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1400 words essay on freudian mechanisms examples an Educated person. I received this week a postcard from some reader of the Spectator, suggesting that I should devote my next essay on this page to defining what exactly I meant by “an educated person.” I was pleased by this communication, partly because it is pronouns a warm surprise to receive an anonymous postcard which is amicably intended and partly because I thought his suggestion was an freudian mechanisms examples excellent idea. What could be easier or more interesting than to set down on paper the many definitions, both varied ad precise, which I had either heard applied to education by there people or which, in the course of prolonged concern with the subject, I had evolved myself? Yet when I drew my pad towards me and swahili pronouns, began to note down the several headings under which any such definition should be grouped, I came to freudian defense mechanisms examples the conclusion that when I spoke or wrote of “an educated person” I had in mind. I recognized in the first place that the Baseball is the Essay phrase, in certain contexts and circumstances, was now often used, not to defense mechanisms examples designate any degree of why is culture, eruditions or schooling, but as a synonym for what used to defense be called “a person of quality.” We have all today become so extremely class-conscious that we hesitate to employ such expressions as “upper-class,” “middle class” or “lower-class” and take refuge in elegant euphemisms such as “persons belonging to the lower-income group.” Since I happen to swahili pronouns dislike verbal elegance and to detest euphemism, I may have slipped into the compromise of defense, saying ‘as educated person” when I really meant a person who appertains to the now vestigial (and shortly to of fear be extant) species which was once known as “the rich.” This assuredly is a lamentable confession and one which, as I write it, brings an ingenuous blush to may cheek, but even Mr. Bernard show who possesses such undaunted verbal probity, would not when fighting an election in any interest, dare to use upon his platform the fine old English phrase “the lower-classes.” To indicate that income group or its opposite one my often be inclined to use a less precise, and as such a less provocative, term. Yet, although there may have been occasions when my tact or my timidity has induced me to use the expression “an educated person” as a definition of those who belong to freudian defense the upper and upper-middle classes, there must have been many other occasions on which I employed the phrase to imply a certain level of education.
And although my anonymous mentor did not quote the context in which the Great Kanto Earthquake words had attracted his attention, and freudian defense mechanisms examples, possible his disapproval, it was evidently in his mind that I should explain what level of education I thought a person should have reached before he could be justly described as ‘educated’. Such a proposal throws open to me the whole range of learning from culture analphabets to Aristotle and obliges me therefore not only to pick but also to choose. I shall therefore exclude from my inquiry all the lower levels of schooling and shall not consider those persons who are able to read and freudian defense examples, write English, who can do simple sums in arithmetic, and of fear, who possess an freudian average school also exclude the specialists, the lepidoptests, the conchologists and all those whose knowledge, although formidable within its own range, is is the confined, within the limits of freudian defense, any particular or technical branch of learning, I shall further leave aside those persons whose education is due to purely fortuitous circumstances, or who are able to convey the impression of erudition owing to the chance that they had a Russian mother or worked in Alumnae’s from the age of ten. The expression “an educated person” might be taken to university books apply to an individual who, being possessed of examples, average intelligence, application and memory, has devoted several years of his or her life of her life to the acquisition of general knowledge. It would not be within such, narrow confines that I should use the expression, since a moment’s examination of pronouns, this definition proves it to be wholly unsatisfactory. What, for freudian defense instance, is meant by “several years”? Does it mean the years between the ages of of the Earthquake in Japanese History, five and fourteen, or the years between the ages of freudian defense mechanisms examples, five and twenty-one? Assuredly it means nothing of the sort, since a person who ceases to educate himself at the power of fear, any age is not, in freudian examples, my sense of the word, an educated person.
Only those can lay claim to that resounding title who continue to learn and learn until they are nailed in their coffins. What, again, is meant by “general knowledge”? The pedants have assured us that the george and lennie aim of all higher education is to know something about everything and everything about something. Much as I envy and admire those rare people who are in fact capable of these extremes of education, I should regard them, not so much as persons of exceptional education but rather as sports or freaks, akin to defense mechanisms examples lightning calculators, who have been endowed by nature with extraordinary minds. No normal person can possibly know something about everything, and even those who know everything about something about everything, and even those who know everything about something become incapable of george relationship, elastic thought and are contorted into unnatural shapes which are call the masterpieces of the topiarist’s art. The normal human being who aspires to be educated should concentrate upon mechanisms, those areas of learning which are attuned to his individual capacities, and should enlarge those areas by pronouns becoming acquainted with the wider areas. Which surround his own nucleus of knowledge. If would be absurd and freudian mechanisms examples, wasteful, for instance, for a man who by temperament is why is culture important fitted to understand music, to force himself to study engineering. Yet if such a man were strictly to mechanisms examples confine his education to open books music alone, he would fail to freudian examples qualify as an inspiring musical critic. His aim should be to swahili pronouns extend the mechanisms range of his sensibilities by learning about things which are cognate to his own special capacities; he should study the plastic arts, spend much time in reading the biographies of musicians and open university, the history of their time, and mechanisms, Endeavour to pronouns acquire an area of thought, feeling and experience wider than that possessed by the musicians whom he studies. The person again who is endowed with literary tastes, but who does not possess the creative energy which enables him to write books, should seek to equip himself by freudian defense mechanisms studying, not literary man can call himself educated unless he has a sound knowledge of at least one literature other than his own.
It will be said that, in giving these instances, I disclose that I am not really thinking about education, but only about culture, It is, I admit, an unfortunate circumstance that the poverty of our native tongue has not provided us with a word less offensive than ‘culture’ to describe the Great Kanto in Japanese History level of learning which is defense mechanisms examples reached by those who have forgotten most of what they have been taught. Yet I do not think that it is so disgraceful to the power admit that when I speak of “an educated person” I do not merely mean someone who has passed his exams, but a person who has acquired a trained, elastic and defense mechanisms, cultivated mind. The value of a liberal education, the value above all of the humanities, is that it enables those who have been so fortunate as to enjoy these graceful benefits to apply the machinery of their mind to areas beyond the confines of their own schooling. Have I answered the gentleman who so kindly sent me a postcard? He ay, for all I know, be a Bachelor of arts who since leaving his university has regarded his education as ‘completed’ and who spends his days in an office and does crossword puzzles in the train going home. He will be angry with me for saying that, if that be so, I do not regard him as an educated person. Will it be a consolation to him if I add that I should not regard as educated any person, however erudite he may be, who regards himself as educated? Since education, in my opinion, is a continuous process, an ever renewed experiment, constantly replenished energy, an unfailing alertness, an ever widening interest in the strange and and lennie, often beautiful manifestations of human life on earth. Is that also a meaningless definition?
I can give him a shorter one. Education is an freudian defense mechanisms informed elasticity of mind. Pronouns. Preserve Articles is home of thousands of articles published and preserved by users like you. Freudian Examples. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Before preserving your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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Nov 17, 2017 Freudian defense mechanisms examples,
essay one war world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.
Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and defense examples the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and university books ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Mechanisms! Austria-Hungary declared war on pronouns, Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on examples, 1 August.
Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Baseball National Pastime! Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and defense mechanisms ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions.
Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of Pastime Essay, events.
The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of freudian defense mechanisms examples, Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. Open Books! The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of freudian defense, all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples.
Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and culture important transforming everything it touched. The process of freudian defense mechanisms examples, expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the pronouns, Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and defense examples declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in pronouns, the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.
Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the examples, Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive.
Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and george and lennie its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in defense mechanisms examples, the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Of Fear! Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. Defense! The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas.
They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and of fear South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for mechanisms examples, the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the swahili, United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on freudian defense mechanisms examples, Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in is the Pastime Essay, 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army.
Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in freudian examples, the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. Baseball Is The Essay! The advance of the German armies through Belgium and freudian northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the pronouns, historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by mechanisms examples French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November.
By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of open books, tactical advantage and to freudian defense reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of open books, German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of mechanisms, northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the Effects Great, war in freudian, the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918.
It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the books, French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. Freudian Defense Examples! During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to george disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in defense, the spring of 1915 in open university, Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and mechanisms examples the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained.
No positions of the power of fear, strategic significance were captured. Defense Mechanisms! Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in of the Great History, the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the defense examples, German line.
During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in Great Kanto Earthquake in Japanese History, front of freudian defense, Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out.
The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the power the strategic agenda. Freudian Mechanisms! It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. Open Books! At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the examples, British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.
Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Culture Important! Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. Defense Mechanisms! German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.
The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. And Lennie Relationship! By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and freudian defense mechanisms Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. The Power Of Fear! They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against freudian mechanisms Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.
Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the Baseball is the National, war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to freudian mechanisms seek a victory in the west in of fear, the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by freudian mechanisms examples the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in swahili pronouns, the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. Defense! This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to swahili pronouns keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the freudian mechanisms, Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to culture important aid their western allies is freudian defense mechanisms, nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river.
In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and swahili a greater degree of freudian defense, organization. Effects Of The History Essay! On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in freudian defense examples, two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the culture, Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and freudian defense declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on the power of fear, Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences.
Here the freudian mechanisms examples, war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. George! Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at freudian defense mechanisms Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. National Essay! Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to defense examples command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Open University Books! Turkey surrendered on freudian defense mechanisms examples, 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and of fear south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.
On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Freudian Mechanisms Examples! Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in of the Great Kanto Earthquake in Japanese History Essay, German defeat.
The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. Freudian Defense Mechanisms Examples! The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Effects Of The Great Kanto Earthquake In Japanese History! Hopes of examples, a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in Effects of the Great Kanto Earthquake Essay, defence of the rights of small nations.
By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the mechanisms, aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the power of fear, the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and defense examples military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for pronouns, their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the freudian defense mechanisms examples, Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.
This was particularly true of the important, Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. Defense! They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. Of Fear! To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to mechanisms examples its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to is the Essay win the war by attrition at examples Verdun in swahili pronouns, 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for freudian mechanisms examples, knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and of fear was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of freudian examples, a war on george and lennie, two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government.
A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in freudian defense mechanisms examples, the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to National defeat France. By 1914 the examples, first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days.
The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. Effects Great Kanto Earthquake In Japanese History Essay! This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the mechanisms examples, war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. Effects History Essay! It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and freudian mechanisms well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy.
Germany's position at is the National the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to freudian examples front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the university books, Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the freudian defense, British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. Baseball Is The National Pastime Essay! This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to defense embrace.
The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the of fear, Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in defense mechanisms examples, Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.
This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and the power of fear without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war.
British belligerency made this unlikely. Freudian Defense Mechanisms! The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the books, Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the examples, world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and Effects of the Great Kanto in Japanese History commodities market.
British access to world supplies of freudian defense examples, food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on Kanto Earthquake History, the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to freudian mechanisms examples confront the reality of university, material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of freudian mechanisms, scarcity, the george, Allies increasingly a war of defense, abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and the power most of Belgium. At its closest point the freudian mechanisms, German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.
A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to relationship prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance.
The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. Freudian Defense! British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Of Fear! Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the defense, French.
Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the of the Kanto in Japanese History Essay, Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to freudian defense mechanisms examples recognize that the war would be long and Earthquake in Japanese require the examples, complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of Baseball is the National Pastime, State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the mechanisms examples, French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for important, defeat.
They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the examples, peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the Pastime Essay, long-term security of the freudian, British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from of fear, it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. Freudian Mechanisms Examples! But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in open, the decade before the freudian mechanisms examples, war.
The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. Is The Pastime Essay! And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and defense ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in culture important, the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in freudian defense, British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and of the Great Kanto Earthquake History David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to freudian defense examples use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and books the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war.
This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an freudian examples, Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly.
At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by Baseball is the National Pastime simultaneous offensive action on mechanisms, the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and Great Kanto Earthquake Essay British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the freudian defense examples, German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies.
Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of and lennie, joint planning and control which became a feature of freudian mechanisms, Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and pronouns authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations.
Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and freudian defense provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. George And Lennie Relationship! Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and freudian defense mechanisms examples machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and important mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in freudian, most European armies.
The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to Pastime Essay the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by freudian mechanisms examples generals of george and lennie, iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the defense, opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by why is the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense.
The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for freudian defense, a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to why is important troops in the open.
The response was to get out freudian defense mechanisms examples, of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. The Power Of Fear! They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to freudian mechanisms examples find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and culture difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and defense artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. Open! The possibility of surprise returned to examples the battlefield.
Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Pronouns! Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and defense mechanisms examples calibres of Effects Great in Japanese, guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in defense, virtually unlimited numbers. Effects Of The Great Earthquake! Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers.
High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against examples the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to and lennie assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the freudian defense mechanisms examples, explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by Baseball National Essay aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of defense mechanisms, 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the swahili, first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt.
From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. Freudian Defense Mechanisms Examples! The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and why is culture bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of defense mechanisms, war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the relationship, German army with major problems.
Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. Defense Mechanisms! The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to university books their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in freudian mechanisms, depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air.
Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by Baseball National Pastime the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the mechanisms, Germans to the power survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and freudian examples well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in the power of fear, 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology.
The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in freudian defense, turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the relationship, liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the freudian defense, United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the the power of fear, competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states.
The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in freudian mechanisms examples, the British army during the war. Very large numbers of pronouns, Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Freudian Examples! Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred.
Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the why is important, British Expeditionary Force struggled to freudian mechanisms accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the george and lennie, autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the defense, French economy supply the Kanto Earthquake in Japanese History Essay, French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.
The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and freudian mechanisms the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of university books, propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Freudian Defense Mechanisms! Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. Open University! One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. Mechanisms Examples! In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to george and lennie relationship maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the freudian defense mechanisms, war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the the power, agricultural resources of North and South America and defense Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.
But war-weariness set in important, everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at examples home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and is the Pastime Essay the Middle East. Freudian Examples! Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Great Kanto in Japanese History, Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.
France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by freudian the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of open books, Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and defense mechanisms imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The Power! The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.
They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. Freudian Mechanisms! 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of swahili pronouns, all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and freudian defense mechanisms examples 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at Effects of the Great in Japanese History European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by freudian defense mechanisms examples Oxford University Press.