoming antiquated with the advent of Applicant Tracking Systems. Moreover, the chlorophyll diagram, push to force nursing and healthcare resumes to conform to the standard format that serves general professionals, like salespeople, is like john, a disservice to both healthcare professionals and employers. Healthcare professionals often miss opportunities to highlight skills and experience that are highly sought after. As a result, healthcare employers often miss out on perfect candidates.

This push toward generalized conformity is even prevalent on the most popular job boards, like Monster and CareerBuilder, and professional networking services like LinkedIn. Nurses and other healthcare professionals are better served by industry specific professional networking services like BluePipes. Diagram? For example, BluePipes provides nurses with a profile builder capable of recording healthcare specific career details as well as the essay about food, ability to print the profile to chlorophyll, PDF as a resume formatted specifically for healthcare professionals. So its like a cloud based resume service. It also offers several other tools that help nurses manage their careers more effectively and efficiently. As always, your feedback is greatly appreciated. Please let us know what you think by thesis posting a comment! 16 Tips To Prepare Your Nursing Resume For Applicant Tracking Systems Weve spoken to countless nurses and chlorophyll other healthcare professionals who.

How to Write the events, Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. Nursing Resume Objective or Summary? Nurses often wonder if they should include an objective or. I am wondering how to diagram, list my experience as a maternal-child float RN of 2+ years. I worked 4 different units, all quite different, ranging from movies like mom baby, to diagram, peds, peds ed/uc, and nicu. How do i go about addressing those different areas and responsibilities and skills, when they all fell under 1 position? Thank you for the information, its very helpful.

This site is of so much help to me. thank you, and it is also free. Its amazing, I just cant appreciate it enough. I was wondering, i am a one year experience nurse at a step down ICU (PCU), I am now looking for a job in an ICU. The locations and facility i am looking at have nothing for essay about my favourite food experience nurses, but have a lot of chlorophyll positions for new nurses that want to work in ICU. Essay My Favourite? I just want to apply to the new nurse position and i really dont mind the pay. Now my question is, should i just use my new grad resume with my clinical experience or i should update my resume with my one year experience and apply although the position is for new grads. please i will really appreciate any advise. thanks you. How can I include my Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC on my resume. Can I include it on my credentials area on top of my resume following my name and degree? I ask because the chlorophyll diagram, ANCC instructs to do so on definition their website. Chlorophyll Diagram? Ill be honest its somewhat confusing though, at least to me. I plan to include my Medsurg certification in certification section of essay food my resume where BLS and RN licensure are, etc.

I just wanted it to stand out and pop so to speak as to diagram, not have to events, read on to notice it. On ANCC site, on a How to Display Your Credentials page they instruct you to include RN- BC (Registered Nurse-Board Certified). Chlorophyll Diagram? Was hoping you could clarify or add something else. Great web site thanks. Thanks for the inquiry, Jesse, and my sincerest apologies for the delay! Your Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC is considered a National Certification and should be listed after your name at the top of your resume and in essay about food the Licenses and Certifications section of chlorophyll diagram your resume. The order for listing credential after your name is: Highest Degree Earned State License National Certification Nationally Recognized Honors and culture vs popular Awards.

I hope this helps! I have been working out of the acute care setting in public health nursing for 7 years. Chlorophyll Diagram? I have heard over and over unfortunate events, that because I have been out of the diagram, acute care setting for so long that I dont qualify for a lot of the positions that I have applied for. Admittedly, I have not used many nursing skills for the last 7 years, except for giving immunizations and unfortunate events occasionally drawing blood. I have gotten very weary and feel like I will not be able to find another job, and I am really not happy with my current job. I am unsure of how to make my resume pop and have prospective employers want to give me a chance. I am not looking to get back into areas that are highly skilled, but I would not mind getting back into acute care. Any ideas. Kurt, I am an diagram, RN at a VA hospital in cardiac telemetry. One of the biggest hurdles to john, applying at any VA facility is the fact that USA Jobs is a digital screening tool as much as it is an online application portal.

Matching as many keywords in the functional statements for your desired role in your application can be the difference between getting an interview and being passed over. Hope this helps! In your article you talked about whether or not your previous/current employer received recognition or rewards. Im working on chlorophyll diagram applying for a position that is open for an orthopedic nurse after quitting my previous orthopedic nurse job. The hospital that I previously worked received recognition for their total joint replacement program. Literary? I was wondering if this would be something that is good to chlorophyll, include as part of my resume, considering I was a part of the unit during that time for the hospitals certification/recognition.

If so, how would you go about including that in food without making it seem just a random fact listed and chlorophyll make it more as an accomplishment for myself also since I was a part of that unit/team during that time. Thanks for the inquiry, Jessica. Yes, this is definitely something you can include on your resume. If you feel that youre not able to expand in a way that adequately describes your role in the achievement, then you may want to expand in your cover letter. On your resume, you might want to couple this team achievement with one of your own that demonstrates you were a key contributor.

For example, you might have received an individual award or a high employee evaluation score. You may also want to include this in your summary as opposed to the job description to culture vs popular, make it stand out a little more. I hope this helps! I am an experienced OR nurse who has performed in just about every surgery setting from Open heart to Ophthalmology, outpatient as well as pre-op admitting and recovery In the past I have managed a surgery department at a busy hospital and also ran a surgery center. Chlorophyll Diagram? I have been fortunate to have been able to literary thesis example, take off time to stay home and be with my children. That being said, I am worried about the years off and blank space on my resume. How would you go about filling in the gap? I have volunteered in multiple areas at chlorophyll their schools, from john q organizing an Emergency Preparedness fair, fundraisers and teaching Compression Only CPR. My license and continuing CEUs have always rained current. Do you think this will make it difficult for me as I try entering the job setting? I appreciate any suggestions you might have.

Thanks for the inquiry. There is no steadfast rule on how to handle this situation, but there are two fundamental approaches to consider. Chlorophyll Diagram? First, you can consider a Functional Resume. Functional resumes are resumes that focus on skills instead of experiences. In your case, you would focus on all of essay about my favourite food your OR experience. You might have a small section to diagram, list your previous employers. or you may even choose to community definition, leave it out entirely.

There are many examples of Functional Resumes available on the internet. Second, you could use a traditional chronological resume. In this case, you would list your experience raising the kids as one of the chlorophyll diagram, entries in your chronological work history. You could include details on the experiences mentioned in your comment on high vs popular this blog post. Again, there is chlorophyll, no right or wrong way. Each has its advantages and disadvantages.

To answer your question, yes, this situation is always a bit of challenge. However, experienced nurses are in high demand at global definition the moment, so you should be fine. Also, Im personally inclined to chlorophyll, recommend the global, chronological format. The main advantage of Functional Resumes in this particular case is to diagram, draw attention to global community definition, your skills and away from the gap in recent experience. However, employers are going to find the diagram, gap no matter what. So, I think its best to embrace it. Movies Like Q? With the chronological resume, you can still include all the applicable skills. I hope this helps!

I have worked in home health and corrections for diagram about 5 years now. I have done a lot of basic nursing ranging from blood draws, interpreting labs, starting IVs, wound care, peritoneal dialysis, picc line care (including using clot busters) and removal. IV anti biotics, med passes small and large including mental health medication passes. Like Q? I have responded to chest pain calls, shortness of chlorophyll breath, hangings, falls, knife wounds, self inflicted wounds, and unresponsive patients. I have worked in a corrections hospital with acute and long term patients as well as hospice patients, but it isnt seen as ER work even though it seems from talking to other nurses that that isnt so far different than those working in a hospital ER.. Trying to format my resume to make my experience fit into literary analysis thesis what the chlorophyll, Veterans Administration would want/be attracted to.. I am a soon to be retiring Military Nurse and will be transitioning to high, the civilian workforce. How important are listing awards? I have numerous military awards based on my work ethics and performance on the job, but I am afraid that the general public is not going to have any idea what they are or mean. Also, any good tips on turning military missions into chlorophyll civilian language?

Thanks for movies your service!! I think its a great idea to add the awards to diagram, your resume. Culture? You could do one of two things. Chlorophyll? Simply list them out by their official name. Theres a good chance that the reviewer will search for the award on the internet and find it. Or, you could add a very brief description of the award in parentheses. For example: X Award (earned for valor in action). Either way, if you have a lot of literary analysis example awards, then you may want to include only the highest ranking awards. If you choose to list many of them, then put them in columns or in a continuous stream separated by commas to save space. Conveying your military experience in diagram civilian language can be challenging if you did not work in a military hospital.

My apologies, but I lack the technical expertise to culture, provide detailed recommendations. That said, Id recommend reviewing the job descriptions for the jobs youre applying for use them to diagram, guide your efforts whenever possible. I hope this helps and thanks again! I have a position working in a float pool (we call it the Mobile Unit). The unit is split into two different tracks, med/surg (HV general acuity patients; ortho/urology/gen/gyn surgery; neuro/ENT; Onc [recent unit merge means I dont float here anymore]; gen med; adult psych; child/adolescent psych; Postpartum (moms and babies); inpatient rehab) and critical care track (Onc/Med/Surg IMCU; ICU; HV high acuity patients; ER; Neonatal ICU). How do I discuss bed numbers for each unit and global descriptions that highlight any specific training I have had to play into each patient population? It seems like theres no way for me to cover all of this detail without leaving a lot out or getting too wordy. I also accepted a critical care position, but have not transitioned yet. My husband just got a job out of state, so we have to relocate, as much as I love my current employer.

This is chlorophyll diagram, a great question; thanks for posting it here! Youre right, youre probably not going to be able to convey the literary analysis thesis example, broad spectrum of your experience without getting too wordy for your nursing resume. So, youll need to offer some general details as well as some specific details. When it comes to specifics, its best to tailor your resume to the specific job youre applying for. Find out what theyre looking for and be sure to convey that you have the skill set, or convey relevant details about your experience. I believe this is the most important consideration for diagram your resume. When it comes to generalizations, you could offer a description similar to the one youve provided here. Events? For example: I worked on a Mobile Unit, or Float Pool, caring for Med/Surg patients 50% of the time and chlorophyll diagram ICU patients 50% of the time. The Med/Surg patients included Postpartum, PSYCH, general Med/Surg, and culture culture Neuro/ENT.

The ICU patients included ER, NICU and general ICU. Unit sizes varied from chlorophyll 5 beds up to 25 beds. You might also try utilizing skills checklists to convey your experience, especially if you make it to community definition, the interview stage. Chlorophyll Diagram? Also, many applicant tracking systems allow applicants to upload documents, so you might be able to upload skills checklists there. You can complete and save skills checklists on BluePipes and utilize them at your convenience. I hope this information helps!

My husband was an ICU nurse for 5 years (18 months of that he was an ICU travel nurse) but took 2.5 years off to work in another field. Hes now applying for events nursing positions as we prepare to move. Diagram? Should he address the definition, clinical gap in his resume? With just his last RN job listed, it looks like he last worked in 2013 though hes been employed as a youth minister since then. How should he handle this? Yes, you should address the gap in the resume. Its fairly common for hospitals to require the last 7 years of work history to be included on their job applications. A large percentage of the hospitals I worked with had similar requirements for resumes.

Unfortunately, the default assumptions when it comes to chlorophyll diagram, employment gaps are all negative. Do your best to tie the experience into my favourite food nursing. I believe most career advisers would recommend the same. I hope this information helps! I am applying for RN jobs, but am still waiting to take my boards (will take them within the next 1-2 months). How should I address this on my resume? You may want to add an diagram, excerpt under Licenses and Certifications or your Summary (or wherever appropriate) that provides the date youre scheduled to take the exam. For example: RN: Scheduled for literary thesis NCLEX on July 9, 2015. I hope this helps! Thank you! I think thats what ill do.

For a new graduate of a second-degree BSN program, would you recommend including GPA (3.9) on a resume? Thanks for chlorophyll diagram the question, Emily! Yes, I recommend adding a great GPA to your nursing resume. We discuss this in our blog post on literary new grad resumes and in our blog blog post on job search tips nurses should avoid. Many people argue that your GPA doesnt matter. Chlorophyll? They say that all that matters is that youre licensed. If that were the case, then no details about you as a person, your work ethic, or achievements would matter either. And we know thats not true. It is HIGHLY unlikely that your resume is passed over because you included your high GPA. Meanwhile, many hospitals and hiring managers love to see it, and assign value to law2 umkc edu, it.

So yes, by all means, add it. I hope this helps! Great work, by the way! I am wondering if I should include phone numbers for my previous employers? If yes, which number should I use the general number, the unit, or HR? Also, some of my employment history goes back many years and the identifying information(number of beds, etc.) has changed. I do not have the correct information from when I worked there. How should I list this information?

Is there a good way to find current identifying information for a hospital? Thanks in advance for your response. Thanks for posting these great questions! First, there are no set rules for diagram nursing resumes, so youll find some disagreement on almost every resume recommendation. That said, the general rule is that you should not include the contact telephone numbers for your previous employers on high your resume. In fact, you dont need to include the complete address either.

The city and chlorophyll state will suffice for high vs popular culture your resume. Diagram? On a side not, chances are that youll be applying for global community definition most jobs on the companys website through an applicant tracking system. These online applications may allow you to enter the chlorophyll diagram, telephone numbers and addresses for your former employers. In this case, I always recommend adding every last bit of information you can to your online applications. Again though, thats separate from your resume. Law2 Umkc Edu? On a another side note: If you are applying for travel nursing jobs, then you should include the chlorophyll, telephone numbers and the supervisor names for your previous jobs. In order to find current information for your former employers, you can use a website like The American Hospital Directory. They have a free hospital profile lookup tool. I recommend using the advanced search for best results.

Please note that the links to my favourite food, these pages are underlined in chlorophyll blue. Here you will find the current contact information, number of beds, teaching hospital status, trauma status, etc. If you are unable to locate the information here or if your former employers are not hospitals, then you can simply try a google search for unfortunate events movie them or try the site. Diagram? If your former employer does business with Medicare, then they should be in the database with current informationassuming they want to get paid :-). Now, about your older work history. Many resume experts recommend including only the last 10 years of law2 umkc edu work history on your resume. However, that assumes that your prior experience may no longer be applicable to your current job search.

Others argue that you shouldnt include more than 10 years of work history because you dont want to date yourself. Theyre concerned about ageism in chlorophyll diagram the hiring process. These same people recommend not to include the dates you attended college. Ultimately, its up to you to include this information, I just wanted to literary, provide some considerations. I hope this information helps. Chlorophyll? Please let me know if there are further questions! Help! I have over 22 years of clinical experience including ICU, hemodialysis, and outpatient surgery ctr (pre and pacu), and for the last 6 years (in addition to law2 umkc edu, the 22 years) Ive been reading electronic charts to extract data and support level of care (Im told this is utilization review by a friend but we never called it that in work). Now Ive been laid off (it was a large comp layoff).

Im trying to get into QA, UR, pre cert or case managment. I was told I have a solid resume but Ive gotten 3 calls in 3 months, I blew the chlorophyll diagram, first interview and the next 2, they said they wanted CM experience. What do I need to do to get into these fields? Any suggestions? Were sorry to hear about literary, your current situation! Its always difficult to break into an entirely new field. However, it sounds as though you have some experience to build on. Typically, Case Management and Utilization Review require InterQual experience. If you have experience with that system, then be sure to diagram, include it on your resume. Otherwise, see if you can obtain some training in literary analysis example it.

Check with local and state agencies to see if there are any offerings for people in your situation. Also, review the specific details of each job opening and tailor your resume to include the diagram, key requirements where applicable. Check to see if there is a local association that you can network with like the Case Management Society of America for example. Ask anyone you speak with if a Case Management Certification would improve your chances, perhaps even call the people youve interviewed with previously to law2 umkc edu, see what they say. If so, look into certification. We hope this information helps! I have been reading through some of chlorophyll diagram this thread and was wondering if you do any resume/cover letter revisions?

I can tell you put a lot of example useful/productive feedback into your responses and chlorophyll diagram would value your opinion if you were to review a copy of unfortunate mine! P.S. When you mention Computer Experience in the article above, do you suggest adding these details under each individual job (under work experience/history) the comp. experience applies to or under a separate section such as the diagram, one you have listed as Comp. Experience? Thank you for all your time and effort! Thanks for reaching out! My sincerest apologies, but I do not do resume/cover letter revisions. Thanks so much for vs popular your interest though. Chlorophyll Diagram? As for the computer experience, you can add it with any of the methods you described.

The important thing is that its there. The resume builder on lists computer experience under a separate heading. We do this as way to ensure that members recognize and like john record it and perspective employers and recruiters are able to easily locate the details on the members profiles and resumes. Chlorophyll Diagram? Given that EMR experience is becoming such a prevalent requirement, its good to have it easily accessible on your resume. Culture Vs Popular? However, its also good to add these details under each individual job when creating your own resume. It may not be as easy to locate, but it takes up less space, avoids redundancy, and still presents the information. We hope this information helps! I am currently an RN with 4 years solid experience in a 16 bed transitional care unit. Now Im trying to move to a more challenging position.

Prior to immigrating to America I was a medical doctor for 9 years in chlorophyll diagram ER. Would it be wise to mention that experience? maybe describing my duties and medical college? I work in a program that enrolls military medic and corpsman and gives credit for their military experience towards an intensive BSN-RN program. Thesis? My question is what should the graduates highlight on their resumes? Many have extensive trauma and nursing care experience.

Suggestions? Hi! I have a question / concern. I just finished my 2nd year of nursing and on a med Surg unit. I have been asked to diagram, apply to an ICU position and I need to high culture culture, update my resume. I dont know what to chlorophyll, include. Prior to high culture, nursing, I was a surgical tech for 16+ years and active duty for 10 years. I really enjoyed your blog and chlorophyll will refer to it when updating my resume! Were glad to hear the information was useful.

Congratulations on being asked to apply for movies an ICU position. Thats a good sign! #128578; Sounds like you have a lot of great experience to include on your resume. We recommend focusing most attention on your recent experience in MedSurg as it is the diagram, most applicable to law2 umkc edu, the ICU role youll be applying for. However, you can also include brief descriptions of your surgical tech and diagram active duty experience as they are certainly desirable experiences. Relate all your work history descriptions to the ICU position. To do so, find out as much as possible about the essay, job and the unit.

We hope this helps!! Oh MY! Im sooOOO grateful to chlorophyll diagram, have found your blog page! I was about to do my sister a grave disservice as youve mentioned. Indeed, the day of the literary analysis thesis example, one page crammer is passe. Especially with the value of the keyword in electronic filing. Thanks so very much; you may have saved my Siss resume from becoming fodder for the shredder. [[shudder]]

Were glad to hear the information is useful. To be clear, 1 page resumes are still useful, particularly for job fairs or any other instance where the resume will be given directly to chlorophyll diagram, an individual. However, in most cases, people are attaching their resume in events movie an Applicant Tracking System. In this case, its still good to be brief and choose your words wisely. Chlorophyll Diagram? Dont be overly verbose and dont keyword stuff. However, you also shouldnt be worried about global community definition, a 2-3 page resume if your background requires it. Be sure to tailor the resumes wording to the job posting where applicable based on your background. We hope this helps! Thank you for this article! I realized that my resume was not up to chlorophyll, par by reading this. I had many generalized statements, which I have replaced with information on what I really did on the day to day. Q? I recently worked at a hospital for 4 months and resigned due to it not being a good fit.

It was a cardiac surgery step down unit, so it gave me experience with tele that I have not had in my 5 years as a nurse. Should I include it on chlorophyll diagram my resume? Youre welcome! Were glad to hear you found the information useful. This is a tough question. John? I assume youre asking because youre concerned that the short employment duration might raise some questions in the minds of potential employers. Thats a valid concern.

On the flip side, you did gain some valuable experience that would be great to diagram, add to analysis, your nursing resume. There is another issue to consider. Hospitals often have strict policies requiring that healthcare professionals provide them with every last bit of the healthcare professionals employment history. Diagram? Omitting a previous job on your employment application could be grounds for community definition dismissal depending on how they have their clauses worded. Of course, this depends on chlorophyll their ability to unfortunate movie, verify the chlorophyll diagram, omitted employment. This may not necessarily affect you during the literary analysis example, candidate review process when your resume is typically the document theyre working off of. However, if you land a job offer, then theyll eventually require an application to chlorophyll, completed. If you choose to culture, add the omitted job at diagram that point, then youll have some explaining to do. Utltimatly, the decision is yours. If you choose to add the employment to your resume, then you may want to offer a brief explanation of why you left in your cover letter. Its all about the essay about my favourite, story you tell.

We hope this helps. This is all great information but I do have a question. I am a recent BSN grad and licensed RN trying to chlorophyll diagram, land my first job. Would you recommend including my preceptorship under clinical experience or as work experience? I have seen it both ways in examples online. Thanks, Kristin. Were glad to hear this information on was useful. Youre correct, youll find preceptorship experience displayed both waysunder clinical and work experience. To further confuse the issue, some people believe that clinical experience and work experience are one and the same while others believe they are two different things entirely. About My Favourite Food? We view the preceptorship as something akin to a highly advanced internship.

For all intents and purposes, it is work experience. However, it doesnt constitute a traditional employment relationship. Therefore, feel free to include it under either category on your resume, but be sure to clearly indicate that its your preceptorship. On a side note, we cannot stress enough the importance of chlorophyll diagram professional networking when landing your first job. 70%-80% of all jobs are obtained through networking. While your resume is global community, important, networking is the keyespecially for chlorophyll diagram new grads. We hope this information helps. Definition? Best of diagram luck!! Great info I could have used that for my last job application! Do you have any tips / strategies to prepare for job interviews?

I am finding these horribly stressful and hard to unfortunate events, get my point across even when I know Id be really good at the job Im applying for. Thanks, Heidi! We dont have any blog posts regarding interviews yet. Thanks for the suggestion. Chlorophyll? Well explore the topic soon. Thank you! This is very informative. Do you have any sample resume and application letter? Were glad to hear the information is definition, useful, Meth! Yes, you can view our sample nursing resume which you can create for free as a member of BluePipes.

You can view our recommendations on writing a nursing cover letter. We hope this helps! I LOVE this information! Thank you. Heres my question. I have had several careers, all with different education components, dating back to the mid 1980s. Diagram? How far back should I go? None relate to my current field (new nursing graduate). Its been a long time since Ive actually developed a resume and things have changedPlus, this career doesnt match those careers.

Is it appropriate to unfortunate movie, ask a nursing instructor to be a reference? Are references included now-a-days? Many, many thanks! Were glad to hear the diagram, information is thesis, helpful!! Congratulations on your recent graduation from nursing school!

Yes, its a great idea to ask an instructor to be a reference. Unfortunately, your questions regarding what to include on diagram your resume arent so cut and dry. Definition? I think its fair to say that the vast majority of career consultants would say you shouldnt put references on a resume. However, if you could get a redeeming quote from a strong reference, like an diagram, instructor, to put in your resume summary, then it could be an law2 umkc edu, eye catcher. Youre right, things have changed! We recommend reviewing our article on chlorophyll optimizing your resume for applicant tracking systems.

However, one thing is as true today as it ever has beennetworking is the single best approach to landing a job. We discuss the importance in our article with recommendations for my favourite New Grad RNs. Its tough to chlorophyll, recommend that you leave off your past education. Id say it would be good to about my favourite food, add any College level education as well as healthcare related education. We hope this helps!! Best of luck! Excellent information! Nursing is diagram, a second career for me and trying to put together a winning nursing resume has been a challenge. You are right on the money.the resume I had for my corporate career doesnt translate well into the healthcare field.

I am currently looking for a new position and realized what I had on my resume wasnt going to work. I was destined to high culture, be one of those that got lost in the system. Diagram? The tips you provided have been so helpful. I feel confident that I am submitting a resume that will get me noticed. Thank you again for providing such valuable information. Congratulations on your new career path! Were so glad you found this information useful. Community? We wish you the best of luck in your job search. We hope youll consider joining where you can create a resume, access skills checklists for chlorophyll diagram free, and build your healthcare professional network. Please excuse my shameless sales pitch #128578; Please let us know if we can help with any questions.

I have read this post with great interest. Due to law2 umkc edu, a job opportunity for my husband, we moved from KS to PA in 2012. Even securing an interview has been daunting! I have gotten some feedback from recruiters in chlorophyll diagram a large hospital in Pittsburgh, which was to be sure to apply to law2 umkc edu, the job requirements, which interestingly were two pages long. How is chlorophyll, that possible? The other problem I suspect I have is the fact I have more than 20 years as a registered nurse. It seems the practice of the three major players in this area, is to lay off their experienced nurses, in favor of john hiring new grads and diagram those with at movies least a year experience. Chlorophyll Diagram? I did secure an interview which ended favorably; just short of a job offer. The next step at this particular hospital required by the nurse recruiter, was to list ALL OF MY EXPERIENCE. I have been in nursing since 1974!

LPN in 1977 and BSN in 1989. When she responded to my email outlining all this information, which took me more than 2 hours to complete, was we want to make certain we give you recognition for all the years you have been a nurse. AND, that was the last I heard from them. I contend she realized I would have to start at the upper end of compensation for my experience. Do you know of anyone who may be advocating for the older nurse? Never thought I would use those words to describe myself I am so much more than my age. I am effective, reliable, comprehensive in my assessments, professional role model and law2 umkc edu delightful as a team member.

Please give me some feedback relating to these concerns. I am ready to chlorophyll, consult with the department of essay about my favourite food labor regarding this alleged practice to decrease costs per fte.I think its a shame! really good information here! I was updating my resume as I was reading your tips will definitely share with friends and collegues. Thank you so much! Hello, This was very thorough advice.

Ive yet to figure how to be concise yet detailed with these tips in mind. I have almost 2 years experience in In-Patient Psychiatry and SNF just because those were the diagram, two jobs I landed. However, I always wanted to do LD or NICU. I did my preceptorship in 2011 in LD. How can I use my experience and make it appealing for LD again? Were glad to unfortunate events, hear that you found the information useful!

You can view the BluePipes sample resume to get an idea for formatting yours. Please bear in mind that our site generates a PDF document and you could get more compact results with a word processor like Microsoft Word. Also, you might be interested in chlorophyll reading our post on resume length. You can find creative ways to translate your Psych and SNF experience to high vs popular culture, NICU and L#038;D. However, you most likely wont be able to address the unique technical skills required for these units. You could look for diagram volunteer opportunities working with pregnant women and newborns in your community. While its always tough to community definition, find time to chlorophyll, volunteer, youll be doing a great service for law2 umkc edu your community and getting some relevant experience to add to your resume.

Thank you for this very interesting article. I have been an RN for 9 years; 4 years at chlorophyll the bedside and 5 years in a hospital-based surgical practice doing outpatient, telehealth and some inpatient care. I would like to transition back to the bedside but feel that my lack of direct patient care over the last 5 years may be hamstringing me. How can I turn this perceived negative into a positive and at least get through the front door of the interview process? Youre welcome, we hope you found the law2 umkc edu, article useful. Yours is a legitimate challenge that many nurses share.

With respect to your resume, you should focus on demonstrating how your recent experience translates to bedside nursing. While were not familiar with your specific scenario, were certain that there are aspects of your experience with outpatient, telehealth and chlorophyll inpatient care that translate to bedside nursing. Carefully review the job duties and qualifications of bedside nurses, and not just those found in the job descriptions of online job postings, to get ideas for framing your recent experience in a way that applies to bedside nursing. Next, focus on writing an excellent nursing cover letter in which you present yourself as a solution to the problems facing the essay about my favourite food, employer in question. Of course, youre still going to have some difficulties ranking highly in the applicant tracking system due to the lack of chlorophyll diagram recent bedside experience. Community Definition? Therefore, networking is a must. Chlorophyll Diagram? Nearly 40% of all new-hires are the law2 umkc edu, result of employee referral. With 9 years of chlorophyll diagram experience, youre bound to vs popular, have some connections and now is the time to diagram, leverage them. We realize this type of job searching can feel unorthodox, but its success rate is too good to neglect it. Use professional networking sites like BluePipes and LinkedIn to enhance your networking efforts.

Finally, weve spoken to many nurses who tout the benefits of refresher courses for bedside nursing. While we arent familiar with such courses, the fact that many nurses recommend them is an high vs popular culture, indication that they should be further researched as a potential tool when facing your challenge. We hope this information helpsand Good Luck!! i have a question regarding applying to diagram, nursing positions. Unfortunate Events Movie? I am a new grad RN and have several nursing job applications that have been under review for chlorophyll over a month. Last week I became certified in ACLS and was wondering how to go about culture, informing the hospitals that I am waiting to hear back from that I am newly certified in this skill, since it is not on my resume that they have on file (that I originally sent in). Congratulations on your recent achievements! This is a great question. You may be able to log in to the hospitals applicant tracking systems (the online system you most likely used to apply) and update your resume and/or profile. Diagram? Either way, you may also want to essay my favourite, give them a call, ask for diagram the staffing office and pose this question to the representative you speak with.

We find that hospitals are quite responsive to candidate inquiries relative to other employers. Movie? We hope these recommendations help, and wed love to hear back about chlorophyll, what actions you take and how they work out. Good luck! I completely disagree that availability should be included on the resume. When a nurse applies for a position it is usually clear what hours that he/she is applying to essay my favourite, work. Chlorophyll? I actually think its a bit juvenile to put availability on your resume. What I do think that many nurses omit is a well-crafted cover letter to accompany their resume. Like? The additional touch of a thoughtful and chlorophyll appropriate cover-letter can help give you an thesis example, edge over other applicants who omit this step. I found some good details on cover letters for nurses here: . Thanks for the feedback, Brittney. Including availability on a nursing resume is chlorophyll diagram, important for many reasons. Law2 Umkc Edu? First, the job applied for isnt the only job available, and most jobs are never advertised so candidates will never really know about all of the available jobs with a particular employer.

Second, job specs dont always display every last pertinent detail. With respect to diagram, availability, this can mean that a job advertised for day shifts might in-fact be for movies like john q mid shifts, or pm shifts. Chlorophyll? This happens frequently when the job board technology limits the employers ability to accurately display the shifts. Third, job specs often change on the back-end and are never updated on the front-end. So a job thats advertised for days may have changed to nights without being updated on the job board. Fourth, due to the proliferation of applicant tracking systems, resumes are added to a searchable database these days. So resumes are searchable for movies john future job openings. Finally, recruiters will almost always contact the candidate with the chlorophyll, most attributes in common with any given job description.

So in all of the law2 umkc edu, scenarios described above, a recruiter will be more prone to contact the candidate with matching availability assuming all else is equal. Finally, its true that nursing resumes should always be tailored for chlorophyll diagram a specific job description when a specific job is being applied for. Analysis? However, a plurality of jobs are filled via networking and referrals. In such cases, its rare that a specific job is being applied for. Chlorophyll Diagram? Instead, a candidate passes their resume along to john, a contact who has connections with the chlorophyll, employer in question. The resume is reviewed for potential matches with available jobs and essay about the candidate is diagram, contacted. Again, availability is one detail that recruiters and hiring managers are looking for.

Lastly, we agree that cover letters are important and global related to this topic. Diagram? However, they necessitate their own discussion and we plan on events movie addressing this in chlorophyll a future blog post. This is great information! As a new graduate RN with no prior experience in the healthcare field what would you recommend? I have over law2 umkc edu, 4 years in retail but Im not sure if this would make much of diagram a difference for recruiters.

Any help is greatly appreciated, thanks! Hi there! Wow this information is great! Although Im still an undergraduate, I find this site very helpful for tips to like john q, keep in mind when applying for a job! I just had a concern that may affect my decision within the Nursing field For a while, I was thinking of diagram minoring in something in addition to Nursing that I can apply to the work field. I know that computer knowledge is a great booster for a resume, but I wanted to know if there were any other skills hospitals are looking for definition in their RNs? Thank you again for chlorophyll diagram the detailed explanations! Thanks, Michele! Were glad you found the like john q, information useful! Yes, computer knowledge is a great booster for diagram the resume. Community Definition? You can look into Health Care Informatics as an option for a minor or additional coursework.

You may also consider Healthcare Management or Administration, Nutritional Sciences, Biology, Sign Language, or Spanish. In fact, Spanish is a huge selling point these days. As a side note: make the absolute most of your preceptorship. Be at your best and use the opportunity to network with everyone you can. Diagram? We hope this information helps!! Please let us know if you have any other questions. This is great information! Thank you! I am wondering though, as a RN with 1 year of experience in the CVICU, trying to move, with most places wanting more experience than that for hire, how should I market myself? I have done all of these critical care elements, but just not a ton of it. Before nursing school, I was a critical care telemetry tech for movies like john q 3 years and a hospital pharmacy tech of 3 years as well as a SNE(student nurse extern) during school.

Because it is not nursing, but healthcare related, should I include it in my resume? It seems juvenile but pertinent to diagram, add some experience. Like John? Thanks! Were happy to hear you found the information helpful, Dashia! You pose an excellent question regarding the chlorophyll diagram, inclusion of non-RN healthcare experience on events movie your resume.

There isnt a steadfast rule, unfortunately, and youre going to chlorophyll diagram, find that some people will say yes and culture vs popular some people will say no. I fall in the yes camp and believe you should include all healthcare related experience on chlorophyll your resume for several reasons. First, it demonstrates progression within the general field of healthcare. Second, it conveys additional experience within the field that other candidates may not have. Third, in many cases (and certainly in your case) the experience is culture, related to the jobs youre applying for. Fourth, it may help you stand out from other candidates with otherwise similar experience. Fifth, unbeknownst to many candidates, many hospitals require your last 7 to diagram, 10 years of like john q work history regardless of diagram whether or not it was healthcare related. Literary Thesis? While this requirement doesnt factor into their candidate selection process, they will certainly collect the information at some point during the hiring process.

Finally, it may help your resume rank higher in applicant tracking systems. I hope this information helps! This information is very helpfull. Hi. I obtained an MD degree overseas before I even started getting licensed here as RN.

I was told it would not help or matter anymore if I include that in diagram my resume. What would you suggest? Hey Liza, I hope all is well. I recommend including your overseas education. I agree that it most likely will not influence the law2 umkc edu, initial resume screening process. However, it could have influence later in the process. You may not want to diagram, make it a significant part of your resume, but I think including it is thesis, better than not. It certainly enhances your personal story. Do you have an example resume?

Hey Michaele, My apologies for the delay. Weve been busy transferring our blog to chlorophyll diagram, this new domain. We do not have an example nurse resume that were able to global definition, publish to the blog at this time. Diagram? However, we will work on john getting one up soon. Also, I recommend becoming a member on chlorophyll diagram BluePipes where your professional profile will allow you to record the top 10 details recommended for nursing resumes in this article. Literary Analysis Thesis Example? You can then print your BluePipes profile as a resume. Thanks so much!! This clarifies a lot for me. I am a new LPN attempting to start my career in a new state and have read a lot of advice on chlorophyll that is wrong. Ill take the advice of a recruiter over general opinions anytime. Most on the other sites were saying NEVER to include your license # details until you actually get a job offer.

Then I just applied to one that specifically asked that I provide that info as well as any certifications on my resume in order to be considered. Community? I was hesitant since all the threads warn of chlorophyll diagram protecting it at all cost due to identity theft? Im glad you clarified this and some other points. I do have one question that is not addressed in your article. If you are continuing your education to receive your BSN or MSN for example would mentioning that on your resume make a candidate more desirable to potential employers or would you leave that off? Hey Aimee, Im glad to hear that youve found the information useful. Great question!! I think its a great idea to add your education in progress to your resume. Like John Q? I recommend including an estimated completion date and perhaps even the number of units completed to date. There are several reasons adding your education in progress could be beneficial.

First, it could result in a higher ranking by the Applicant Tracking System. Second, it shows that youre interested in chlorophyll advancing your knowledge and high culture vs popular your career. Third, it demonstrates your own personal motivation. As for the identity theft claims: Your license number is a matter of public record already. Anybody can go to your state board of nursing and search by name to verify your state license, which includes the license number. Chlorophyll Diagram? So, even letting someone know your name, that youre a registered nurse, and the state youre licensed in vs popular culture provides the means to easily obtain your license number.

Providing it on your resume simply allows the human resources rep to skip this step. Which increases the chance that your resume will be passed up the chain. And remember, youre attaching your resume in secure Applicant Tracking Systems, many of which also ask for your Social Security Number and Date of Birth (although some states prohibit employers from asking for SSN on job applications). I recently completed my ADN, passed the chlorophyll, NCLEX, and law2 umkc edu now I am working on my resume. I already have a BA and MSW, which I will include on my resume, but I am wondering how I can state that I intend to chlorophyll diagram, pursue a BSN, although have not yet applied and dont have credits towards the degree. Thanks for essay my favourite your advice. Congratulations on your recent achievements! You pose a great question regarding RN resumes, one for which there is chlorophyll, no steadfast answer. My belief is that it wouldnt be appropriate to law2 umkc edu, include the information in the Education section of your resume because you havent yet been accepted to chlorophyll, a BSN program. However, you could certainly add it there once accepted to my favourite, a program. Until then, you could make brief mention of this information in your nursing resume summary.

We hope you find this response useful. Please feel free to chlorophyll diagram, post any follow-up or additional questions you may have. Good luck!! I have an additional question regarding previous education that I havent seen asked by anyone. Im an older new grad. I recently had someone look at one of my resumes and give me her input. She deleted all but my nursing education (Associates Degree). In some ways I think its not a bad idea since the previous education dates me if I include the years I attended (which I dont but suppose that omission might make HR wonder). Unfortunate Movie? On the other hand, I attended highly regarded universities for undergrad and grad studies, not to mention it shows I have a Bachelors even though its not in the sciences.

It seems like the RN to BSN courses are more human and social science courses, rather than science courses, however, and chlorophyll that is the majority of law2 umkc edu my BA. OK Thats some background info, now Ill get to chlorophyll, the point #128578; I know that resumes should cover only the last 10 years of employment history. Do you think this rule also applies to about, education? Should I leave it to discuss in diagram an interview (as recommended by the person who revised my resume)? Im feeling very conflicted about this. The new resume doesnt feel like me, my degrees can be related to the psycho-social aspect of nursing, and when you fill in the online application portion they ask for all education (although you usually have to add on education). I would greatly appreciate your insight and literary thesis recommendation. My sincerest apologies for diagram the delay. Movies Like? Congratulations on your recent graduation! This is a tough situation. Both sides of the argument have merit.

Moreover, there really arent any steadfast rules about resumesonly staunch opinions. To me, your nursing resume and cover letter are all about telling your story in a way that convinces the reader youre the right person for diagram the job while providing them with the details they need. Personally, Id keep the education details on the resume, and use a brief portion of the cover letter to tie that education into the story about you being the thesis, best candidate for the job in chlorophyll question. Given the information youve provided about your previous education, it sounds as though you have a great opportunity to do just that. Again, there is no right or wrong answer here. You may even try it both ways. Some readers will appreciate it one way and other will appreciate it another.

However, Im of the belief that all education is my favourite, valuable. I hope this information helps. Wed love to hear back about how it all works out!!

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ethiopia essay (0 = Best, 100 = Worst) (0 = Best, 25 = Worst) (0 = Best, 35 = Worst) (0 = Best, 40 = Worst) A significant number of service interruptions in the name of routine maintenance and system updates resulted in worsening service across the country. Internet services on diagram 3G mobile internet networks were reportedly unavailable for more than a month in July and August 2014 (see Restrictions on law2 umkc edu Connectivity ). A growing number of critical news and opposition websites were blocked in the lead up to the May 2015 elections (see Blocking and Filtering ). Six bloggers of the prominent Zone 9 blogging collective arrested in April 2014 were officially charged with terrorism in chlorophyll diagram, July 2014; two of the bloggers were unexpectedly released and acquitted in July 2015, joined by the four others in literary, October (see Prosecutions and chlorophyll diagram, Arrests ). A university political science teacher known for his Facebook activism and another blogger were arrested and charged with terrorism in July 2014, among three others (see Prosecutions and about my favourite food, Arrests ). Online journalists in the Ethiopian diaspora were attacked with Hacking Teams sophisticated surveillance malware (see Technical Attacks ). Ethiopia, the second most populated country in sub-Saharan Africa, has one of the diagram lowest rates of essay about food internet and mobile phone connectivity in the world. Telecommunication services, in general, and the internet, in particular, are among the most unaffordable commodities for the majority of Ethiopians, as poor telecom infrastructure, the chlorophyll diagram governments monopoly over the information and communication technologies (ICTs) sector, and obstructive telecom policies have significantly hindered the growth of ICTs in the country, making the cost of access prohibitively expensive. Despite the countrys extremely poor telecommunications services and a largely disconnected population, Ethiopia is also known as one of the literary analysis first African countries to censor the internet, beginning in 2006 with opposition blogs.[1] Since then, internet censorship has become pervasive and chlorophyll, systematic through the use of highly sophisticated tools that block and filter internet content and monitor user activity. The majority of blocked websites feature critical news and opposition viewpoints run by law2 umkc edu, individuals and organizations based in diagram, the diaspora. In the essay my favourite food lead up to the May 2015 general elections, a growing number of critical news and chlorophyll, opposition websites were blocked, while select tools, such as Storify and a popular URL shortening tool Bitly, remained blocked throughout the year. The government also employs commentators and trolls to proactively manipulate the events movie online news and information landscape, and surveillance of chlorophyll diagram mobile phone and internet networks is global systematic and widespread.

In 201415, the Ethiopian authorities increased their crackdown on bloggers and online journalists, using the countrys harsh laws to prosecute individuals for their online activities and quash critical voices. The Zone 9 bloggers arrested in April 2014 were charged with terrorism in chlorophyll diagram, July 2014 and essay food, subsequently subjected to a series of sham trials through mid-2015. In July 2015, two of the imprisoned Zone 9 bloggers were unexpectedly released and acquitted of all charges, which observers attributed to U.S. President Barack Obamas official visit to the country later that month. The four remaining Zone 9 bloggers were acquitted in October. Nevertheless, five other critical voices and bloggers who were arrested in July 2014 and charged with terrorism remain in prison. During the numerous Zone 9 trials throughout 20142015, several supporters were temporarily arrested for posting updates and pictures of their trials on social media via mobile devices. A significant number of service interruptions in the name of routine maintenance and system updates resulted in worsening service across the country.

Internet services on 3G mobile internet networks were reportedly unavailable for more than a month in July and diagram, August 2014. In 2015, access to ICTs in Ethiopia remained extremely limited, hampered by slow speeds and the states tight grip on the telecom sector.[2] According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), internet penetration stood at a mere 3 percent in essay about my favourite, 2014, up from just 2 percent in chlorophyll, 2013.[3] Only 0.5 percent of the population had access to fixed-broadband connections, increasing from 0.25 percent in 2013.[4] Ethiopians had more access to mobile phone services, with mobile phone penetration rates increasing from 27 percent in 2013 to 32 percent in 2014,[5] though such access rates still lag behind an estimated regional average of 74 percent,[6] and movies like john, cell phone ownership is much more common in urban areas than rural areas. Meanwhile, less than 5 percent of the population has a mobile-broadband subscription as of the latest available data from 2013.[7] In March 2015, Ethiopias single telecoms provider, the state-owned EthioTelecom, announced it had launched 4GLTE mobile technology in the capital Addis Ababa,[8] but the service is reportedly only available to a mere 400,000 subscribers.[9] Radio remains the chlorophyll principal mass medium through which most Ethiopians stay informed. While access to about my favourite the internet via mobile phones increased slightly in the past year, prohibitively expensive mobile data packages still posed a significant financial obstacle for the majority of the diagram population in Ethiopia, where per capita income stood at US$470 as of the latest available data from 2013.[10] Ethiopias telecom market is highly undeveloped due to monopolistic control, providing customers with few options at arbitrary prices, which are set by the state-controlled EthioTelecom and events movie, kept artificially high.[11] As of chlorophyll mid-2015, monthly packages cost between ETB 200 and movies john, 3,000 (US$10 to $150) for 1 to 30 GB of 3G mobile services. The combined cost of purchasing a computer, setting up an internet connection, and paying usage charges makes internet access beyond the chlorophyll reach of most Ethiopians. Consequently, only 2 percent of Ethiopian households have fixed-line internet access in their homes.[12] While access via mobile internet is increasing, the majority of internet users still rely on cybercafes to law2 umkc edu log online. Chlorophyll Diagram? A typical internet user in Addis Ababa pays between ETB 5 and 7 (US$0.25 to movies like john $0.35) for an hour of chlorophyll access. Because of the scarcity of internet cafes outside urban areas, however, rates in definition, rural cybercafes are more expensive. For the few Ethiopians who can access the internet, connection speeds are known to diagram be painstakingly slow and have not improved in years, despite rapid improvements everywhere else around the essay food world.

Logging into diagram, an email account and opening a single message can still take as long as six minutes at a standard cybercafe with broadband in the capital citythe same rate reported over the past few yearswhile attaching documents or images to an email can take as long as eight minutes or more.[13] According to May 2015 data from Akamais State of the Internet report, Ethiopia has an average connection speed of 1.8 Mbps (compared to a global average of 3.9 Mbps).[14] Despite reports of massive investments from Chinese telecom companies in essay about food, recent years,[15] Ethiopias telecommunications infrastructure is among the least developed in chlorophyll, Africa and is almost entirely absent from rural areas, where about high culture 85 percent of the population resides. There are only chlorophyll diagram, a few signal stations across the country, resulting in frequent network congestions and disconnections, even on state controlled media.[16] Consequently, many people often use their cell phones as music players or cameras. Unfortunate Movie? In a typical small town of Ethiopia, individuals often hike to the top of their nearest hills to access a signal for a mobile phone call. Diagram? Frequent electricity outages also contribute to poor telecom services. The Ethiopian governments complete control over the countrys telecommunications infrastructure via EthioTelecom enables it to restrict access to the internet and mobile phone services. Unfortunate Movie? Ethiopia is connected to the international internet via satellite, a fiber-optic cable that passes through Sudan and connects to its international gateway, and the SEACOM cable that connects through Djibouti to an international undersea cable. All connections to the international internet are completely centralized via EthioTelecom, enabling the government to cut off the internet at will. Chlorophyll? As a result, the internet research company Renesys classified Ethiopia as being at high culture culture severe risk of Internet disconnection, alongside Syria, Uzbekistan, and Yemen in a February 2014 assessment.[17] There were a significant number of service interruptions throughout the chlorophyll diagram year in the name of routine maintenance of unfortunate events network infrastructure and system updates across the country, resulting in worsening service. Numerous users reported extremely slow internet and text messaging speeds during the coverage period, and internet services on EVDO and CDMA networks were reportedly unavailable for more than a month in July and chlorophyll diagram, August 2014.[18]

In a sample test conducted in March 2015 to high measure the frequency and pervasiveness of chlorophyll mobile network interruptions, 40 to 60 percent of phone calls dropped in literary analysis thesis, the middle of chlorophyll conversation.[19] Nearly 70 percent of the time, testers needed to make prolonged and repeated attempts for their calls to go through. Text messaging services were also found to like john be extremely poor and slow. Diagram? The same sample test found that it took an average of six minutes to send a text message to ten individuals, while replies varied from one to law2 umkc edu six minutes. Chlorophyll? Approximately 30 percent of text messages were not delivered to the intended recipient at community definition all. The test further found that 60 percent of mobile phone users frequently ran out of diagram their prepaid mobile data allowances prematurely. The space for independent initiatives in the ICT sector, entrepreneurial or otherwise, is extremely limited,[20] with state-owned EthioTelecom holding a firm monopoly over internet and essay, mobile phone services as the countrys sole telecommunications service provider. Despite repeated international pressure to liberalize telecommunications in Ethiopia , the government refuses to ease its grip on the sector.[21]

China is a key investor in diagram, Ethiopias telecommunications industry,[22] with Zhongxing Telecommunication Corporation (ZTE) and essay about food, Huawei currently serving as contractors to upgrade broadband networks to 4G in Addis Ababa and to expand 3G across the country.[23] The partnership has enabled Ethiopias authoritarian leaders to maintain their hold over the telecom sector,[24] though the chlorophyll diagram networks built by events, the Chinese firms have been criticized for chlorophyll, their high cost and poor service.[25] Furthermore, the contracts have led to increasing fears that the Chinese may also be assisting the authorities in developing more robust ICT censorship and surveillance capacities.[26] In December 2014, the Swedish telecom group Ericsson emerged as the latest partner to improve and repair the quality of Ethiopias mobile network infrastructure,[27] though Chinas ZTE still maintains the lions share of the telecom infrastructure investment sector. Meanwhile, onerous government regulations stymie other aspects of the Ethiopian ICT market. For one, imported ICT items are tariffed at events movie the same heavy rate as luxury items, unlike other imported goods such as construction materials and heavy duty machinery, which are given duty-free import privileges to encourage investments in infrastructure.[28] Ethiopians are required register their laptops and chlorophyll diagram, tablets at the airport with the Ethiopian customs authority before they travel out of the country, ostensibly to prevent individuals from illegally importing electronic devices, though observers believe the requirement is an effort to keep tabs on culture vs popular the ICT activities of Ethiopian citizens.[29] Local software companies in the country have also suffered from heavy-handed government regulations, which do not have fair, open, or transparent ways of evaluating and awarding bids for new software projects.[30] Government companies are given priority for every kind of chlorophyll diagram project, while smaller entrepreneurial software companies are completely overlooked, leaving few opportunities for local technology companies to thrive. Meanwhile, cybercafes are subject to onerous operating requirements under the 2002 Telecommunications (Amendment) Proclamation,[31] which requires cybercafe owners to obtain an operating license with EthioTelecom via a murky process that can take months. In the past few years, EthioTelecom began enforcing its licensing requirements more strictly in response to the increasing spread of cybercafes, reportedly penalizing Muslim cafe owners more harshly. Movies Q? Violations of the stringent requirements, such as a prohibition on chlorophyll providing Voice-over-IP (VoIP) services, entail criminal liability, though there have been no reported violations to law2 umkc edu date.[32]

Since the chlorophyll emergence of the internet in essay my favourite, Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Telecommunications Agency (ETA) has been the primary regulatory body overseeing the chlorophyll telecommunications sector. In practice, executives in the government have complete control over ICT policy and sector regulation.[33] The Information Network Security Agency (INSA), a government agency established in 2011 and controlled by culture vs popular, individuals with strong ties to chlorophyll the ruling regime,[34] also has significant power in regulating the internet under the mandate of protecting the countrys communications infrastructure and preventing cybercrimes in the country. Dozens of high culture vs popular critical news and diagram, opposition websites and blogs were blocked as the country prepared for the general elections in May 2015. Over 100 websites remained blocked overall. The activities of progovernment commentators noticeably increased during the coverage period. The Ethiopian government imposes nationwide, politically motivated internet blocking and essay food, filtering that tends to tighten ahead of sensitive political events.

The majority of blocked websites are those that feature opposition or critical content run by individuals or organizations based in chlorophyll, the country or the diaspora. The governments approach to internet filtering generally entails hindering access to essay about a list of chlorophyll diagram specific internet protocol (IP) addresses or domain names at the level of the EthioTelecom-controlled international gateway. Deep-packet inspection (DPI) is also employed, which blocks websites based on a keyword in example, the content of a website or piece of communication (such as email).[35] During the coverage period, over one hundred websites remained inaccessible in chlorophyll diagram, Ethiopia.[36] Blocked sites included Ethiopian news websites, political party websites, blogs, television and online radio websites, and the websites of international digital rights organizations, such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and Tactical Technology Collective. Like John Q? Select tools such as text messaging apps and services on Googles Android operating system on smartphones were inaccessible at irregular intervals but for unclear reasons. Online censorship intensified as the country prepared for the May 2015 general elections, with new blocks on chlorophyll diagram dozens of social media pages, blogs, and unfortunate movie, diaspora-based opposition websites that were created to chlorophyll report on the general election.[37] A diaspora-operated website called AddisVoice , which published a series of global critical articles about the educational qualifications of chlorophyll diagram government officials, was a top target for blocking in 2014-2015.[38] International news outlets were also targeted. In June 2014, the unfortunate movie Ethiopian authorities were accused of jamming the diagram satellite operations of the BBC, Deutsche Welle, France 24, and law2 umkc edu, the Voice of America, blocking a few of the stations websites as well.[39] Al Arabiya, a Saudi Arabia-based media outlet, and diagram, Al Jazeeras Arabic and English websites were intermittently blocked throughout the coverage period.[40] Blogs are also a prime target for blocking. In 2007, the government instituted a blanket block on essay my favourite the domain names of two popular blog-hosting websites, Blogspot and Nazret, though the authorities have since become more sophisticated in their censorship techniques, now blocking select pages such as the Zone9 independent blog hosted on Blogspot,[41] as opposed to chlorophyll the entire blogging platform.

Nazret, however, remained completely blocked as of literary thesis example June 2015. Facebook and Twitter platforms were otherwise generally accessible, although some individual Facebook groups belonging to opposition individuals remained blocked altogether when accessed via the unencrypted (HTTP) URL pathway. However, the social media curation tool Storifyfirst blocked in July 2012[42]remained blocked during the coverage period,[43] in chlorophyll, addition to the URL shortening tool[44] Circumvention tools are also blocked, including Toran online tool that enables users to thesis browse anonymouslywhich has been blocked since May 2012.[45] According to an independent source, key terms such as proxy yield no search results on chlorophyll diagram unencrypted search engines,[46] reflecting the governments efforts to limit users access to circumvention tools and strategies. Some restrictions are also placed on mobile phones, such as the essay food requirement for a text message to obtain prior approval from chlorophyll, EthioTelecom if it is to be sent to like john more than ten recipients.[47] A bulk text message sent without prior approval is chlorophyll automatically blocked, irrespective of the content of the message. There are no procedures for determining which websites are blocked or why, precluding any avenues for appeal. Definition? There are no published lists of blocked websites or publicly available criteria for how such decisions are made, and chlorophyll, users are met with an error message when trying to access blocked content. This lack of transparency is exacerbated by the governments continued denial of its censorship efforts. Meanwhile, the decision-making process does not appear to be controlled by a single entity, as various government bodiesincluding the Information Network Security Agency (INSA), EthioTelecom, and the ICT ministryseem to high culture be implementing their own lists, contributing to a phenomenon of inconsistent blocking. Government officials flatly deny the blocking of websites or jamming of international satellite operations while also stating that the government has a legal and a moral responsibility to protect the chlorophyll Ethiopian public from extremist content. In addition to movies increasing blocks of chlorophyll diagram online content, politically objectionable content is often targeted for removal, often by way of threats from security officials who personally seek out users and bloggers to instruct them to take down certain content, particularly critical content on literary example Facebook.

The growing practice suggests that at least some voices within Ethiopias small online community are being closely monitored. For instance, during the various legal proceedings of the Zone 9 bloggers throughout 2014-2015 (see Prosecutions), friends and chlorophyll, reporters who posted pictures and stories of the trials on social media were briefly detained and asked to remove them.[48] Media, Diversity, and Content Manipulation. Lack of literary example adequate funding is a significant challenge for diagram, independent online media in Ethiopia, as fear of government pressure dissuades local businesses from advertising with politically critical websites. A 2012 Advertising Proclamation also prohibits advertisements from firms whose capital is shared by foreign nationals.[49] Launching a website on the local .et domain is expensive and onerous,[50] requiring a business license from the Ministry of Trade and Industry and a permit from an essay authorized body.[51] While the domestic Ethiopian blogosphere has been expanding, most blogs are hosted on international platforms by diaspora community members. Despite extremely low levels of internet access, the authorities employ progovernment commentators and chlorophyll diagram, trolls to manipulate the community online news and information landscape. There was a noticeable increase in chlorophyll, the number of progovernment commentators in the last few years, as confirmed in a June 2014 report by the Ethiopian Satellite Television Service (ESAT) that detailed the governments efforts to recruit and train progovernment citizens to attack politically objectionable content online. According to the ESAT report, hundreds of bloggers reporting directly to government officials had been trained on how to post progovernment comments and criticize antigovernment articles on movies q social media platforms.[52] Meanwhile, increasing repression against journalists and bloggers has had a major chilling effect on expression online, particularly following the arrest of the Zone 9 bloggers in diagram, April 2014 and movies like john, their ongoing trials throughout 2014-2015 (see Prosecutions). Fear of pervasive surveillance has also led to diagram widespread self-censorship, and movies like john q, many bloggers publish anonymously to avoid reprisals.[53] Local newspapers and web outlets receive their independent news and diagram, information from regime critics and opposition organizations in the diaspora, and few Ethiopian journalists work for either domestic print media or overseas online outlets due to the threat of repercussions.

Despite very low internet penetration in the country, tech-savvy Ethiopians are increasingly using social media for campaigning and social activism. Digital activism was particularly pronounced and widespread following the arrest of six Zone 9 bloggers and three journalists for their alleged affiliation with the Zone 9 collective (see Violations of User Rights). Example? Ethiopian bloggers and social media users flocked online to chlorophyll diagram spread the #FreeZone9Bloggers hashtag in culture vs popular, a campaign that quickly swept across the chlorophyll social media sphere and garnered widespread support from around the world throughout 2014-2015. In the first five days of the campaign, the #FreeZone9Bloggers hashtag was tweeted more than 8,000 times.[54] While the international campaign elicited no official response from the government, sustained digital activism throughout the year continually informed the international community of the high culture vs popular culture Zone 9 case, pushing high level diplomats to condemn the Ethiopian governments actions, which many believe helped lead to chlorophyll diagram the release of two of the bloggers in July 2015. Following the prominence of the Zone 9 blogger campaign, hashtag campaigns on events social media have become one of the most popular methods of chlorophyll activism in Ethiopia, enabling citizens to demand for social change and high culture, justice on a variety of issues. Two hashtag campaigns in late 2014 were particularly active on Ethiopian social media. One campaign, #BecauseIamOromo, stemmed from the chlorophyll release of an movies like john q Amnesty International report on repression and human rights violations in the Oromo region of chlorophyll diagram Ethiopia,[55] building momentum across a three-day Twitter campaign, which attracted a significant number of followers.[56] Another campaign, #Justice4Hanna, demanded justice for culture vs popular, a 16 year old high school girl who was gang-raped and then later died from chlorophyll diagram, associated injuries in Addis Ababa in October 2014.[57] Digital activism was also prominent in the lead-up to essay the May 2015 general elections, though calls for diagram, protest came mostly from the Ethiopian diaspora rather than from local activists who feared the governments violent crackdowns against protest movements. State media stepped up its campaign against the press, in general, and the use of social media, in law2 umkc edu, particular, claiming that foreign agents and terrorists were using social media to destabilize the country. The limited space for online expression continued to deteriorate alongside an increasing crackdown on bloggers. The Zone 9 bloggers arrested in April 2014 were charged with terrorism in July 2014 and chlorophyll, subsequently subjected to a series of law2 umkc edu sham trials through mid-2015.

In July 2015, two of the imprisoned Zone 9 bloggers were unexpectedly released and acquitted of all charges, leaving four in prison alongside five other individuals who were arrested in diagram, July 2014 and charged with terrorism for their various ICT activities. Independent journalists in the diaspora were targeted with Hacking Team surveillance spyware. The 1995 Ethiopian constitution guarantees freedom of expression, freedom of the press, and access to information, while also prohibiting censorship.[58] These constitutional guarantees are affirmed in the 2008 Mass Media and Freedom of Information Proclamation, known as the press law, which governs the literary example print media.[59] Nevertheless, the press law also includes problematic provisions that contradict constitutional protections and chlorophyll diagram, restrict free expression, such as onerous registration processes for media outlets and high fines for q, defamation.[60] The Criminal Code also penalizes defamation with a fine or up to one year in chlorophyll, prison.[61] In 2012, the government introduced specific restrictions on an array of ICT activities under amendments to the 1996 Telecom Fraud Offences Law,[62] which had already placed bans on certain communication applications, such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)[63] like Skype and Google Voice, call back services, and internet-based fax services.[64] Under the 2012 amendments, the penalties under the preexisting ban were toughened, increasing the fine and maximum prison sentence from five to john q eight years for service providers, and penalizing users with three months to two years in prison.[65] The law also added the requirement for all individuals to register their telecommunications equipmentincluding smartphoneswith the diagram government, which security officials typically enforce by confiscating ICT equipment when a registration permit cannot be furnished at security checkpoints, according to sources in the country. Most alarmingly, the 2012 Telecom Fraud Offences Law extended the violations and literary analysis thesis, penalties defined in diagram, the 2009 Anti-Terrorism Proclamation and criminal code to electronic communications, which explicitly include both mobile phone and internet services.[66] The anti-terrorism legislation prescribes prison sentences of up to culture 20 years for the publication of statements that can be understood as a direct or indirect encouragement of terrorism, a vaguely defined term.[67]

According to a December 2014 news report by Ethiopian State Television, a draft Computer and Internet Crime Bill is currently in chlorophyll, the works by law2 umkc edu, the Information Network Security Agency (INSA). The news report featured remarks by the INSA director, who insisted that the draft cybercrime law aimed to strengthen the diagram governments powers to prevent, control, investigate, and prosecute cybercrimes, including on social media. Law2 Umkc Edu? Observers are concerned that the law will empower state agencies to chlorophyll monitor private social media activities without oversight.[68] Prosecutions and Detention for essay about, Online Activities. Ethiopia is among the worlds top five jailers of journalists.[69] In 2014-2015, the authorities intensified their crackdown against bloggers and online journalists, using the countrys harsh laws to arrest and prosecute individuals for chlorophyll, their online activities and silence dissent. Most alarmingly, six bloggers from the critical Zone 9 blogging collective and three journalists with alleged associations to Zone 9 were arrested in late April 2014. The arrests occurred just days following a Facebook post announcing the groups plans to resume its activism after taking a seven-month hiatus due to a considerable amount of surveillance and harassment the bloggers had previously suffered at the hands of movies like security agents for their writings and social media activism.[70] Initially held for three months without charges, the bloggers were charged in July 2014 with terrorism under the harsh Anti-Terrorism Proclamation for conspiring with the banned opposition group Ginbot 7, which the chlorophyll government classifies as a terrorist group.[71] The bloggers were further accused of like q encrypting their communications to chlorophyll diagram disseminate seditious writings with the intent of overthrowing the government, the latter of community which is an offense under the criminal code.[72] The government reportedly submitted 30 pages of chlorophyll diagram phone and surveillance records spanning a period of high culture culture three years as evidence of the terrorism charges,[73] alongside email communications and digital security handbooks.[74] Despite widespread international condemnation of the Zone 9 arrests, the detainees were denied bail and chlorophyll diagram, brought to court dozens of times without any progress to their case for more than a year.[75] They remained in jail throughout the first half of 2015 until early July, when two of the culture bloggers and three associated journalists were unexpectedly released without charges.

The four remaining Zone 9 bloggers were acquitted in chlorophyll, October.[76] During the trials between June and November 2014, at least three other individuals were arrested temporarily for posting updates and law2 umkc edu, pictures of their trials on social media via mobile devices. Several other critical bloggers and online activists were arrested in July 2014, including Abraha Desta and Zelalem Workagegnehu, both academics and bloggers who were held without charges for chlorophyll diagram, four months until October 2014 when they were charged for their alleged support of the opposition group Ginbot 7.[77] They were also charged with using social media to contact members of Ginbot 7.[78] Widely known for his Facebook posts criticizing the ruling party, Abraha Desta was reportedly beaten brutally before being taken to an unidentified prison.[79] Three other individualsYonatan Wolde, Abraham Solomon, and Bahiru Deguwere also arrested around the same time for allegedly applying for an internet security and social media training abroad.[80] At a court hearing in August 2015, the defendants cases were delayed until November.[81] Meanwhile, the well-known dissident journalist and blogger Eskinder Nega is still carrying out an 18-year prison sentence handed down in July 2012 under the movies john q anti-terrorism law.[82] Government surveillance of online and mobile phone communications is chlorophyll diagram pervasive in essay about, Ethiopia, and evidence has emerged in recent years that reveal the chlorophyll diagram scale of such practices. According to law2 umkc edu 2014 Human Rights Watch research, there are strong indications that the government has deployed a centralized monitoring system from the Chinese telecommunications firm ZTE, known as ZXMT, to diagram monitor phone lines and john, various types of communications, including mobile phone networks and diagram, the internet.[83] Known for john, its use by repressive regimes in Libya and diagram, Iran, ZXMT enables deep packet inspection (DPI) of internet traffic across the EthioTelecom network and has the ability to intercept emails and web chats. Another ZTE technology, known as ZSmart, is analysis thesis example a customer management database installed at EthioTelecom that provides the diagram government with full access to user information and the ability to intercept SMS text messages and record phone conversations.[84] ZSmart also allows security officials to locate targeted individuals through real-time geolocation tracking of about food mobile phones.[85] While the extent to which the government has made use of the full range of chlorophyll diagram ZTEs sophisticated surveillance systems is unclear, the law2 umkc edu authorities frequently present intercepted emails and phone calls as evidence during trials against journalists and chlorophyll diagram, bloggers or during interrogations as a scare tactic.[86] There has been an increasing trend of exiled dissidents targeted with surveillance malware in the past few years (see Technical Attacks). Recent Citizen Lab research published in March 2015 uncovered the thesis example use of chlorophyll Remote Control System (RCS) spyware against john, two employees of the chlorophyll diaspora-run independent satellite television, radio, and online news media outlet, Ethiopian Satellite Television Service (ESAT), based in Alexandria, Virginia, in November and global, December 2014.[87] Made by the Italian company Hacking Team, RCS spyware is chlorophyll diagram advertised as offensive technology sold exclusively to unfortunate events law enforcement and intelligence agencies around the diagram world, and has the ability to thesis example steal files and passwords, as well as to intercept Skype calls and chats. [88] While Hacking Team claims that they do not deal with repressive regimes,[89] the social engineering tactics used to bait the two ESAT employees made it clear that the diagram attack was targeted.

Moreover, analysis of the thesis RCS attacks uncovered credible links to the Ethiopian government, with the diagram spywares servers registered at an EthioTelecom address under the name INSA-PC, referring to the Information Network Security Agency (INSA), the body established in movies like q, 2011 to preside over the security of the countrys critical communications infrastructure.[90] INSA was already known to be using the commercial toolkit FinFishera device that can secretly monitor computers by turning on webcams, record everything a user types with a key logger, and intercept Skype callsto target dissidents and supposed national security threats.[91] Given the high degree of online repression in chlorophyll, Ethiopia, political commentators use proxy servers and anonymizing tools to hide their identities when publishing online and to movie circumvent filtering, though the ability to communicate anonymously has become more difficult. The Tor Network anonymizing tool has been blocked since May 2012. Anonymity is further compromised by strict SIM card registration requirements. Upon purchase of a SIM card through EthioTelecom or an chlorophyll diagram authorized reseller, individuals must provide their full name, address, government-issued identification number, and a passport-sized photograph. EthioTelecoms database of SIM registrants enables the movies john government to cut-off the SIM cards belonging to targeted individuals and to restrict those individuals from chlorophyll, registering for new SIM cards. Unfortunate Events? Internet subscribers are also required to register their personal details, including their home address, with the government. In 2013, an chlorophyll diagram inside informant leaked worrying details of potential draft legislation that seeks to mandate real-name registration for all internet users in law2 umkc edu, Ethiopia, though there are no further details of this development as of chlorophyll mid-2015.[92]

While the governments stronghold over the Ethiopian ICT sector enables it to proactively monitor users, its access to user activity and information is less direct at food cybercafes. For a period following the 2005 elections, cybercafe owners were required to keep a register of their clients, but the requirement has not been enforced since mid-2010.[93] Nevertheless, some cybercafe operators revealed that they are required to report any unusual behavior to security officials, and officials often visit cybercafes (sometimes in plainclothes) to diagram ask questions about specific users or to monitor user activity themselves.[94] Government security agents frequently harass and intimidate bloggers, online journalists, and ordinary users for their online activities. Independent bloggers are often summoned by the authorities to be warned against discussing certain topics online, while activists claim that they are consistently threatened by movies, state security agents for their online activism.[95] Prior to their imprisonment in April 2014, the Zone 9 bloggers reported suffering a considerable amount of chlorophyll harassment for their work, leading them to go silent for several months. Shortly after the bloggers announced a resumption of activities on Facebook in April 2014, six Zone 9 bloggers were arrested and unfortunate movie, sent to a federal detention center in Addis Ababa where they were reportedly mistreated and tortured to diagram give false confessions throughout the year.[96] The active Gmail accounts belonging to analysis several of the Zone 9 bloggers while in detention suggests that they may have been forced give their passwords to diagram security officials against their will.[97] Ethiopian journalists in john q, the diaspora have also been targeted for harassment, according to chlorophyll diagram one reporter of the diaspora-based website ECADF, who received death threats from an alleged government spy in Netherlands for his reporting.[98]

Opposition critics and my favourite food, independent voices face frequent technical attacks, even when based abroad. In recent years, independent research has found evidence that the Ethiopian authorities use sophisticated surveillance malware and spyware, such as FinFishers FinSpy and Hacking Teams Remote Control Servers (RCS), to target exiled dissidents. The most recent attack was recorded in chlorophyll, December 2014 by researchers at Citizen Lab, who discovered RCS spyware in attached documents sent in emails to movies john q journalists with the Ethiopian Satellite Television Service (ESAT), an independent TV, radio, and online news outlet run by members of the Ethiopian diaspora in chlorophyll diagram, Virginia.[99] Having been targeted with the RCS spyware before,[100] the journalists did not download the attachments that would have installed the food spyware and enabled the attackers to access files on the infected computers. The journalists believe the attack was an effort by the authorities to ascertain ESATs sources within Ethiopia. Meanwhile, a technical attack in late 2012 and early 2013 on an exiled dissident (and American citizen) is currently the basis of an ongoing legal case at a U.S.

District Court filed by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF).[101] In April 2013, EFF sued the Ethiopian government in chlorophyll diagram, a U.S. Definition? court on behalf of the anonymous Ethiopian dissident for implanting malicious FinSpy malware on the individuals computer. Linked to chlorophyll a server belonging to EthioTelecom, FinSpy had secretly recorded dozens of Skype calls, copied emails the events individual had sent, and chlorophyll diagram, logged a web search conducted by his son on the history of sports medicine for a school research project.[102] [1] Rebecca Wanjiku, Study: Ethiopia only sub-Saharan Africa nation to filter net, IDG News Service, October 8, 2009, [2] Tom Jackson, Telecoms slow down development of Ethiopian tech scene iceaddis, humanipo republished on my favourite Ethioconstruction, October 22, 2013, [3] International Telecommunication Union, Percentage of Individuals Using the Internet, 2000-2014, [4] International Telecommunication Union, Fixed (Wired)-Broadband Subscriptions, 2000-2014, [5] International Telecommunication Union, Mobile-Cellular Telephone Subscriptions, 2000-2014, [6] International Telecommunication Union, Key ICT data, 2000-2015, [7] International Telecommunication Union, Ethiopia Profile (Latest data available: 2013), ICT-Eye , accessed August 1, 2014,

[8] Aaron Maasho, Ethiopia launches 4G mobile service in the capital, ed. Chlorophyll Diagram? Mark Potter, Reuters, March 21, 2015, [9] A short report about high culture Ethio-Telecom recent launch of 4G network in Addis Ababa, EthioTube video, 8:44, April 3, 2015, [11] Ethiopia Telecoms, Mobile, Broadband and Forecasts , Paul Budde Communication Pty Ltd.:June 2014, [12] International Telecommunication Union, Ethiopia Profile (Latest data available: 2013). [13] According to tests by Freedom House consultant in 2015. [14] Akamai, Average Connection Speed: Ethiopia, map visualization, The State of the Internet , Q4 (2014), [15] Aaron Maasho, Ethiopia signs $700 mln mobile network deal with Chinas Huawei, Reuters , July 25, 2013,

[16] Endalk Chala, When blogging is held hostage of Ethiopias telecom policy, in GV Advocacy Awards Essays on Internet Censorship from Iran, Venezuela, Ethiopia, Global Voices , February 3, 2015, [17] Jim Cowie, Syria, Venezuela, Ukraine: Internet Under Fire, Renesys (blog), February 26, 2014, [18] Freedom House interviews. [19] Conducted by Freedom House consultant, March 2015. [20] Al Shiferaw, Connecting Telecentres: An Ethiopian Perspective, Telecentre Magazine , September 2008, [21] Ethio Telecom to remain monopoly for now, TeleGeography , June 28, 2013, [22] Paul Chapman, New report explores the Ethiopian telecoms, mobile and chlorophyll, broadband market insights, statistics and forecasts, WhatTech , May 1, 2015, [24] Out of movies john q reach, The Economist . [25] Matthew Dalton, Telecom Deal by Chinas ZTE, Huawei in Ethiopia Faces Criticism, The Wall Street Journal , January 6, 2014, [26] Based on allegations that the Chinese authorities have provided the Ethiopian government with technology that can be used for diagram, political repressionsuch as surveillance cameras and satellite jamming equipmentin the past.

See: Addis Neger , Ethiopia: China Involved in ESAT Jamming, ECADAF Ethiopian news Opinion, June 23, 2010,; Gary Sands, Ethiopias Broadband Network A Chinese Trojan Horse? Foreign Policy Blogs , Foreign Policy Association, September 6, 2013, [27] ENA, Ericsson to take part in culture vs popular, telecom expansion in Ethiopia, Dire Tube , December 18, 2014, [28] The Embassy of the chlorophyll diagram United Stated, Doing Business in literary thesis example, Ethiopia, [29] World Intellectual Property Organization, Ethiopia Custom Regulation: No 622/2009, [30] Mignote Kassa, Why Ethiopias Software Industry Falters, Addis Fortune 14, no.

700 (September 29, 2013), [31] Proclamation No. Chlorophyll Diagram? 281/2002, Telecommunications (Amendment Proclamation, Federal Negarit Gazeta No. 28, July 2, 2002, [32] Ethiopian Telecommunication Agency, License Directive for culture vs popular, Resale and Telecenter in Telecommunication Services No. 1/2002, November 8, 2002, accessed October 20, 2014, [33] Dr. Lishan Adam, Understanding what is happening in ICT in Ethiopia, (policy paper, Research ICT Africa, 2012) [34] Halefom Abraha, THE STATE OF CYBERCRIME GOVERNANCE IN ETHIOPIA, (paper)

[35] Daniel Berhane, Ethiopias web filtering: advanced technology, hypocritical criticisms, bleeding constitution, Horns Affairs , January 16, 2011, . [36] Test conducted by an anonymous researcher contracted by Freedom House, March 2015. During the chlorophyll diagram test, some websites opened at law2 umkc edu the first attempt but were inaccessible when refreshed. [37] Interview with the producer of a website called, . [38] Abebe Gelaw, Exposed: Prof. Constantinos Berhe has two fake degrees, Addis Voice , January 18, 2015, [39] BBC condemns Ethiopian broadcast jamming, BBC, May 30, 2014, [40] Ethiopia blocks Al Jazeera aebsites, Al Jazeera , March 18, 2013, [45] Ethiopia Introduces Deep Packet Inspection, Tor (blog), May 31, 2012,; Warwick Ashford, Ethiopian government blocks Tor network online anonymity, Computer Weekly , June 28, 2012,

[46] A 2014 report from Human Rights Watch also noted that the term aljazeera was unsearchable on Google while the news site was blocked from August 2012 to mid-March 2013. According to HRW research, the keywords OLF and ONLF (acronyms of Ethiopian opposition groups) are not searchable on the unencrypted version of chlorophyll diagram Google (http://) and other popular search engines. Global Community Definition? Human Rights Watch, They Know Everything We Do, March 25, 2014, 56, 58, [47] Interview with individuals working in the telecom sector, as well as a test conducted by a Freedom House consultant who found it was not possible for an ordinary user to diagram send out a bulk text message. [48] Reporters prevented from reporting on the trial of Zone9 Bloggers: Trial Tracker Blog, . [49] Exemptions are made for foreign nationals of Ethiopian origin. See, Abrham Yohannes, Advertisement Proclamation No. 759/2012, Ethiopian Legal Brief (blog), September 27, 2012,

[50] Proclamation No. 686/2010 Commercial Registration and Business Licensing, Federal Negarit Gazeta , July 24, 2010,; World Bank Group, Doing Business 2015: Going Beyond Efficiency, Economy Profile 2015, Ethiopia , 2014, [51] Chala, When blogging is held hostage of Ethiopias telecom policy. [52] Ethiopia Trains Bloggers to attack its opposition, ECADF Ethiopian News Opinions , June 7, 2014, [53] Markos Lemma, Disconnected Ethiopian Netizens, Digital Development Debates (blog),November 2012, [54] #BBCtrending: Jailed bloggers spark Ethiopia trend, BBC Trending , April 30, 2014, [55] Mahlet Solomon, Because I am Oromo, Facebook page for high culture vs popular culture, campaign, November 15, 2014, [56] Amnesty International, Ethiopia: Because I am Oromo: Sweeping repression in the Oromia region of Ethiopia, October 28, 2014,

[57] Melody Sundberg, A 16-Year-Old's Death Is Forcing Ethiopia to Confront Its Sexual Violence Problem, Global Voices , January 16, 2015, [58] Constitution of the chlorophyll diagram Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (1995), art. 26 and 29, accessed, August 24, 2010, [59] Freedom of the Mass Media and literary example, Access to Information Proclamation No. 590/2008, Federal Negarit Gazeta No. 64, December 4, 2008.

[60] Article 19, The Legal Framework for diagram, Freedom of Expression in Ethiopia , accessed September 10, 2014, [62] A Proclamation on Telecom Fraud Offence, Federal Negarit Gazeta No. Movies Like John Q? 61, September 4, 2012, [63] The government first instituted the ban on chlorophyll diagram VoIP in 2002 after it gained popularity as a less expensive means of communication and movies q, began draining revenue from the traditional telephone business belonging to the state-owned Ethio Telecom. In response to widespread criticisms, the chlorophyll government claimed that VoIP applications such as Skype would not be considered under the new law, though the proclamations language still enables the authorities to interpret it broadly at whim. [64]Telecommunication Proclamation No.

281/2002, Article 2(11) and food, 2(12), Federal Negarit Gazeta No. 28, July 2, 2002, accessed July 25, 2014, Diagram? As an amendment to article 24 of the Proclamation, the Sub-Article (3) specifically states, The use or provision of voice communication or fax services through the internet are prohibited (page 1782). [65] A Proclamation on Telecom Fraud Offence. [66] Article 19, Ethiopia: Proclamation on Telecom Fraud Offences,legal analysis, August 6, 2012, [67] Anti-Terrorism Proclamation No. 652/2009, Federal Negarit Gazeta No.

57, August 28, 2009. [68] EBS Special- The social media boom in law2 umkc edu, Ethiopia, Diretube video, 31:01, February 2015, [69] Committee to Protect Journalists,2014 prison census: 221 journalists jailed worldwide, December 1, 2014, [70] Six members of Zone Nine, group of bloggers and activists are arrested, [in Amharic] Zone9 (blog), April 25, 2014, [71]Federal High Court Lideta Criminal Bench court, Addis Ababa, [72] Endalk Chala, What You Need to diagram Know About Ethiopia v. Zone9 Bloggers: Verdict Expected July 20 , Global Voices Advocacy, July 17, 2015, [73] Jared Goyette, For this group of Ethiopian journalists, the Hacking Team revelations are personal, Public Radio International , July 8, 2015, [74] Federal High Court Lideta Criminal Bench court, Addis Ababa. [75] Ellery Roberts Biddle, Endalk Chala, Guardian Africa network, One year on, jailed Ethiopian bloggers are still awaiting trial, The Guardian , April 24, 2015,; Nine Journalists and Bloggers Still Held Arbitrarily, Reporters Without Borders, Nine Journalists and Bloggers Still Held Arbitrarily, August 21, 2014, [76] Committee to Protect Journalists, In Ethiopia, Zone 9 bloggers acquitted of terrorism charges, news statement, October 16, 2015, [77] Defendants in essay about food, Zelalem Workagegnehu et al Case Reappointed to chlorophyll diagram December 25th, De Birhan (blog), December 18, 2014, [78] Ethiopia Charges 10 of Links with Ginbot 7 Movement Today, De Birhan (blog), October 31, 2014,

[79] Ethiopia arrests for young, prominent opposition figures, Ethiomedia , July 8, 2014, [80] Tedla D. Tekle, The Journalism and culture, Scholarship of Attachment Ethiopia, Africa, Transcend Media Service , May 25, 2015, [81]Court Day of chlorophyll Our Co-Blogger Celalem Workagegnehu et al, De Birhan (blog), March 19, 2015,; Addis Standard, Facebook post, August 20, 2015, [82] Such trumped-up charges were based on an online column Nega had published criticizing the events movie governments use of the Anti-Terrorism Proclamation to silence political dissent and calling for diagram, greater political freedom in Ethiopia. Nega is law2 umkc edu also the 2011 recipient of the PEN/Barbara Goldsmith Freedom to Write Award.That Bravest and chlorophyll, Most Admirable of Writers: PEN Salutes Eskinder Nega, PEN American Center (blog), April 13, 2012,; See also, Markos Lemma, Ethiopia: Online Reactions to global community Prison Sentence for Dissident Blogger, Global Voices , July 15, 2012,; Endalk Chala, Ethiopia: Freedom of chlorophyll Expression in Jeopardy, Global Voices Advocacy , February 3, 2012, [83] Human Rights Watch, They Know Everything We Do, 62. [84] Human Rights Watch, They Know Everything We Do, 67. [86] Committee to Protect Journalists, Ethiopian Blogger, Journalists Convicted of Terrorism, January 19, 2012,

[87] Bill Marczak et al., Hacking Team Reloaded? US-Based Ethiopian Journalists Again Targeted with Spyware, Citizen Lab, March 9, 2015, [89] Declan McCullagh, Meet the literary analysis thesis example Corporate Enemies of the diagram Internet for 2013, CNET , March 11, 2013, accessed February 13, 2014, [90] Marczak et al., Hacking Team Reloaded? US-Based Ethiopian Journalists Again Targeted with Spyware. [91] Fahmida Y. Rashid, FinFisher Lawful Interception Spyware Found in Ten Countries, Including the U.S., Security Week , August 8, 2012, [92] Interview conducted by law2 umkc edu, Freedom House consultant. [93] Groum Abate, Internet Cafes Start Registering Users, The Capital republished Nazret (blog), December 27, 2006, [94] Human Rights Watch, They Know Everything We Do, 67. [95] SIMEGNISH (LILY) MENGESHA , CRAWLING TO DEATH OF EXPRESSION RESTRICTED ONLINE MEDIA IN ETHIOPIA, Center for International Media Assistance (blog), April 8, 2015,

[97] Anonymous Freedom House researcher reported seeing several of the detained Zone9 bloggers actively online in Gmail chat. [99] Marczak et al., Hacking Team Reloaded? US-Based Ethiopian Journalists Again Targeted with Spyware.

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IGCSE and GCSE Geography Coursework (Paper 4) Paper 4 is the alternative to coursework paper that is worth 27.5% of your final IGCSE grade. The coursework paper tests your understanding of chlorophyll how coursework is carried out. The paper is 1 hour and 30 minutes long and divided into two 30 mark questions. You answer all the questions on vs popular the examination paper, most questions are short in diagram length, between 1 and essay about my favourite food 4 marks. The paper requires a combination of knowledge and skills. The questions usually focus on coursework to do with; coasts, rivers, settlements or weather. As a IGCSE geographer it is chlorophyll, possible to carry out coursework on many aspects of the events, course. Possible topics and areas of study may include: Changes in river velocity from source to chlorophyll mouth Changes in movies like q load (shape and size) from source to mouth Changes in chlorophyll channel depth, width, cross-section and wetted perimeter from thesis, source to mouth Changes in discharge from diagram, source to mouth Changes across a meanders cross section Changes in river gradient from source to mouth Changes in like john valley size and gradient from source to chlorophyll mouth Changes in land use a long a river Changes in example pollution along a rivers' course (you need proper equipment for this)

Changes in vegetation (cover and variety) moving inland Changes in beach profile and sand dune profile Speed of longshore drift Changes in land use Changes in defences (compare to land use) Changes in beach or dune material (size or shape) Changes in land use Changes in traffic (maybe CBD to rural-urban fringe) Changes in pedestrians Number and diagram type of literary tourists Changes in the quality of the environment or pollution levels (may look at the impact of industry) Changes in globalisation Changes in cost of products Comparison to chlorophyll diagram Burgess or Hoyt Model Changes in movies like john q wealth or population density (will have to use some secondary data) Sphere of influences of settlements or services. Changes in temperature throughout the day or between seasons Changes in rainfall Changes in humidity Changes in hours of chlorophyll diagram sunshine or cloud cover Changes in wind speed and wind direction. Before you choose your coursework you have to decide if you live in a suitable study location. Literary Analysis. For example it is no use trying to chlorophyll do a piece of coursework on rivers, if you live in the middle of global definition a desert. Before starting your coursework, you should also think about how you can carry out the coursework safely and definitely carry out a risk assessment. You can make your coursework safer by doing the following:

Protection from the weather (waterproof jacket, umbrella, hat, suncream) Sensible dress (remember you will be representing your school, but you should also wear clothes that don't draw attention to yourself Always carry out coursework in chlorophyll diagram groups Always tell an adult or teacher where you area carrying out coursework Always carry a mobile phone with you Never do coursework near a river or the movies like john q, sea without an adult or teacher and chlorophyll diagram without them checking that it is safe Carry out coursework in day light and wear reflective clothes Check that your study area is safe. For example it wouldn't be safe walking around downtown San Salvador Don't display valuables making you more vulnerable to crime e.g. if you have a camera or a phone keep it out of sight. Specification: Formulating aims and hypotheses: Candidates should be familiar with hypotheses as statements that form the basis of Coursework assignments. About. The hypotheses may investigate a geographical concept e.g. A CBD has the highest concentration of comparison shops. Collecting relevant data, analysis and drawing conclusions using the data as evidence can test these. The width of a river will increase as you move from the source to the mouth The amount of traffic will increase as you move from the chlorophyll, rural-urban fringe to the CBD The amount of vegetation will increase as you move inland from the sea (distance = 200metres) The hottest part of the day will be between 1200 and 1400. Whenever you are doing data collection, the aim is to be as objective as possible. Objective means that no bias or personal opinion affects the outcome of your results. Law2 Umkc Edu. The opposite to be objective is being subjective. Being subjective simple means that your own personal views and chlorophyll diagram bias has influenced results. It is up to date (current) You know how the data has been collected i.e. what technique It only includes data that is relevant to your coursework It only covers your study area It is collected in the format that you want.

You can study temporal changes e.g. Literary Thesis Example. how population has changed over a number of diagram years It can be quicker, especially if the data is on the internet You can study a larger area It may include data that you can not obtain personally e.g. salaries. The data may include some personal bias Data collection can be time consuming It can be expensive to travel to places to collect data It is hard to essay about my favourite food study temporal changes Some data might be unavailable or too dangerous to collect Only possible to chlorophyll cover a small area. It is out of date, especially if it has been printed in a book. There might more information than you need The information may include a larger area than your study area You may not know how the unfortunate, data was collected and who collected the data The data might be in the wrong format e.g. in a graph and diagram not raw figures. Quantitative data: This is any data that involves figures. Quantitative data is very easy to present and analyse. Even though it is movies like john, easy to present it can be very general and exclude some data. Because you are following a pattern you will get better coverage of an area or sample group. Even though you pick the chlorophyll diagram, technique, once it is literary thesis, picked, there is diagram, no bias in analysis who gets selected. It is chlorophyll diagram, very simple to understand and high vs popular culture carry out.

Because you are selecting the diagram, systematic technique, there is some bias (subjectivity). You decide how often to take a sample. Even with a systematic sample you may end up with an literary analysis thesis, unrepresentative sample e.g. you ask every 10th person to diagram fill in a questionnaire, but every 10th person turns out to be female. Every person or every location/place has a completely equal chance of being selected It is events movie, quick and chlorophyll simple. Because it is totally random, results maybe completely random and not representative e.g. Law2 Umkc Edu. when randomly selecting names out of hat to diagram ask questionnaires too, you only pick females. Stratified sampling: Because both systematic and random sampling can give you a unrepresentative sample, if you have some secondary data that allows you to rank your sample group you can then carry out literary analysis thesis example, stratified sampling. For example if you are carrying out environmental indexes in a city that has 12 districts, if you randomly or systematically select four, you may pick th efour best or the four worst. However, if you know the average income of chlorophyll diagram those 12 areas (census data) you can them rank them 1 to 12 and then randomly or systematically pick a district from each quartile giving you a more representative sample. Decide on your questions (what do you need to find out and what type of question are you going to ask) Whether to do the law2 umkc edu, questions orally or give them in written form (you may have to think about translations) How you are going to pilot (test) your questions How you are going to record the chlorophyll, answers (record them, write them down, trying to remember is unreliable) How you are going to sample (random, systematic, stratified) Remember that you are representing yourself and the school - be polite Remember people don't have to answer questions and definition they may be sensitive about some e.g. age groups and income groups.

When actually designing your questions you have two real choice; open or closed: You are getting the chlorophyll, respondents personal opinion. They are not limited in their response. Some responses might not be relevant to your research Respondents may not understand the question and give you an irrelevant response Results are very hard to analyse using graphs or tables. All answers will be relevant to your research The results are easy to analyse using graphs and tables. The results lack personal opinion. They can be very generalised You are nearly always forced to have an essay about my favourite, other box meaning you don't know what the chlorophyll diagram, respondent thinks Your personal opinion has been placed on the questions (subjective). Specification: Observation Examples of movies q using observations as an enquiry skill to collect data include the recording of land-use in an urban area or observations of river or coastal features. Maps, recording sheets, field sketches and annotated photographs may all be used to record candidate observations.

It is important to always have an other category, because you always find a land use that you have not thought about. They are more accurate than field sketches They can be good for showing data collection techniques e.g. measuring a river's load They can support data collection findings e.g. they can show an chlorophyll diagram, example of a poor environment They can show temporal changes, especially if you can find historical photos. You can annotate and label them. People often include photos that are not relevant e.g. My Favourite Food. a photo of diagram their friends People forget to label, annotate or refer to photos, which then makes them irrelevant. People often only photograph the thesis example, nice things e.g. pretty view and forget the more ugly areas that are just as important e.g. area of chlorophyll pollution They can often contains too much information e.g. Essay About My Favourite. people and vehicles Because they are two dimensional, depth can be deceptive. Specification: Counts Pedestrian and traffic counts are two significant examples of this enquiry skill. Appropriate methods for diagram, recording the counts should be discussed including the layout of essay about my favourite recording sheets, instructions and the necessary information required to identify the sheet following the diagram, count (i.e. High Vs Popular Culture. time, date, location and name of recorder). Geography fieldwork equipment can be used to measure virtually anything, but is most commonly used to take measurements along a river or at a beach. Below are photos and descriptions of some of the most common types of geography equipment. Transect: A transect is basically a line a long which you take measurements. You may have a transect that runs from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD or a transect that runs from the chlorophyll diagram, sea in land through sand dunes.

In a real piece of coursework, you would explain how all your data was collected. In your description you would probably contain the following information: Date, time and location of data collection Group size Description and analysis thesis example copy of data collection forms used e.g. Chlorophyll. questionnaires or counts Explanation of how the forms were used e.g. sample size, count period, count technique, etc. Description of equipment and an explanation of its use. Instead of writing a methodology in your exam, you may be asked to write a set of instructions, explaining how data collection should be carried out. For example you might be asked to give a set of instructions for doing a traffic count. Global Community Definition. You might say: Find a safe location near the road your are counting traffic Count the traffic in both directions for a 10 minute period A tally should be used for chlorophyll diagram, counting because this is easy and quick At the global definition, end of 10 minutes count up the diagram, totals for each type of unfortunate events vehicle. You may also be asked about how your data collection could be improved.

Improvements may be made in some of the chlorophyll diagram, following ways: Do counts more regularly e.g. every one or two hours Do counts, surveys or indexes in more locations Do counts, surveys and indexes on different days of the week (including weekends) Get two groups doing the law2 umkc edu, same survey, index or count so that an average may be taken. Specification: Data presentation techniques: A knowledge of the diagram, illustrative techniques to present data across the topics for Paper 4 is required. This should include, various types of graphs, maps and diagrams for example line graphs, bar graphs, divided bar graphs, histograms, flow diagrams, wind rose graphs, isoline maps, scatter graphs, pie graphs, triangular graphs and radial graphs. If you are asked to complete a graph or table, all the law2 umkc edu, data will be there for chlorophyll diagram, you so read the data carefully and complete the events, graph/table/diagram carefully. Shows spatial distribution e.g. dot map Shows variations between regions and countries e.g. choropleth map Visually interesting (interesting colours, symbols) Very bold and clear Easy to understand Clearly shows trends and chlorophyll anomallies.

Can disguise intra-region or intra-country variations e.g. choropleth map Hard to see trends and anomalies Very complicated to read Symbols take up to my favourite food much room. Specification: Analysis: Candidates should be able to chlorophyll describe the patterns in data presented in graphs and tables of results. Reference to relevant geographical knowledge and understanding is often required in the interpretation of the data. Practice of this skill will improve success in Paper 4 questions. Look for trends and correlations (if there is not a overall trend, look for smaller trends) Look for anomalies (things that don't fit the general trend) When ever you refer to trend and anomalies you must support with evidence e.g. facts and global community definition figures from graph or table. Try and explain trends (refer back to diagram theory or other information that you have discovered in your investigation) Try and explain anomalies. Specification: Formation of conclusions: Using the evidence from the data, candidates should be able to make judgements on my favourite food the validity of the original hypothesis or aims of the assignment.

Reference is also required of the reliability of the collected data and a critical evaluation of the chosen data collection methods. Refer back to original hypothesis Use some data to support your findings Refer to theory (if mentioned in introduction) - do your findings agree or disagree with theory State what you have learnt from your investigation. Evaluation : In an chlorophyll, evaluation you state what went well in your research, but also how it can be improved or extended in the future. If you are asked to write an evaluation, think about the following: What went well (keep this brief) Any problems with data collection e.g. bad weather, missing data, sampling technique, questions, data collection form Data that could be useful in the future e.g. secondary data from government, more questionnaires (bigger sample) Additional hypothesis that you could have used Problems with time or money that could be changed in the future.

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