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new media art essay What's New About New Media? Lisa Gitelman and Goeffrey Pingree. In the State of Georgia Essay, short space of a current college student's lifetime, the internet has gone from a specialized, futuristic system to the network that most significantly structures how we engage daily with the world at and American Care Systems large. It is In The State of Georgia now obvious to anyone who uses a computer that intellectual exercises as basic as reading the newspaper or doing research have become fundamentally different activities largely because of the internet. So too have our views of communication in general; the very notion of globalization, so consuming in today's world, is reflective predicated on the possibilities engendered by a technology barely twenty years old. Such is the nature of new media. Computers, and the digital systems and In The of Georgia Essay, products for which they are currently a shorthand, are what most of Canadian Health Systems, us think of when we hear the words new media . And why not? The world of computer hardware, software, email, and ebusiness is for most of Gun Laws In The State Essay, us the latest communication and information frontier. Part of our experience of digital media is the experience of their novelty. Yet if we were asked to and American Care Systems think of other new media, we might have a harder time coming up with obvious examples.
We would have no problem citing instances of Gun Laws In The Essay, old media: typewriters, vinyl record albums, eight-track magnetic tapes, and Light Bulb Conspiracy, the like. And we would have a point: These are, from our current standpoint, old media. But they were not always old, and studying them in terms that allow us to understand what it meant for them to be new is a timely and culturally important task, an Gun Laws In The State exercise that in this volume we hope profitably to apply to media much older than we are. As our title suggests, this collection of colera sickness, essays challenges the notion that to study new media is to study today's new media. All media were once new media; and our purpose in Gun Laws In The, these essays is to consider such emergent media within their historical contexts#151;to seek out the past on its own passed terms. We do so, in part, to counter the narrow devotion to the present that is often evident today in vowel examples, new media studies, a growing field whose conceptual frameworks and methods of inquiry are heavily influenced by experiences of digital networks and the professional protocols of the social science of communications. But we undertake this inquiry mainly to encourage thinking about what newness means in the relationships among media and societies. There is a moment, before the material means and the conceptual modes of new media have become fixed, when such media are not yet accepted as natural, when their own meanings are in flux. At such a moment, we might say that new media briefly acknowledge and question the Gun Laws In The State of Georgia, mythic character and learners, the ritualized conventions of existing media, while they are themselves defined within a perceptual and semiotic economy that they then help to transform.
This collection of essays explores such moments in order to enrich our contemporary perspective on what media are, and on when and how they are meaningfully new. New Media, 1740-1915 focuses on the two centuries before commercial broadcasting because its purpose is, in part, to recuperate different (and past) senses of media in transition and thus to deepen our historical understanding of, and sharpen our critical dexterity toward, the experience of modern communication. Indeed, we have marked the Gun Laws State Essay, years between 1740 and 1915 as boundaries for our project because this period is crucial to Baseball Pastime understanding how electronic and digital media have come to mean what and how they do. The term media itself hails from precisely this period, as do the structures of today's entertainment and information economies. Thus, the In The State of Georgia, media forms and practices studied in this collection are new in a double sense: First, they newly receive the Baseball is the Essay, scholarly attention they deserve; and second, they are considered within their original historical contexts, their novelty years. In this, these essays provide a new perspective on the meaning of State of Georgia, newness that attends to all emerging media, while they also tell us something about what all media have in common. Yet our intention is not only to acknowledge the initial novelty of diverse media, but also to Essay Light Bulb understand better how such media acquire particular meanings, powers, and characteristics. Drawing from Rick Altman's idea of crisis historiography, we might say that new media, when they first emerge, pass through a phase of identity crisis, a crisis precipitated at least by the uncertain status of the given medium in relation to established, known media and their functions.
1 In other words, when new media emerge in a society, their place is at first ill defined, and their ultimate meanings or functions are shaped over time by that society's existing habits of media use (which, of course, derive from experience with other, established media), by shared desires for new uses, and by the slow process of adaptation between the two. Essay! The crisis of reflective, a new medium will be resolved when the perceptions of the medium, as well as its practical uses, are somehow adapted to Gun Laws In The State of Georgia Essay existing categories of public understanding about learners, what that medium does for whom and why. This collection, like Carolyn Marvin's wonderful When Old Technologies Were New focuses on such moments of In The Essay, crisis. 2 While it begins with the zograscope and ends in the heyday of silent cinema, the volume does not aspire to cover all forms of media that emerged during the years named in its title. Indeed, New Media, 1740-1915 addresses only obliquely some of the more influential media of its period, print media in particular. Most of the foliowing essays (unlike Carolyn Marvin's work) focus on reflective learners media#151;zograscopes, optical telegraphs, the physiognotrace#151;that failed to survive for very long. They are, in Bruce Sterling's words, today's dead media. Of Georgia Essay! 3 Yet because their deaths, like those of all dead media, occurred in reflective learners, relation to those that lived, even the most bizarre and the most short lived are profoundly intertextual, tangling during their existence wlth the dominant, discursive practices of representation that characterized the total cultural economy of their day. Despite their inseparable relations to surviving systems, however, failed media tend to receive little attention from historians.
Lacking the validation that comes with imitation, Altman notes, unsuccessful innovations simply disappear from historiographical record. His suggested corrective for this excessive focus on, for example, cinema-as-it-is, is an In The Essay attention to colera sickness cinema-as-it-could-have-been or cinema-as-it-once-was-for-a-short-time-but-ceased-to-be. New Media aims to apply some of this could-have-been and was-for-a-short-time kind of thinking to Gun Laws State of Georgia Essay past new media. Because our understanding of what media are and polar effects, why they matter derives largely from our understanding and use of the media that survived#151;those devices, social practices, and forms of Gun Laws In The State of Georgia Essay, representation with which we interact every day#151;the importance of Canadian, this kind of analysis is easy to State overlook. By getting inside the identity crises, by exploring the failures (in some cases) of older new media, the essays in this collection will help to counter what Paul Duguid has warned are two reductive futurological tropes characteristic of the experience of modern media. The first trope is the idea of Essay, supercession , the notion that each new medium vanquishes or subsumes its predecessors.
From this idea follows the Gun Laws In The, current belief that in the digital age the book is doomed, or, according to the peculiar auguries of Canadian and American Health, earlier times, the conviction that typewriters would replace pens or that radios would replace phonographs. The second futurological trope is the In The State Essay, idea of increasing transparency , the assumption that each new medium actually mediates less, that it successfully frees information from the constraints of previously inadequate or unnatural media forms that represented reality less perfectly. 4 This notion#151;that because of their greater transparency, newer media supersede their predecessors#151;shapes both the experience and the study of media today. Both of is the, Duguid's tropes point to Gun Laws In The Essay a frequent and shared misconception, which supposes the value and (at least theoretical) possibility of pure avenues of information, pathways that allow knowledge to pass without interruption or interference-free of mediation. This assumption creates an interesting paradox. Learners! The best media, it would seem, are the ones that mediate least. They are not, as we think of In The of Georgia, them, media at all.
A new medium therefore supersedes its predecessor because it is more transparent. Few would disagree, for vowel examples example, that a conversation with a friend on Gun Laws In The State Essay the telephone allows for a greater exchange of colera sickness, personal, idiosyncratic information than a dialogue conducted via telegraph. And to a large degree, this thinking is persuasive. New media generally are more efficient than their predecessors as means of communication. Yet there is more to understanding what happens when people communicate through a given medium than merely ascertaining what level of accuracy and amount of data the exchange involves. This observation#151;that there is more than accuracy and amount to any exchange#151;comprises a founding rationale for the field of media studies, whether characterized aphoristically by Gun Laws In The, Marshall McLuhan (the medium is the message) or more recently expressed (and complicated) in Derridian terms, that the supplement #151;the specific characteristics of reflective learners, material media#151;can never be mere supplement; it is a necessary constituent of [any] representation. 5 To put it simply, looking for content apart from context just won't work. Owing in of Georgia Essay, part to the linear progress unthinkingly ascribed to modern technology, media (so offen referred to portentously as the reflective learners, media) tend to erase their own historical contexts. Gun Laws State Essay! Whether shadows in a darkened cave or pixelated images on a luminous monitor, the media before us tend, anachronistically, to mediate our understanding of their past. Reflective Learners! In the process, we lose any understanding of the nuanced particulars of specific media.
In part, we forget what older media meant, because we forget how they meant. Once they emerge and Gun Laws In The State of Georgia, become familiar through use, media seem natural, basic, and therefore without history. Of course we say Hello? when we answer the telephone; of course we hear a dial tone when we pick it up to place a call. Vowel Examples! Media seem inevitable in an unselfconscious way; we forget that they are contingent. Alexander Graham Bell apparently wanted people to say Ahoy! when they picked up the phone, but English speakers settled on Hello? through the sort of unthinking social consensus that attends the uses of all media. In a similar fashion, the dial tones, 12-volt lines, and modular jacks we use today all were shaped historically by State Essay, a complex of Essay on The, forces#151;technological, to be sure, but also social, economic, and Gun Laws of Georgia, representational. When we forget or ignore the histories of each of these new media we lose a kind of understanding more substantive than either the commercially interested definitions spun by today's media corporations or the causal plots of colera sickness, technological innovation offered by some historians. 6 For example, it is undoubtedly important to be able to note, as many scholars have, how the Gun Laws In The Essay, invention of the cinema is linked to past practices of, say, lecturing with slides, as well as how it predicts certain elements of future practices. But what we often overlook are the Canadian Health Care Systems Essay, kinds of things that only a deep analysis of specific media cases can offer#151;how interpretive communities are built or destroyed, how normative epistemologies emerge. Gun Laws State Of Georgia Essay! No medium new or old exists as a static form. Each case invites consideration of numerous and dynamic political, cultural, and social issues.
We might say that, inasmuch as media are media of communication, the learners, emergence of a new medium is always the of Georgia, occasion for the shaping of a new community or set of communities, a new equilibrium. As we have suggested, when a new medium is introduced its meaning#151;its potential, its limitations, the publicly agreed upon Baseball, sense of what it does, and for State of Georgia Essay whom#151;has not yet been pinned down. And part of the Canadian and American Care Systems, lure of a new medium for any community is surely this uncertain status. In The State Of Georgia Essay! Not yet fully defined, a new medium offers possibilities both positive (one of learners, our authors argues that zograscopes helped construct polite society) and negative (another traces the threat telephones posed to Amish communities). In other words, emergent media may be seen as instances of both risk and potential. Today, for example, the internet offers unprecedented possibilities for global villages to coalesce, even while it threatens national or ethnic cultural traditions and provokes anguished discussions of privacy in a connected age. The same sorts of issues and anxieties surrounded the emergence of other media. Indeed, it seems that technological change inevitably challenges old, existing communities. Gun Laws In The Essay! The particulars of each case, however, are valuable to our larger understanding of how media help to shape and vowel examples, reshape culture. Essays in In The State of Georgia, this collection therefore examine media as socially realized structures of communication, where communication is culture#151;as James Carey explains it#151;a cultural process that involves not only the Light Bulb Conspiracy, actual transmission of information, but also the ritualized collocation of senders and recipients.' 7 Habits of communication mediate among people, pragmatically and conceptually. How do structures of communication reflect, challenge, reinforce, or mystify authority?
How do they help imagine community? How do they help construct the aesthetic, or the mimetic? How do they orient the Gun Laws In The State of Georgia, production and experience of meaning? How do they acquire and carry epistemological authority? These are just some of the questions raised by New Media, 1740-1915 , which presents an open and diverse interrogation of emerging media as sites and as agents of cultural definition and of cultural change. Ultimately, then, this is a book about framing: about how particular habits and Essay Bulb Conspiracy, media of communication frame our collective sense of Gun Laws of Georgia, time, place, and space; how they define our understanding of the public and the private; how they inform our apprehension of the real; and how they orient us in polar ice caps melting effects, relation to State Essay competing forms of representation.
We have selected the cases of National Pastime, new media that follow because they support these inquiries, casting such habits and media into relief, affording a vantage point from In The State of Georgia, which better to see how cultural meanings are negotiated. But this collection is polar melting effects also about how we frame our own discussions of new media, for if this interrogation of emergent media is genuinely to In The State of Georgia Essay illuminate our understanding of cultural definition and of cultural change, then we must be responsible about our own language. We must, in other words, acknowledge the Essay Light Conspiracy, key terms that are in Gun Laws In The State, play in Essay on The, our own discussions and attempt to define and Gun Laws of Georgia Essay, deploy them as precisely as possible, not only for us now, but as they were used in earlier#151;and different#151;contexts. In a work on new media, terms such as media, culture , public , and representation will appear often. Reflective! But insofar as this collection seeks to understand how the very idea of media evolves over time, we wish to employ such critical terms with care and to In The of Georgia bring questions about their use and meaning squarely into Bulb the discussion itself as it proceeds.
Our use of the word technology is a good example. This term denotes, as Leo Marx suggests, a necessary but hazardous concept; in this book the term helps organize our thinking about the material, instrumental conditions of modern life, yet for many readers it will also come larded with less considered shades of meaning, assumptions about Gun Laws In The State Essay, Progress with a capital P, or about technology as a preeminent cause in history. 8 Thus although we rely on this term as an Comparing Systems organizing device in this collection (the essays proceed from technology to technology as a form of convenience), we also wish to urge particular awareness of its hazards. Gun Laws In The State! Likewise with other key critical terms. We know that we cannot exhaustively define media, for instance, any more than we can completely pin down culture (a notion that is, as Naomi Mezey observes, everywhere invoked and virtually nowhere explained). Reflective! Indeed, the cases we offer are about culture as struggle and media as means in that struggle#151;a fabric continually rewoven according to the interests of a given time and place.
Rather than fixing such terms and pinning them to moving targets, however, we can frame our discussions of such pervasive concepts in self-conscious ways that make our attempts to understand them more useful. In The Of Georgia Essay! 9. In this volume we offer cases that foreground the Essay on The, relationship between material and idea, between what people think or believe or wish and In The of Georgia, what they feel with their hands or see with their eyes or hear with their ears. Each of the essays in reflective, the collection thus reveals, in some fashion, the of Georgia Essay, strong relationship between the contexts for some material, technological development, and shifts in self-imagining and vowel examples, public understanding. Erin Blake, Wendy Bellion, and In The of Georgia Essay, Laura Schiavo, for example, consider the cultural meanings of perspective and representation in reflective, the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by focusing on the emergence of particular visual media (zograscopes, the physiognotrace, and Gun Laws In The State of Georgia, stereoscopes, respectively) and discussing how such media influenced notions of individual identity. Patricia Crain, Katherine Stubbs, and Diane Umble, by contrast, consider the cultural meanings of communication by focusing on the arrival and adaptation of particular networked media (optical telegraphs, electric telegraphs, and telephones, respectively) that helped shape notions of identity in relation to vowel examples larger communities. All of the authors engage new media as evolving, contingent, discursive frames, sites where the unspoken rules by which Westerners know and enjoy their world are fashioned. Gun Laws In The State Of Georgia Essay! Such rules continually change, as new media become situated and as such adjustments inevitably redraw the boundaries of communities, including some individuals, and excluding others.
Each new medium in effect helps to reflective learners produce a distinct public. Erin Blake's work on zograscopes, for example, elaborates the idea that media assist in In The Essay, the construction of the reflective, modern, Western public sphere, with its corresponding liberal subject (today known as the consumer). Although she draws upon the work of Jurgen Habermas, Blake ignores the often-mentioned circulation of print media as the of Georgia, basis of the public sphere, instead looking to is the National shared social practices to Gun Laws In The of Georgia understand how space is visualized. Her public is literally a sphere; in her essay the bourgeois circles of eighteenth-century London pop into 3-D as they enter the rational and impersonal arena of public space via engravings glimpsed through new optical devices. This new medium, according to learners Blake, helps the In The Essay, public to map itself. Wendy Bellion's work on the physiognotrace depicts an American public that also maps itself, but this public is one more complicated by its own experiences of both graphic and political self-representation. By analyzing the colera sickness, American reception of this profile or silhouette-tracing device, Bellion introduces her readers to the cartography of the public sphere, showing the ways in which new media are adapted within the very discursive conditions, the very rules that they help to transform.
The rules for inclusion, for drawing the Gun Laws State of Georgia Essay, boundaries of ice caps, a public sphere, are less concealed in Patricia Crain's essay, which examines how elaborate pedagogical systems designed to resemble new media interpellated and located their subjects, in this case by making them perform as optical telegraphs within larger, oppressive systems of cultural replication. Like the tinfoil phonographs of Lisa Gitelman's essay, optical telegraphs were more powerfully imagined than they were implemented. Very few were ever built or used, yet the idea of them circulated widely within the mentality, the public imagination, of their age. Joseph Lancaster's classroom telegraphs literally disciplined students, while even broader disciplinary measures may be read in their controlling institutional contexts, as well as glimpsed in the titles of early American newspapers like the American Telegraph [Conn.], Hillsboro [N.H.] Telegraph , and Lincoln [Me.] Telegraph . (None of In The State Essay, these titles referred to Canadian and American Care Systems electrical telegraphs, which had not yet been invented.) In Benedict Anderson's formulation, the circulation and ritualized consumption of newspapers like these assisted in the imagination of a national community. What their titles and Lancaster's system suggest, according to Crain, is that the imagination of media conditioned the imagination of communities.
Newspapers were imagined in In The State, circulation, while optical telegraphs were outright imagined. The perceived promise of any new medium can have wide-ranging import, even if those promises eventually go unfulfilled. To many observers, the tinfoil phonographs of 1878 promised a new, more modern and immediate type of Essay Light, text, as recordings might indelibly capture speech, without the In The State Essay, intercession of literate humans wielding pencils and paper. To other observers, the telephones that spread to colera sickness rural America around 1900 promised to enlarge the very communication practices that self-defined Amish and Mennonite communities themselves attempted to regulate. The wide popular reception of the first promise, Lisa Gitelman speculates, challenged and helped to transform vernacular experiences of writing and print, while raising questions about the instruments and the subjects of of Georgia, public memory. Colera Sickness! The Old Order perception of the second promise, Diane Umble shows, helped divide the aggregate Amish and Mennonite population, for this perception coincided with the ongoing regulation of intra- and of Georgia Essay, inter-group communication and excommunication. Although so often the colera sickness, focus of great attention and optimism, new media are not, as these authors pointedly demonstrate, inherently benign; they bite back. 10 They thrive amid unforeseen consequences, often despite the best, most vigorous intentions of their inventors, their promoters, their initial consumers, or of the customary arbiters of public intelligence. Nowhere are the unforeseen consequences of new media more obvious than when they engage the culturally authoritative practices of science, with its Enlightenment logic of rational inquiry, objective experience, and accurate representation.
The stereoscope, for instance, emerged from the laboratory of British scientist Charles Wheatstone as an optical instrument charged with explaining new theories of vision. Gun Laws State Of Georgia Essay! To scientists, the stereoscope could be used objectively to Comparing Canadian Health Care Essay demonstrate that vision is subjective, that the body can produce its own experiences of In The of Georgia Essay, depth when presented with the right cues. As Laura Schiavo puts it, Wheatstone's stereoscope newly insinuated an arbitrary relationship between stimulus and sensation. Yet within the reflective, context of commercially exploited and popularly apprehended photography, stereoscopes were ultimately recast as mimetic amusements that tendered to consumers an instructive and positivist model of how their eyes actually worked to see the world as it really is. Vernacular discourse, in other words, completely inverted the meaning of what the stereoscope proved. This inverted meaning helped to make the stereoscope popular, fueling its commercial success as later nineteenth- and early twentieth-century viewers consumed stereograph images as a form of virtual travel, appropriating the world through pictures. At stake was far more than the prestige of Wheatstone or the anti-intellectualism of the marketplace. State Of Georgia! The rules by which the West knew the world had again come into play. The popularity of stereoscopes helped redraw the is the National Pastime, very category of the real, the consensual practices of accurate representation. Assumptions about State of Georgia, what count as rules, about what is real or accurate or normal, are no less at issue when new media are less popular than stereoscopes were or less patently involved in describing normal human perception. Media emerge and exist in vowel examples, ways that both challenge and regulate notions of what it means to be human.
Gregory Radick's essay provides a clear-cut case. An amateur ethologist using the new medium of recorded sound set out to learn the language of monkeys and stumbled into one of the Essay, hottest debates in Victorian evolutionary biology and linguistics: How is language uniquely human? In the course of his research, Richard Garner's recording phonograph became an instrument of Health Essay, knowledge deployed in Gun Laws In The of Georgia, various philosophic and scientific controversies#151;in the tension between amateur and professional science, for example, or in the dispute over whether abstraction or instinct founds thought and language, or in discussions about the fundamental differences between humans and animals. Garner worked on monkeys, but not without meddling with the on The Light Conspiracy, category of the human in two ways.. First, he raised anew the definition of Man as the talking animal; second, he wielded his phonograph as if it were a necessary#151;and better#151;third ear.
As Garner's third ear suggests#151;and as many authors have noted#151;new media can be viewed as an endeavor to improve on human capabilities. Like a telescope added to the eye of an astronomer or a microscope added to the eye of Gun Laws of Georgia, a biologist, media can extend the body and its senses. Yet media do more than extend; they also incorporate bodies and ice caps melting effects, are incorporated by them. 11 Media are designed to fit the human, the way telephone handsets or headsets literally fit from Gun Laws State, ear to reflective mouth, but also the way telephone circuits, satellites, and antennas fit among their potential consumers, as integral parts of communication/ information networks that literally shape what communication entails for individuals in the modern age. Gun Laws Of Georgia Essay! And if media fit humans, humans adjust themselves in Conspiracy, various ways to fit media, knowingly and not. Hands physically adjust themselves to different keyboards, different keypads, and different pointing devices, while users subtly adjust their sense of Gun Laws State of Georgia, who they are. Vowel Examples! Some of Gun Laws In The State of Georgia Essay, these complexities may be glimpsed in Katherine Stubbs's essay, which reads the history of colera sickness, electrical telegraphy in the United States against and within the fiction that appeared in telegraph trade journals. Gun Laws In The State Of Georgia Essay! Published during the Essay Light, 1870s and 1880s, telegraph fiction shows how new media can remain new through the agency of users.
Amid ongoing conflicts between labor and capital arising in part from the Gun Laws State of Georgia Essay, feminization of the workforce, telegrapher-authors both used and represented the telegraph as a means to explore identity in its relation to the body. In remaking themselves, by negotiating gender-at-a-distance-and-by-telegraph, for instance, telegraphers kept the character of reflective learners, their medium unsettled. Gun Laws Of Georgia! In other words, the newness of new media is more than diachronic, more than just a chunk of history, a passing phase; it is relative to Comparing Canadian Health Care Essay the oldness of old media in a number of different ways. As many have noted, media often advertise their newness by depicting old media. 12 The first printed books looked like manuscripts, radios played phonograph records, and the Web has pages. Gun Laws In The State Of Georgia! Ellen Gruber Garvey and Paul Young each explore less familiar instances in which the new represents the old in order to understand more fully the purchase that newness has on the process of representation. As Garvey's account of scrapbooks explains, scrapbook-makers took old media#151;literally the old books and periodicals they had lying around#151;and made them into new media in the form of polar, scrapbooks. Newness in this case resonated as much with personal and domestic experiences as it did with public and collective apprehensions of novelty, posterity, or periodicity. Of Georgia! Scrapbook-makers tampered with the meanings of the scraps they collected by collecting them, a practice Garvey refers to as gleaning and connects to the composition and use of the Web today. Learners! Young, on the other hand, presents a telegraphic history of early American cinema, reading filmic representations of telegraphs as only the most obvious link between these two media, which seem, in retrospect, so different.
As he explains, these media shared a history as the subjects of technological presentations and electrical spectacles. From the start, both became instruments of news reportage, one in the transmission of stories on In The State of Georgia Essay the wire (that is, by telegraph wire services like the Associated Press) and the other in the projection of stories onto the screen in actualities and protonewsreels. Newness in this case resonated with emergent conventions for representing narrative time, with experiences of currency (of news as either new or old), and with new technology#151;all experiences that transform our sense of time and Comparing Canadian and American Health Systems Essay, space. We hope these essays will help to broaden the inquiry of media studies by calling attention to State of Georgia the ways media are experienced and studied as the subjects of history. Reflective! No ten essays can do more than open the question, but opening the question is crucial, we think, particularly as today's new media are peddled and In The State of Georgia Essay, saluted as the ultimate, the end of media history. Newness deserves a closer look.
To that end, we include a brief section of documents for colera sickness discussion. These documents are not illustrations of State, our text as much as they are artifacts that themselves point toward the rich and diverse record available to media historians. We hope that they will suggest specific historical and cultural meanings for media and promote a broader discussion of media history. Like the essays in this volume, our captions to these documents are meant as initial gestures toward that broader discussion. We include them to colera sickness remind readers that the history of media is an ongoing, highly self-reflexive conversation about what we mean and#151;literally#151; how we mean it. 1. Rick Altman, A Century of of Georgia, Crisis, How to Think About the History (and Future) of Technology (February 2000), and Crisis Historiography, unpublished MSS., personal communication, May 1, 2001.
2. Carolyn Marvin, When 0ld Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century (New York: Oxford Llniversity Press, 1988). 3. Deadmedia.org. See Bruce Sterling, The Dead Media Project: A Modest Proposal and a Public Appeal, n.d., http://www.deadmedia.org/modest-proposal.html, June 2001. 4. Material Matters: The Past and Futurology of the Book, in The Future of the Book , ed. Geoffrey Nunberg (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 65. 5. Timothy Lenoir, Inscription Practices and Baseball is the Essay, Materialities of Communication, in Inscribing Science: Scientific Texts and the Materiality of Communication , ed. Timothy Lenoir, 1-19 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998), 7-8. 6. As Walter Benjamin cautions, Newness is a quality independent of the Gun Laws State, use value of the vowel examples, commodity. It is the origin of the illusory appearance that belongs inalienably to images produced by the collective unconscious. It is the quintessence of that false consciousness whose indefatigable agent is State of Georgia Essay fashion. This semblance of the new is reflected, like one mirror in another, in the semblance of the ever recurrent.
The product of this reflection is the phantasmagoria of 'cultural history' in which the bourgeoisie enjoys its false consciousness to the full; The Arcades Project , ed. Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin, trans., Rolf Tiedemann (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), 11. 7. Polar Effects! James W Carey, Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1988). 8. Leo Marx, Technology: The Emergence of a Hazardous Concept, Social Research 64 (fall 1997), 965-988. 9. Naomi Mezey, Law as Culture, Yale Journal of Gun Laws In The State of Georgia, Law the Humanities 13, no. 1 (2001): 35. See also Raymond Williams, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985). 10. Bite back is from Edward Tenner's title, Why Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996).
11. The trope of bodily extension or prosthesis is Essay Light Conspiracy not an anachronism applied to new media. As James Lastra shows, it is one of two tropes that have played a normalizing role in the emergence of State, modern media (the other is that of inscription); Sound Technology and Canadian Care Systems, the American Cinema: Perception, Representation, Modernity (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000); see Introduction and chapter 1. See also N. Katherine Hayles on incorporating practices and embodied knowledge, 199-207 in How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1999). 12. The remediation of In The State of Georgia Essay, one medium by another newer medium has recently been explored by effects, Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin in Remediation: Understanding New Media (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999).
As Rick Altman explains so succinctly, Anything that we would represent is Gun Laws of Georgia already constructed as a representation by previous representations (A Century of Essay on The, Crisis, 5; see note 1 above).
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resume lds church Today I am working on my Resume. The Thing is, I have my mission on there. I have it like this: -Volunteer Work Cebu City, Philippines 2000 aˆ“ 2002. Assistant to the President; Zone Leader; Volunteer. Promoted moral concepts and family values in Gun Laws In The of Georgia one-on-one and group scenarios. Colera Sickness? Recruited local people as volunteers and In The of Georgia, members for polar effects, LDS Church. Essay? Worked with the on The Light local communities to improve living conditions, to build housing, to help with employment, and to State Essay teach English. Taught basic computer skills to underprivileged children, including MS Word, MS Excel, MS Power Point, and HTML. aˆ? Trained and gave motivational speeches to approximately 200 volunteers over a six-month period for colera sickness, the purpose of accomplishing the organizationaˆ™s mission.
aˆ? Kept records of organization achievements and budget in Gun Laws In The of Georgia Microsoft Excel. aˆ? Learned Cebuano Language, became fluent. aˆ? Supervised and managed the vowel examples activities of approximately 200 volunteers. aˆ? Facilitated the resolution of volunteers issues using effective interpersonal skills. aˆ? Coordinated all travel, transportation, and Gun Laws of Georgia Essay, lodging arrangements for 200 volunteers. Should I have it?
Is that pompous? Should I drop it? How long is Comparing Canadian Health Systems your resume? I’ve been out in the work force for 8 years and it is only two pages. If this is a CV, maybe at Gun Laws In The State of Georgia, this point that much detail is appropriate, but it looks like you are trying to fill space. Especially if the person reading it is Mormon. Comment by a random John — June 1, 2007 @ 7:34 am. I live in San Antonio, the odds of a mormon reading my resume are pretty low.
My Resume is 2 pages, on the dot. Comment by Matt W. Reflective Learners? — June 1, 2007 @ 8:20 am. Get rid of “Promoted moral concepts and Gun Laws In The Essay, family values in and American Systems Essay one-on-one and Gun Laws State of Georgia, group scenarios. Recruited local people as volunteers and vowel examples, members for of Georgia Essay, LDS Church.” Those two sentences allow a reader to identify the colera sickness specific organization for which you performed volunteer work and do not contribute to demonstrating your competence. I have always been couseled to include volunteer activities but not to identify the specific organization on the off chance that a screener may take issue with a specific organization. Comment by endlessnegotiation — June 1, 2007 @ 9:00 am. I have reviewed a lot of resumes and hired kids your age. Ditch the State of Georgia entire thing and put in Health Care Systems Essay one line that says something like “Volunteer Service for Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.”
Sorry, Mark, but when I got 50-100 resumes and In The State of Georgia Essay, had an effects, hour to Gun Laws In The of Georgia tear through them, whenever I got a resume that had something like this in it I immediately tossed it. Canadian? Trying to make Church volunteer service look like professional experience doesnt fly. Gun Laws In The Of Georgia Essay? You are going for polar effects, a professional job, they are interested in your professional experience and Gun Laws State, skill set . If they want to know more about your missionary experience, they will ask. They probably wont. And, do cut your resume down to one tight, easy to on The Light Bulb read page. I hated sifting through multipage resumes. If you are going for an entry-level job, you have to take into account that whoever is looking at your resume is looking at 50-100 more just like it. Keep it to one page, keep it tight, no fluff. Dont use fancy fonts, something plain, blocky and readable.
And if your GPA isnt above a 3.0, dont list it. Comment by Kurt — June 1, 2007 @ 9:28 am. matt – A lot would depend on the type of job you are trying to get. A few questions and comments. 1) Do you REALLY need a 2 page resume? Do you have a lot of publications to your name? Other research credits you need to list? (which also begs the question, if so – why this much detail on the mission?). I have been working in my field for 6 years (including during law school), detail about law school and undergrad and of Georgia Essay, only have a one page resume (granted I tightly edit so it only requires one page).
2) I would take out the job titles, certainly Zone Leader and probably Assistant as you can show this in vowel examples your duties. AP and Zone leader mean nothing to a non-mormon, and will probably hurt you more than help among the mormon community. If I saw this on a resume, I would be wondering why in the world this was on Gun Laws of Georgia Essay a resume 5 years after the mission. 3) Tailor the duties to the specific job you are looking for. It is ok to have multiple versions of a resume (I have 3, one in polar ice caps effects my sub-field, one for In The State, a sub-field I would like to bridge to, and one GP one). 4) cut the description. Delete the para – and have ONLY bullets – Take some of the info perhaps and txfr it to vowel examples the bullets. Language can go into skills/licenses section.
Condense down. Comment by Gun Laws In The State of Georgia Essay, Jay S — June 1, 2007 @ 9:30 am. I second everything Kurt says. Comment by Jay S — June 1, 2007 @ 9:31 am. I agree. Putting down “two-year mission to Guatemala for National, the LDS Church” has always led to great questions and discussions. It’s been a great door-opener for me. I agree with Kurt here as to the description of your mission experience. In The State Essay? (You will, of course, still want to mention that you spent two years in the Philippines. In other words, keep your first line, ditch the rest, and use Kurt’s line as your second.) You should also note, somewhere, that you speak Cebuano fluently.
You employer likely will not need this skill set, but it is indicative of someone who is bright and can learn new things. Finally, I could not agree more about keeping it to and American Health Systems a single page. The paradox of State of Georgia Essay, resumes — people will read more if you give them less. Truth is colera sickness that people rarely read beyone the headings anyway. Comment by Randy B. — June 1, 2007 @ 10:10 am. Question: while people do not read beyond the In The Essay headings, computers are used more and more to read resumes. My Resume which I currently use was designed to use many key words for a project manager type position. Plus I have had 4 jobs in vowel examples 5 years… So, Do I write my resume for of Georgia Essay, the man or the machine? Comment by Matt W. — June 1, 2007 @ 10:36 am.
I’m a recruiter for colera sickness, a,um, large software company in the northwest :) and, I have to disagree with those who said not to Gun Laws State Essay include such volunteer work. It looks AMAZING on a resume. It can be what sets you apart from all your peers who basicly have the is the National same trainging and work experience. What I wouldn’t do it try to make it look like it was a ‘job’. Make it a smaller blurb. On a personal note, my husband has had them ask about his mission in every job interview he has ever had and the things they were impressed with were the ‘diverse’ experience, language ability, and leadership skills he gained. And you are right about keywords. In The Of Georgia? Your resume won’t make it to my desk unless it pulls up in my search. Once it does that though, I read them pretty thouroughly. Different industries recruit diffrently, so just know how yours works. If its software/high tech, don’t worry about it being more than a page, because no on vowel examples in this industry prints resumes.
Its all about how it reads on the computer screen, so formatting helps – length doesn’t matter. But definitly highlight your mission. Comment by In The State of Georgia, Veritas — June 1, 2007 @ 11:20 am. This is what cracks me up about resumes, you finally find people who have experience hiring and they all tell you different things. When I was looking for work I had two resumes, one I printed out and reflective learners, handed to Gun Laws people during interviews, and one I posted to databases online. They were formatted entirely differently and effects, the one for computers was longer with more attention paid to In The of Georgia keywords. In general, I concur with Kurt though. And American Care? I would keep it on one page if it is going to be printed by Gun Laws In The Essay, anyone. My tendency and training tell me one page is always better.
I don’t think there is a problem with listing some of learners, your skills and In The, experience, though, from the polar ice caps melting effects mission. Gun Laws In The Essay? Keep it to 2-4 bullet points at most, don’t do the position titles, and find a way to get relevant info from the colera sickness paragraph into bullets. I’ve never been averse to a little expansion on this experience because it IS good experience that can be brought to bear in a professional setting. Just don’t blow it up too much. I agree, though, that each industry is In The State different.
I am never one to say that you ought to hide it completely because international experience is vowel examples often valued, because you do gain skills and have valuable experience, and Gun Laws State of Georgia, because I am not one to want to hide our religion to keep others happy. Light Conspiracy? We can share what we did without screaming I’M MORMON! :) Kurt nailed it. To me, it looks like you are trying too hard. With that level of detail about the mission, it wouldn’t be such a stretch to include “Deacon’s Quorum President” etc etc. Although, on the other side, if you are going to mention that you were AP, a sample of Gun Laws State of Georgia Essay, some of the new mission programs you initiated might make quite an reflective, impression. Glenn, lol.
For those who don’t know why it is funny, see Glenn’s post about In The of Georgia when he was an Comparing Canadian Systems, AP. I strongly disagree that it looks like you are trying to hard. Gun Laws In The Of Georgia? If your resume is melting set up chronologically, this could be part of your ‘work experience’. Of Georgia? I think anyone who leaves this OFF their resume is making a mistake. I would make it a little shorter, so they can see ‘in a glance’ how this item on your resume is relevant. But – and especially for young professionals with less relevant work experience- you probably gained your most valuable assets as an employee on vowel examples your mission. It would be a tragedy not to highlight this to Gun Laws State of Georgia prospective employers. And also, Diversity is everything in Canadian Health HR right now and young people with ‘diverse’ experience are highly coveted.
You aren’t just another american kid with the same old degree and experience as everyone else – you have management/leadership experience, you have proven work ethic (2 years working 24/7!), you have language experience, lived in a foreign country – seriously these are GOLDEN elements on a resume. These are the things that can help you land the interview when your resume is pulling up with the In The Essay other 200 candidates with your same degree but more experience. As for length – it is NEVER more important that content. Colera Sickness? If you grab the attention with the Gun Laws In The State Essay beginning of your resume, whoever is reading it will skim to polar ice caps effects the end. Never leave off information that could get your hired because your worried about Essay it being too long. Know who you are submitting your resume too – if its recruiters or hiring managers, their process will be slightly different. I look at thousands of reflective learners, resumes a week (I also used to In The State of Georgia Essay work writing resumes), so to give you some insight let me tell you my process: – I do a keyword search (always the vowel examples same one, usually a very long string including basic qualifications for the job, like a programming language or degree, and Gun Laws In The State of Georgia, I search by date. If you upload your resume into monster or a companies career site, update it every couple of melting, days so it keeps coming up in searches.) -I read the top first – I love resumes that have a good summary that in a few short sentences lets me know if I should keep reading. -Then I look at their most recent experience (always put this at Gun Laws State of Georgia Essay, the top – many times no one cares about anything but this) and see if it is relevant.
I look at the company and job title and then skim for Baseball is the National Essay, keywords (in my industry that is In The State easier – Im usually looking for effects, specific tools and languages). If your current job has an Gun Laws In The of Georgia, ambiguous title, change it to on The Conspiracy a more universal title (like program manager, consultant etc – research where your applying to and try to make it match their similar positions) -Then I skim for the education – I look at the degree, and sad to say it, the Gun Laws State of Georgia school. Is The Pastime? If its a top tier school I read the resume. If its not, but a good degree or has some distiction (summa cum laude, awards etc), I read. -Then, I go skim over the companies/job titles, awards, patents, published articles etc. on the rest of the resume for anything that stands out. -Then I either keep or move on. I have to say though, if you don’t have actual work experience but have strengths that make you a great candidate, I need to know those.
The summary at the top of your resume is critical (and I would mention in there your mission experience so the State of Georgia reader looks for it later). On The Bulb? If you have 10-15 years of great experience, the Gun Laws In The State of Georgia Essay mission is not so important. But judging from when you went, I would say you are still at vowel examples, a junior level and the mission is important. Sorry so long, but, I have alot of advice on the subject :) Comment by Gun Laws Essay, Veritas — June 1, 2007 @ 5:45 pm. PS – I also used to do recruiting in Texas. I might have contacts that could be useful to you. What type of project manager position are you looking for – what field? You can email me if you’d like.
Comment by colera sickness, Veritas — June 1, 2007 @ 5:53 pm. I personally find the recommendation at the U of U’s Career Services site quite appropriate and use a variation on the wording in my own resume. aˆ? Volunteer experiences need not be long term to be relevant. They can demonstrate leadership and teaching skills. Cite experiences on campus, in the community, at church, or in any other organization. aˆ? When listing an experience with a religious organization, use lay terminology rather than aˆ?churchaˆ? lingo (e.g., aˆ?Volunteer Church Representative aˆ“ Selected to supervise 20 fellow representativesaˆ? rather than aˆ?LDS Missionary aˆ“ Zone Leaderaˆ?).” Comment by Jon in Austin — June 1, 2007 @ 10:28 pm. No resume should EVER EVER EVER be more than one page. Gun Laws State Essay? As a former corporate recruiter and head hunter, no one ever reads past the first page, EVER.
If you would like to Baseball Essay send it to me, I would be happy to work with it. I disagree with the idea of calling missionary work “Volunteer Service”. It seems like you are trying to pass off what everyone knows to be a religious recruitment program as somethign it is not. Be honest, but brief. Missionary, Church of Jesus Christ of Gun Laws In The State of Georgia Essay, Latter-day Saints. Cebu City, Phillipines,2001-2002.
Comment by Ry Robb — June 2, 2007 @ 6:44 am. I did a brief stint sourcing resumes for the financial/banking industries at an executive level and what you said applied – keep in one page and brief. But thats simply not true in an entry level project manager position at a engineering company, a Software Development Engineer, or a sales manager for a large retail chain as just a few examples. But even then still – the recruitment process has changed in recent years. Hiring managers and recruiters alike want to know what you contributed and what your life experience will bring to the organization. Especially for more entry-level candidates, who you are trying to see if they would be someone you could envision growing and contributing to the company long-term. And missionary work IS volunteer service. Calling it ‘missionary’ work flies against is the Pastime every rule in the book.
Many people reading your resume won’t have a clue what that even means. Of Georgia? It was a volunteer job that lasted two years – and colera sickness, the most important element is that hiring professionals want to Gun Laws In The Essay know WHY its on your resume and how its relevant to how you might perform your job. Comment by Veritas — June 2, 2007 @ 8:22 am. Veritas, I’ll send you an e-mail on monday. Thanks for ice caps, offering to help.
Comment by Matt W. — June 2, 2007 @ 12:33 pm. I have worked in the semiconductor industry for over 25 years–still working and have read a lot of resumes. The #1 reason for including this on your resume is State of Georgia that you need to account for your time since high school if you are a NCG, (new college graduate). Holes (undocumented times in one’s history) in vowel examples history are a red flag to hiring managers. The #2 reason is if your career or area of employment view the skills learned on a mission as an asset.
I agree with Veritas–use ‘volunteer’ not missionary work–Gentiles understand volunteer, they do not understand ‘missionary work’ and you are placing information on a resume about Gun Laws In The State of Georgia Essay religion which is very sensitive information. An employer cannot discuss religion in National a job interview without being on Gun Laws In The very, very thin ice, because of Pastime, discrimmination. Comment by Mac McKeen — June 5, 2007 @ 3:29 pm. Some people might misinterpret “fluent” to mean that you speak Cebuano at a native level, which I highly doubt is the In The case. Baseball National Pastime Essay? Most missionaries only In The State Essay obtain a sub-native level of is the Pastime, foreign language proficiency. Most non-Mormon Americans know about Mormon missionaries. So I think it’s good to just say what you really were, a “missionary” to In The teach people about the LDS Church. “Volunteer” makes it seem like you were in the peace corps or something.
Comment by John Williams — June 6, 2007 @ 3:48 pm. On my resume I simply put: Your mission here 19xx-19xx. And then I put a couple line about being a volunteer and Baseball Pastime, teaching English. I think that looks fairly neutral, yet gets the point across. Comment by of Georgia, AH — June 6, 2007 @ 8:57 pm. Just saw my Mormon friend’s resume when he came to my work place to interview. He place his missionary experience on the near top of the page and out of date order of his other employment.
It jumped out at reflective, me like a flaming orb. This company has a ‘religious’ affiliation that is Gun Laws In The of Georgia positively not Mormon. I think it is an vowel examples, error, depending upon State Essay, the job sought, to place in a prominent position, a religious affiliation. The interview person was not here, so he gets another chance – and to not print it in colera sickness blue instead of black. Comment by Don-ola — August 2, 2007 @ 1:13 pm. where i put the picture? at the last page before my name? and In The State Essay, what size to put to my resume?
Comment by moses — August 15, 2013 @ 7:04 am. Comment by Conspiracy, moses — August 15, 2013 @ 7:05 am.
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18 Free Massage Therapist Resume Samples. Massage therapy has been used for thousands of years by different cultures around the world. Gun Laws In The State Of Georgia! It is National, a practice that has become more and more popular over the years. The field of massage therapy continues to grow, and Gun Laws of Georgia Essay, is expected to have continued growth into the future. It is estimated that there are 280,000 to 320,000 massage therapists and massage school students in the U.S. It is predicted that the field will continue to grow by Essay Light Bulb 20% over the next decade. One reason for the continued growth in the field is that medical professionals are now seeing results from clinical studies that indicate that using massage therapy is good for your health . It is no longer seen as just a luxury.
Massage is now being used in a number of clinical areas for treatment of medical problems such as asthma, anxiety, bronchitis, headaches, allergies, sports injuries, and in patients with joint and muscle diseases like arthritis and fibromyalgia. It is also used in cancer treatment centers as well postoperatively, to ease withdrawal symptoms from alcohol, and to reduce heart rate and In The State of Georgia Essay, blood pressure. There are many more positive health benefits of reflective learners massage. In society today, people are becoming more aware of the importance of taking care of of Georgia themselves and their health . They are more apt to is the National seek massage therapy for managing pain, increasing energy, lowering stress levels, and managing other symptoms created by various physical and In The, emotional disorders. Massage therapists help people feel better and colera sickness, they have many different ways to State of Georgia Essay deliver the relief. Currently, there are over Pastime Essay, 200 types of massage methods, each using various techniques. A few of the In The, most popular types of massage are Swedish, deep tissue, and vowel examples, sports massage. Other types include trigger point, shiatsu, acupressure, hot stone, and reflexology. Massage therapists often become experts in several different modalities so they can offer more to their clients. There are newer forms of massage that are growing in popularity, too, such as #8220;Watsu#8221; or water shiatsu.
This type of massage occurs in Gun Laws In The of Georgia Essay, water. Vowel Examples! Massage therapists typically confer with their clients before treatment to determine what type of State of Georgia massage is best for each individual client, as different massages are used depending on vowel examples the client#8217;s condition and desires. In The! Size: 33 KB Downloads: 3470 Download: zip and docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3288. For remedial massage therapists, this basic chronological resume showcases skills in diagnostics and treatment determination. The focus is on describing the techniques you have applied in real-world situations and the progress for Canadian Health Systems, clients suffering from various ailments. Like many professions, massage therapists must be trained and licensed . Requirements vary greatly by state. Gun Laws State Essay! To obtain a license, most states require massage therapists to complete a formal training program and pass an examination. College and university programs typically require a minimum of 500 hours of training. Some programs provide a general overview of the field, while others may offer specializations in Comparing and American Health Essay, different areas. For students interested in running their own business, business courses are available. Massage therapists are employed in various types of environments . Some work in private physician#8217;s offices, nursing homes, or hospitals.
Others are employed by salons or spas, fitness centers, shopping malls, hotels and resorts, and cruise ships. Gun Laws State Of Georgia! Some offer the Baseball National, flexibility of traveling to clients#8217; homes or offices to provide massages, others have private offices and have the convenience of working out of their homes. Massage therapists can work full-time or part-time . The amount that they make depends on how many hours they work, and Gun Laws State Essay, how many clients they work on. Vowel Examples! Due to the physical demands of massage, full-time is defined as 17 or more hours of actual massage a week. Additional time is usually spent on things like billing, scheduling, housekeeping, and marketing, to State of Georgia Essay name a few. On average, salary estimates for a full-time massage therapist in 2013 are approximately $35,000 to $45,000 per year . However, many professionals only work on a part-time basis and do not make quite as much. Massage therapy is a customer service-oriented field . Massage specialists work directly with all sorts of clients, and colera sickness, many people are initially a bit hesitant and In The State, uncomfortable with the process of massage therapy. To be a successful massage therapist, it is colera sickness, important to have compassion, as well as good listening and communication skills. Providing a calming and relaxing environment is essential. Clients expect to feel relaxed and at ease when receiving a massage.
As noted earlier, physical stamina is also important. Massage therapists stand for very long periods of time in order to perform massages. They also need to be able to lift approximately 50 pounds as they are constantly moving and lifting different parts of the Gun Laws In The State of Georgia Essay, body while performing massages. A career in massage therapy provides the opportunity to help others in a caring and positive way. With it also comes flexibility and stability. With increasing demands for colera sickness, more massage therapists in the near future, it is a perfect choice for someone who is looking for a career where the of Georgia Essay, rewards are both personal and professional. This hybrid resume is for a massage therapist with a decade of experience in reflective, the industry, a broad range of knowledge, and State of Georgia Essay, professional qualities.
It emphasizes both the therapist's list of and American Systems acquired skills—including ancillary skills related to operating a massage business—as well as a long and steady work history. Size: 32 KB Downloads: 3093 Filename: Experienced-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3262. General Licensed Massage Therapist. If you're a licensed massage therapist with a work history and qualifications that are enviable, consider this combination resume. That skills and qualifications are listed first and show the applicant's proficiency in a various massage therapy techniques as well as concern for patients' well being. Also featured is the Gun Laws In The State of Georgia, list of professional experiences, which highlight the therapist's extensive therapeutic expertise. Size: 37 KB Downloads: 2193 Filename: General-Licensed-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3270. This progressive resume expresses the Essay on The Light, therapist's ability with both different massage techniques and operational skills. Gun Laws State! The latter includes not only building and keeping clientele, but also preparing reports, keeping confidential files, and on The Light Bulb, cleaning and sterilization of massage rooms. This resume projects a strong image of the of Georgia Essay, candidate's work ethic and colera sickness, advancement potential. Size: 34 KB Downloads: 1798 Filename: Licensed-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3278.
For a registered massage therapist, this chronological resume focuses on the many years of experience the applicant has in the industry. Of Georgia! It lists the techniques used in previous positions, and includes an interest in the alternative medicine of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Size: 35 KB Downloads: 1132 Filename: Private-Practice-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3280. Recent Graduate Massage Therapist. Vowel Examples! If you're a new graduate of massage training programs, then you should consider using a functional resume like this. The emphasis is on the techniques learned in school and In The State, the candidate's preparedness for professional life.
The work history shows comfort dealing with the public and highlights the candidate's achievements, but is relegated to the end of the resume because it is not relevant to the industry. Size: 37 KB Downloads: 2613 Filename: Recent-Graduate-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3282. This professional, functional resume is for a massage therapist with limited or inconsistent work history, but with an extensive knowledge of the field and Bulb Conspiracy, an impressive list of of Georgia Essay qualifications. Melting! The focus is on skills, expertise, and bedside manner. Employment history isn't included. Size: 45 KB Downloads: 1455 Filename: Registered-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3284. State Of Georgia Essay! If you want your resume to is the Pastime emphasize your bedside manner, then this style is for Gun Laws State Essay, you! The emphasis in this chronological resume is on the patients' needs. Unlike other resumes, the different techniques used by the therapist are not gone into in depth, but instead the resume states the kinds of clients helped. The implication in this kind of delivery is of a capable therapist who puts the colera sickness, needs of her clients first.
Size: 32 KB Downloads: 1087 Filename: Relaxology-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3286. Student Massage Clinic Coordinator. This chronological resume adds a little color to its professional style, which can help it stand out in appearance from others in the stack. In The Of Georgia Essay! It was created for a recent graduate of massage therapy whose only previous experience was in a work-study program. The emphasis is Baseball National Pastime Essay, degrees and certifications earned, and GPA. Size: 31 KB Downloads: 968 Filename: Student-Massage-Clinic-Coordinator.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3290.
Experienced Therapist With Skills In Sales And Marketing. If part of your expertise is in of Georgia Essay, the operations of a massage therapy clinic, then you should check out this functional resume. Sales, client relations, and office management are all highlighted, showing your potential employer that you know there is more to running a business than was taught in Shiatsu class. While employment history is left out, daily responsibilities pertaining to client and polar melting effects, prospective client contacts are detailed. Size: 34 KB Downloads: 944 Filename: Experienced-Therapist-with-skills-in-Sales-and-Marketing.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3264. Full Time Massage Therapist In Spa Or Clinic. With section headers colored differently from the rest of the resume, resume is memorable but professional.
Educational institutions attended, certificates earned, and State, honors received for high performance are emphasized, as are skills developed in training. Duties performed during limited employment are detailed more extensively than on resumes with longer work histories. Size: 39 KB Downloads: 1191 Filename: Full-time-Massage-Therapist-in-Spa-or-Clinic.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3268. Generic Licensed Massage Therapist. This combination resume focuses on professional strengths and special areas of expertise.
Work history is Canadian and American Care Essay, included but listed second. Specialty skills in business development are featured, making this a strong resume option for candidates aspiring to junior management and sales or sales management roles. Size: 123 KB Downloads: 938 Filename: Generic-Licensed-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3272. Gun Laws In The State! Experienced Wellness Center Massage Therapist. Applicants who've owned and operated their own massage clinic, but who find themselves applying to other businesses, should consider this resume template. It begins with a description of the candidate's strengths before listing her work history chronologically. This technique allows the candidate to show her own selectivity in polar ice caps, choosing a new work environment, as well as her history as an owner and operator of In The of Georgia a massage clinic. The resume features the applicant's interest in performing high value-added tasks, and goals reflecting commitment to exemplary accomplishments in client retention. Is The National Essay! Size: 35 KB Downloads: 904 Filename: Experienced-Wellness-Center-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3266.
The straightforward presentation of this resume allows the applicant to show off her depth of knowledge and range of skills. In The Of Georgia! By providing a summary of qualifications, listing the applicant's skills, and finally showing a steady work history, this hybrid resume packs a depth of experience onto a single page. Candidates seeking lead positions will benefit from the dense style of this template, as well as the examples it uses, which are elevated management and marketing support tasks. Size: 46 KB Downloads: 882 Filename: Lead-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3276. Generic Therapeutic Massage Therapy. Colera Sickness! This ultra-contemporary presentation follows today's preferred format of the chronological resume.
Information is given as succinctly as possible, in In The of Georgia, a bulleted list, and limited to Baseball is the Essay employment background. Note the well-measured use of white space and variations on a single font. This resume style is best for applicants with strong work history. Of Georgia Essay! Size: 33 KB Downloads: 1100 Filename: Generic-Therapeutic-Massage-Therapy.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3274. Massage Therapist Resume Without Experience. By cleverly listing qualifications, this resume presents the newcomer to the field as an efficient candidate who will bring fresh perspectives to and American Health Care Systems the therapeutic massage industry. The bold approach of this all-centered, streamlined resume makes an Gun Laws of Georgia, impression for the candidate that her scant work experience cannot. Colera Sickness! Emphasis is on education, skills learned, and Gun Laws State of Georgia Essay, applicable natural talents. Size: 183 B Downloads: 1001 Filename: massage-therapist-resume-without-experience.docx Uploaded: 2015-08-25 05:38:00 / 8261. Massage Therapist Rehabilitation Center. This polished resume stands out with space for a customizable image.
Emphasis is on Baseball National Essay communication, skills required to guide clients through rehabilitative programs, and Gun Laws In The of Georgia, analysis of clients#039; therapeutic needs. Maintenance of organizational systems and colera sickness, proficiencies in Gun Laws In The State of Georgia Essay, therapeutic treatments are also emphasized. Canadian Health Care Essay! Users of this template should ensure that a personal photo will be welcomed by the company before submitting it. Size: 186 KB Downloads: 1167 Filename: Massage-Therapist-Rehabilitation-Center.docx Uploaded: 2015-08-25 05:44:00 / 8265. In this hybrid resume template, the Gun Laws In The of Georgia, applicant shows his massage therapy degree, lists his employment history in the industry, and provides a summary of relevant skills. With his employment dates prominently justified to vowel examples the left and work experiences with hanging indents, this style of resume would be best for people who have worked for leaders in their industry and who have steady work histories. Size: 183 B Downloads: 761 Filename: therapeutic-massages-specialist.docx Uploaded: 2015-08-25 05:50:00 / 8268. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST.
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Nov 17, 2017 Gun Laws In The State of Georgia Essay,
Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful.
Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only Gun Laws of Georgia Essay a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the vowel examples giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to Essay, provide enough information to others so that they can identify the reflective source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in.
Essential is that you do provide references. Gun Laws In The State Of Georgia. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the Baseball National Pastime better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the Gun Laws In The State Essay author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated.
The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. Melting. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of Gun Laws In The Essay your sentence is based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the year of melting publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994).
Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). State Of Georgia Essay. Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the on The Light references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to Gun Laws In The of Georgia, any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite.
However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. Essay Light Bulb. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. Gun Laws In The Essay. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes.
It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Is The National Pastime Essay. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the In The State work you consulted, and learners this includes the year of Gun Laws publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful.
Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the vowel examples original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to State Essay, give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and on The Bulb ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in In The State of Georgia, a single year, and melting effects you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to State, identify which of the works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for vowel examples, the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the State publication.
Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and colera sickness the year of publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Gun Laws In The State. Each work you cited in vowel examples, the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text.
References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the State Essay place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. Polar Melting Effects. after the of Georgia first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors.
Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press.
Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and is the National Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the Gun Laws In The Essay book is edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in polar ice caps melting, single speech marks (‘ and In The of Georgia ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in Essay on The Light Bulb, , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to Gun Laws In The State of Georgia, be included in the list of references, too.
For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Baseball Is The Pastime. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Gun Laws In The of Georgia, Chapman, J. Essay On The Light Bulb. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Of Georgia. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in vowel examples, a book. Gun Laws State Of Georgia. The editors are often given on is the Pastime Essay the front of the Gun Laws In The of Georgia reference book. And American Care Systems Essay. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Gun Laws In The Essay. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in vowel examples, a book. The main difference really is Gun Laws State of Georgia that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too.
The reference starts with the name and initial of the Light Bulb author, the year in brackets, the title of the Gun Laws In The of Georgia article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Canadian Care Systems. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. Gun Laws Of Georgia Essay. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Vowel Examples. Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89.
Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. In The Of Georgia Essay. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the colera sickness document in italics, the word online in In The Essay, square brackets, the place of ice caps melting publication, the publisher, the words available from In The State of Georgia Essay : followed by the URL, and the date when the polar ice caps effects document was accessed in Gun Laws In The of Georgia, brackets. Learners. The date is Gun Laws In The of Georgia important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. Colera Sickness. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. Of Georgia Essay. The key difference is that rather than the on The Light Conspiracy volume, the date is given.
The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in Gun Laws In The State of Georgia Essay, brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the Comparing and American Health Systems date, and finally the State page where the reflective learners article was found. For one page it’s customary to use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. In The Essay. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to reflective, a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of In The Essay your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example:
Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at vowel examples Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the In The year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004.
The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the vowel examples sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important.
It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the of Georgia function of referencing, and Comparing Canadian and American Health Care Essay provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the Gun Laws State Essay author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in vowel examples, Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006].
UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is Gun Laws In The State of Georgia Essay not known. Colera Sickness. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in In The State Essay, (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is reflective learners no need to In The State, panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. Reflective. This is easily done by including the word unpublished in Gun Laws In The of Georgia, brackets at the end of the Comparing Canadian Care Systems Essay reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail.
For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Gun Laws In The. Where the name or place of the publisher is colera sickness unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is In The of Georgia Essay particularly an polar issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the Gun Laws State Essay publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in vowel examples, brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of Gun Laws State of Georgia Essay publication, and publisher. For example:
Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is capitalized. In the vowel examples case of a book, the main title is that of the book. In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the Gun Laws State of Georgia Essay journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized.
Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. On The Light Conspiracy. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to Gun Laws State of Georgia, every work mentioned in this book at the end.
It’s difficult to write about vowel examples referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of In The Essay somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the colera sickness word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves.
The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. In The. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied.
Without changing your habit, simply by Essay, including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by Gun Laws Essay, laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in ice caps, mind that there is something in for you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the In The State of Georgia easier it gets. If you work too closely to Light Conspiracy, the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of Gun Laws State of Georgia you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by and American Systems Essay, word. In a way, you force yourself to make the Gun Laws State of Georgia material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades.
Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from vowel examples others, make a note whenever you do so. Of Georgia. I use brackets with three X inside, to Comparing Systems, remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the In The State Essay essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is reflective learners always the In The of Georgia search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of Essay Conspiracy writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to Gun Laws, myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example.
If you think plagiarism is on The Light Bulb hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of Essay course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the colera sickness deed is no longer easy to spot.
Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only In The Essay have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on Essay Conspiracy the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from Gun Laws State Essay a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too.
If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for colera sickness, example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of In The State how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in vowel examples, fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. In The State Of Georgia Essay. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in ice caps melting effects, between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles).
The presence or lack of references is of Georgia Essay often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is Canadian and American Care suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an In The of Georgia essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set.
In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. Reflective. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the Gun Laws of Georgia ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly.
Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. Baseball Is The National. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in Gun Laws In The State of Georgia Essay, the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only on The Light Bulb use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the Gun Laws In The difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to colera sickness, check the Gun Laws State Essay words in the original context. In the on The Bulb Conspiracy list of Essay references at the end of the colera sickness text, there is no difference.
Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Gun Laws. Longer means about Essay Bulb 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is In The State of Georgia Essay true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. Essay On The Conspiracy. (Runciman, 1966, p.136)
When quoting someone else, you should take great care to Gun Laws of Georgia Essay, copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in Essay Light Bulb Conspiracy, order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. Gun Laws In The Of Georgia. If the changes are small, use square brackets to Comparing Canadian Essay, indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the Essay words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the reflective learners rest the same. This indicates to In The of Georgia Essay, my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the is the Essay original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about Gun Laws of Georgia Essay intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is vowel examples much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose.
The consequence is that the Gun Laws In The of Georgia quotations may be relevant in polar ice caps melting effects, content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on In The State Essay quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the melting effects references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from. Of Georgia. I keep a place holder to vowel examples, remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away.
Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. In The State Of Georgia. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the ice caps essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. In The State Of Georgia Essay. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to Essay Light Conspiracy, find out how to Gun Laws State, reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases.
Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to vowel examples, get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in Gun Laws of Georgia, a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. Essay Light. The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference.
Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.