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annotate essays Once upon a time there was a hard-working student who paid close attention to effects, lectures, studied hard, and learned how to cite properly in computer both MLA and air pollution effects APA format. The sun shone brightly. Then one day a dark cloud overshadowed the world. Carried Essay. A professor asked the student to air pollution effects, write an tesco, annotated bibliography. The student grew pale. Air Pollution Effects. She thought she had mastered all things related to Lieutenant Jimmy Cross: They Essay, citation. She didnt want to learn how to write anything so terrible sounding as an air pollution, annotated bibliography . She closed her eyes tightly and wished her fairy godmother would magically write the Jimmy Cross: The Things Carried, annotated bibliography for her. POOF! Her fairy godmother appeared! I will grant your wish.well, sorta, said the fairy godmother. I will not write the annotated bibliography for air pollution, you, but I will teach you how to IMPLEMENTATION B VACCINATION AMONG STUDENTS OF SCHOOL, write one, thus enabling you to use the skill in air pollution your future courses. She wrote this blog post to christian personality, teach all students how to effects, write an annotated bibliography that works.

What Is an IMPLEMENTATION OF HEPATITIS B VACCINATION AMONG STUDENTS OF ALLIED MEDICINE, Annotated Bibliography? An annotated bibliography is simply a bibliography with annotations. Air Pollution. Okay, that doesnt help much, does it? Really, though, thats all it is. You know how to write a Works Cited or Reference page, right? If youve mastered this, the next step is to christian grey personality, simply add the air pollution, annotations. Annotations include a summary of the ishikawa kaoru, work, a critique of the air pollution effects, author or credibility of the source, and ishikawa kaoru a discussion of air pollution effects, whether or not the source will be useful to your research.

Why Write an Annotated Bibliography? Im sure youre saying, Give me one good reason why I should write an annotated bibliography. Ill do better than that. Financial 2015. Ill give you three! 1. Its a course assignment. If you want to do well in the course, you need to do it. Air Pollution Effects. Enough said. Ishikawa Kaoru. 2 . An annotated bibliography helps you become a better researcher.

In order to write an annotated bibliography, you need to air pollution effects, be able to Lieutenant Jimmy The Things Carried, summarize the air pollution effects, source. This means youll need to take the dickinson a fly, time to air pollution, read it carefully. You cant just find a source and add it to Qualitative Inquiry and Research Choosing, the list without reading it. You also need to air pollution, evaluate the source and decide whether or not its credible and grey whether or not its useful. Air Pollution. Doing so means youll choose sources more carefully and actually search for useful information. No more picking the first few websites that show up on a Google search and trying to make them fit. 3. An annotated bibliography saves you time.

If youre writing a research paper with three sources, its pretty easy to remember what you read in The Things Carried each source. Air Pollution. If, on ishikawa kaoru, the other hand, youre writing a longer research paper and using 10 or more sources, its not that easy. Air Pollution Effects. Imagine youre on IMPLEMENTATION B VACCINATION STUDENTS OF ALLIED, page 5 of your research essay, and you remember reading the perfect quote about effects binge drinking inumwell, you read it in one of your sources, somewhere . Qualitative Five Approaches. Unless you have some magic fairy dust to help remember everything youve read, youll likely spend 25 minutes looking for that perfect quote. Trust me, writing an effects, annotated bibliography may seem like a major pain now, but once you see how much time it will save you, and Design: Choosing Five Approaches once you see a good grade on effects, your paper, youll be happy you wrote it. Do your research! You cant exactly write an annotated bibliography without sources, so start researching! RESEARCH TIP: Save, bookmark, or print more sources than you think youll need. Computer Bus Types. Sometimes even the seemingly best sources just dont quite work for your paper.

Read and air pollution effects take notes. You dont have to spend hours taking notes on every little detail, but you should mark the following, as youll need them to write your annotations: The main ideas of the source Questions or comments about the arguments or authors credibility Key points or quotes that you might include in ishikawa kaoru your paper Whether or not the source will be useful in your research paper. Now that youve found your sources and taken notes, we can get down to air pollution, the business of writing. Tesco Financial Statements 2015. Remember, there will be no waiving of air pollution effects, fairy godmother wands to magically produce a completed annotated bibliography. You will need to emily dickinson a fly buzz, write your own.

So lets get started. How to Write an air pollution, Annotated Bibliography that Works. Not all annotated bibliographies are written in the same way. Ma Joad. Some include primarily summary and air pollution informative annotations. Others include a critique of Qualitative and Research Choosing, sources. Most annotated bibliographies contain some combination of elements and air pollution can vary in word count.

Dont assume you know which type you should be writing. Ask your professor about the IMPLEMENTATION OF HEPATITIS B VACCINATION STUDENTS OF ALLIED MEDICINE, exact requirements for air pollution effects, your assignment. Follow these 3 steps to IMPLEMENTATION OF HEPATITIS AMONG STUDENTS OF ALLIED, learn about the air pollution, basics of how to write an annotated bibliography. Tesco Statements. Step 1: Cite your source in proper APA, MLA, or other required citation style. Effects. Each of Qualitative Choosing Among Approaches, your entries will begin with a full bibliographic entry. This entry looks just like the entry youd include on a regular Works Cited or Reference page. Entries are even alphabetized by effects, authors last name, just like a Works Cited or Reference page. Heres an buzz, example I created to air pollution effects, show you what the statements 2015, citation will look like. Effects. Robertson, A. Qualitative Inquiry Design: Choosing Among Five. (2012).

Why fairy tales are important. Psychology Today. (13) 2, 210-222. MLA format 7th edition. Roberston, Ann. Air Pollution. Why Fairy Tales are Important. Psychology Today. 13.2 (2012): 210-222. Tesco Statements. Print. Effects. MLA format 8th edition. OF HEPATITIS B VACCINATION STUDENTS OF ALLIED. Roberston, Ann. Why Fairy Tales Are Important. Psychology Today, vol.

13, no. 2, 2012, pp. 210-222. Step 2: Summarize the source. Effects. A summary explains the Lieutenant Cross: They, main ideas of the air pollution effects, source. Someone else should be able to read your summary and know exactly what the source is about. This isnt the statements, time to tell readers whether or not you like the air pollution effects, source. Be objective. Ishikawa Kaoru. Just state what the source is air pollution, about. No more, no less. Heres an financial, example of what a summary of an article might look like.

Robertsons article argues that fairy tales are important because they teach children moral tales of right and wrong and air pollution provide children an dickinson i heard buzz, outlet for air pollution, their emotions. Fairy tales also allow children to Qualitative and Research Five Approaches, develop their imagination and air pollution effects critical thinking as they journey with characters to magical lands. Step 3: Evaluate the source. Heres your chance to write a brief paragraph or two to tell readers what you think of the IMPLEMENTATION OF HEPATITIS B VACCINATION STUDENTS OF SCHOOL OF ALLIED, source and effects how it fits into computer bus types, your own research. Air Pollution Effects. Ive color coded the questions you should ask, so that you can clearly see whats going on Inquiry and Research Choosing Among Five Approaches, in my example below.

Ask yourself these questions : Is the air pollution effects, author credible? What did I like or not like about the source? Are the ishikawa kaoru, arguments effective? Does the author support her arguments? What are the air pollution effects, strengths and weaknesses? How might I incorporate this source into ishikawa kaoru, my paper? Answering these types of air pollution, questions will help you formulate an Qualitative Inquiry Five Approaches, effective critique and evaluation of each source.

Heres an example of what your evaluation might look like. Dr. Robertson is air pollution effects, a well-known childrens psychologist who also has elementary education experience. Her articles are published in a number of peer-reviewed journals, and her work is considered credible . The article will be an excellent source for my paper because it includes recent studies about ma joad childrens appreciation for fairy tales and effects features a detailed discussion of why fairy tales are beneficial to IMPLEMENTATION STUDENTS OF ALLIED, children . Robertson even includes interviews with children that I may be able to air pollution, use in my introduction . The Things They Carried. That wasnt as bad as you thought, was it? Just three quick steps and effects you have an annotated bibliography! If you need a quick way to remember the steps in tesco statements writing an annotated bibliography, just remember CSE : Cite, Summarize, Evaluate. Writing your annotated bibliography in air pollution small steps can make a large task seem far less intimidating. Now that you know how to write each part of an annotated bibliography, the final step is to Qualitative Inquiry Five Approaches, put it all together and air pollution effects make sure its in proper format. Follow these links to see a completed annotated bibliography.

At the end of the day, the student learned how to AMONG OF ALLIED MEDICINE, write an annotated bibliography. She knew she needed to write an effects, appropriate MLA or APA citation followed by a summary and OF HEPATITIS B VACCINATION OF SCHOOL MEDICINE evaluation of the effects, source. The student worked diligently to write an annotated bibliography then had a Kibin editor review her work. OF HEPATITIS AMONG STUDENTS. Both the air pollution, fairy godmother and IMPLEMENTATION OF HEPATITIS B VACCINATION AMONG the student were delighted when the effects, student received her final grade. And they all lived happily ever after. Computer. Useful Resources to Help Write an Annotated Bibliography. Effects. Writing an Annotated Bibliography: This source includes a list of OF HEPATITIS AMONG OF SCHOOL OF ALLIED MEDICINE, verbs to help you write about and air pollution summarize sources. IMPLEMENTATION B VACCINATION OF SCHOOL OF ALLIED MEDICINE. Annotated Bibliography: Tips for air pollution, Writing: This source includes an ishikawa kaoru, overview of how to write an air pollution, annotated bibliography and emily dickinson i heard a fly buzz a template to help you write annotations. Finally, this short video provides a basic overview of an air pollution, annotated bibliography. Psst. Christian Grey. 98% of air pollution effects, Kibin users report better grades!

Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Susan M. Dickinson I Heard Buzz. Inez is a professor of English and writing goddess based out air pollution effects of the Jimmy Cross: The Things They Essay, Northeast. Effects. I am a freshman in college and I found this very helpful. Bus Types. Thank you for posting this for us students who need the air pollution effects, information! This will also help me on my future Biology Lab Reports #128578; Sweet! We love to financial 2015, hear this. Thanks for your kind comment.

I#8217;d definitely recommend that you check out the resources at the end of the air pollution, blog post #8212; there#8217;s lots of statements, helpful information there, plus sample annotated bibliographies in air pollution effects MLA and Cross: They APA styles. Let me know if you have a specific question that isn#8217;t answered! It is really helpful for me doing my resarch paper.

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Robber Barons or Captains of Industry? On February 9, 1859, Henry J. Raymond, editor of the New York Times , said something strange about Cornelius Vanderbilt. Raymond didnt like Vanderbilt, a steamship tycoon with such a vast fleet that he was known as the effects, Commodore, then the computer, highest rank in the US Navy. Effects! In an editorial titled Your Money or Your Line, Raymond blasted him for taking a large monthly payment from the Pacific Mail Steamship Company in return for Vanderbilts foregoing competition on computer bus types the sea lanes to California. Like those old German barons who, from their eyries along the Rhine, swooped down upon the commerce of the noble river and wrung tribute from every passenger that floated by, Raymond wrote, Mr. Air Pollution Effects! Cornelius Vanderbilt . And Research Among Approaches! . . Effects! has insisted that the Pacific Company should pay him toll, taken of all America that had business with California. Though Raymond never used the exact phrase robber baron, his editorial is the first known use of the ishikawa kaoru, metaphor in American journalism. It has become an air pollution effects, enduring description of the industrial moguls of the nineteenth century. It conjures up visions of titanic monopolists who crushed competitors, rigged markets, and corrupted government. In their greed and power, legend has it, they held sway over a helpless democracy.

But heres the strange part: Thats not what Raymond meant. He compared Vanderbilt to medieval robber barons because he preyed upon monopolists. Pacific Mail had total market control of the sea lanes to California, and it bought off Vanderbilt in order to preserve its monopoly. Raymond attacked the Commodore for computer, pursuing competition for competitions sake; competition which crowds out legitimate enterprises. To the editor of the New York Times in 1859, Vanderbilt was a robber baron because he was a challenger, a spoileralmost the opposite air pollution effects of the current meaning of the term. So how did the ma joad, definition of robber baron change from Raymonds to effects our own? The simple answer is scale . Starting in the middle of the nineteenth centuryeven as Raymond wrote Your Money or Your Linethe first truly large enterprises began to emerge. The rise of big business reshaped not only the economy, but politics and culture as well. A few key individuals played a leading role in this process.

Condemned as robber barons or praised as captains of industry, they helped to tesco financial invent the giant corporation and became the focus of the modern debate over opportunity and equality, over the power of private enterprise and the role of government regulation. The life of air pollution, Cornelius Vanderbilt offers a convenient guide to both the impact of these titans and the controversy that surrounded them. Computer! For one thing, his career lasted through most of the nineteenth century. Effects! Born on a farm on Staten Island in 1794, during the ishikawa kaoru, presidency of George Washington, he lived long enough to make deals personally with John D. Rockefeller and leave Andrew Carnegie and J. P. Morgan hungering for his business. For another, he himself was at the forefront in effects creating the first large enterprises, which first appeared in his industry, transportation.

Vanderbilts early decades as a regional steamboat manager and entrepreneur help explain Raymonds curious use of the financial 2015, robber-baron metaphor (curious to effects our ears, that is). Thomas Gibbons hired Vanderbilt to captain a steamboat in 1817, when such vessels were barely a decade old. With relatively few banks and only infant financial markets, the economy was ruled by unspecialized general merchants. Inquiry Choosing! In keeping with the eighteenth-century belief in air pollution effects a natural social hierarchy, a few patrician, land-owning families provided leadership in all areas of public lifepolitics, business, and society. Ma Joad! In fact, New Yorks state constitution, which went into effect in 1777, established a three-tiered system of air pollution effects, citizenship, with escalating property requirements for i heard, voting; only those in the top bracket of wealth could cast ballots for governor and the state senate. Gibbons challenged that system through a business and legal battle against a New York state monopoly on steamboats. In 1798, the legislature had granted the monopoly to Chancellor Robert R. Air Pollution! Livingston, head of one of the tesco, most prestigious patrician families; though he had shared it with inventor Robert Fulton, he passed it down to his descendants as a hereditary right. The logic behind the monopoly reflected that eighteenth-century hierarchical outlook, what historians call the culture of deference. The orderly development of the economy, the state legislators believed, should be directed by the patrician class; New York needed steamboats, so it turned to one of air pollution effects, its leading families to provide them, in return for a monopoly. Gibbons attacked the monopoly because of buzz, a personal vendetta against Aaron Ogden, a former governor of New Jersey who was licensed to run a steam ferry between New York and New Jersey. With Vanderbilt in charge of the boat, Gibbons punished Ogden in air pollution business, even as he brought a legal challenge to the US Supreme Court. Gibbons runs an elegant steamboat for half price . . . purposely to ruin Ogden, wrote one aristocratic observer. Ogden has lowered his price and Jimmy Carried Essay now Gibbons says he will go for nothing.

Did you ever hear of air pollution, such malice in this enlightened age? Though malice seems like an odd word for offering better service at lower prices, it speaks to the patrician mindset. Competition was a new thing on the American scene, and the old landed elite did not welcome it. They saw it as a destructive force, plain and simple. Gibbons won the court battle in 1824 when Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that states could not erect barriers to interstate commerce, in Gibbons v. Ogden . Ogden went to ma joad debtors prison, and Gibbons himself died in 1826. Vanderbilt soon emerged as a steamboat proprietor in his own right.

He concentrated on the main artery of trade as it shifted across the air pollution, landscapealways with one end in New York. When the Erie Canal opened, he competed between New York and Albany; when textile mills began to sprout in Qualitative and Research Design: Among New England during the industrial revolution, he switched to Long Island Sound, on the route to Boston. Everywhere he went, he was feared as the most effective competitor, one who either destroyed his enemies or extracted a ransom in return for leaving a market. Air Pollution! As one businessman wrote to a partner about Vanderbilt, in contemplating who might prove to be an ally or a rival, I confess if we are to be opposed Id sooner have him with us, than against us. Conservative members of the Whig Party sometimes condemned such competition, just as the old patricians had. They desired rapid economic development, but believed that it should be guided and assisted by the government. Jacksonian Democrats, on The Things Essay the other hand, praised competition, upholding aggressive self-interest in the marketplace as a matter of individual liberty. This was an era of increasing democratization, as suffrage was being granted to all men (though usually only white men), regardless of their wealth. The principle of individual equalityof competitive individualisminfused the Jacksonians view of air pollution, everything. In their eyes, government involvement in the economy only bus types served to effects grant special privileges to favored (usually wealthy) men, which created an artificial aristocracy, the antithesis of democracy.

When Henry J. Raymond of the New York Times condemned Vanderbilt in 1859 for competing against legitimate enterprises, he wrote as an old Whig (though the Whig party had disappeared by then). Ma Joad! He saw Pacific Mail as a virtuous example of Whig values: Though privately owned, it had been organized to fulfill a federal plan to guarantee regular communications between California and the rest of the United States and received a federal subsidy in return for carrying the mail. The irony is air pollution, that the California steamship business itself helped change the American economy in ways that would make Raymonds views seem obsolete within just a few years. When the California Gold Rush began, Vanderbilt abruptly left the regional transportation market around New York and competed in statements this oceangoing steamship business. Even though the federal government subsidized his competitors (Pacific Mail and its partner, the US Mail Steamship Company), he built steamships to run on both the Atlantic and Pacific, which connected via a transit route across Nicaragua, farther north than the established crossing in Panama.

In 1851 he inaugurated the line, offering lower fares and a faster passage. He again proved himself a consummate competitor, and effects swiftly earned a fortune. Dickinson Buzz! When the Nicaragua route was closed by air pollution effects, a war in 1856, Pacific Mail and US Mail paid him the large monthly fee discussed by Raymond to prevent him from ma joad competing by way of Panama. These California steamship lines gave Americans a glimpse of the future of big business. They stretched for thousands of miles, with stations in distant countries. When they fought each other, the repercussions were felt by hundreds of thousands of travelers, California residents, and businesses. Effects! The demands of these enterprises also fed other industries.

For example, Vanderbilt purchased (and expanded) a major shipyard and ma joad steam-engine works in New York. Vanderbilt and the other organizers of these steamship lines, such as George Law, William H. Aspinwall, and Marshall O. Air Pollution! Roberts, became household names in the 1850s. And yet, with the exception of Vanderbilt, none are remembered today. For one thing, the steamship lines were soon eclipsed by the transcontinental railroadsthe first being completed in 1869. Choosing Five! And the railroads, broadly speaking, far surpassed shipping as true examples of big business. Except in geographical extent, the California steamship lines could not match the largest railways in terms of numbers of employees, volume of business, capital requirements, or almost any other measure. Effects! And it was the railroads that, directly or indirectly, gave rise to the most famous captains of industry (or, if you prefer, robber barons). Vanderbilt was foremost among themand he fought or did business with many of the rest. In 1863, amid the turmoil of the Civil War, Vanderbilt began to sell off his steamship interests in order to buy large amounts of Lieutenant They Carried, railroad stock.

The younger brokers on effects Wall Street mocked him, refusing to bus types believe that the old Commodore knew anything about the nations most dynamic industry. In fact, he had been actively involved in railroads almost since their inception in America. His steamboats had connected with New Englands early railways, and in 1847 he had seized the presidency of the Stonington Railroad, a strategic line in air pollution effects Rhode Island and Connecticut. During the 1850s, he helped to computer bus types save the endangered Erie Railway and New York Harlem Railroad (better known as the Harlem), lending them money and helping to restructure their debt. When he took the presidency of the air pollution effects, Harlem in 1863, then, he drew upon deep experience with the stock exchange, corporate finance, the railroad industry, and this particular line. In some respects, Vanderbilt became the greatest railroad tycoon of his era almost by accident. At the age of 69, he simply wished to show that he could turn a nearly bankrupt railroad into Lieutenant Jimmy Cross: The Things Essay a thriving company.

But the effects, fragmented nature of the railroad systema vast net of small lines, each built to serve a local community rather than a national networkled to one conflict after another. In each case, he would pursue diplomacy with a connecting line, seeking an amicable agreement; the attempt would fail, a business conflict would ensue, and statements 2015 Vanderbilt would triumph, ending the war by purchasing control of the neighboring railway. After he assumed the presidency of the Harlem in 1863, he ran into trouble with the neighboring Hudson River Railroad. He took control of effects, it in 1864, which gave him a monopoly on the railways that entered Manhattan. In January 1867, concluding a long struggle, he seized the New York Central after stopping all trains over the Hudson River at Albany, an act that largely severed New York Citys connection to emily dickinson i heard the rest of the effects, country (albeit only briefly). In 1869 he gained control of the freshly consolidated Lake Shore Michigan Southern, which extended to Chicago, thanks to a cunning shortselling campaign that bankrupted his primary rival, LeGrand Lockwood. Only one major campaign failed: his attempt to corner stock in the Erie Railway in 1868. Vanderbilt wanted to punish his old friend and rival Daniel Drew, who had betrayed the Commodore and ma joad his allies on the stock market. The resulting conflict came to be known as the Erie War. Drew, the treasurer of the Erie Railway, allied himself with new members of the board of air pollution, directors, particularly Jay Gould and Jim Fisk.

As Vanderbilt bought Erie stock, Drew sold it short. Then the Erie board flooded Wall Street with fresh share certificates of dubious legality. A famously corrupt judge, George Barnard, issued arrest warrants for the directors, prompting them to pack up the Erie corporate files (and funds) and flee to New Jersey. Gould visited Albany, New Yorks capital, with a suitcase full of greenbacks and emily dickinson a fly checkbookswhich convinced the suddenly enriched state legislators to legalize the new shares. But Barnard kept his arrest warrants out, so the Erie board had to compromise with Vanderbilt. The company restored his losses on the stock exchange; in return, Vanderbilt asked the judge to air pollution effects lift the warrants and allow the computer bus types, Erie directors to return to effects New York. This was a critical episode in bus types the making of the effects, modern notion of the robber baron. For very good reason, the Erie War came to symbolize the emily dickinson i heard a fly buzz, rampant corruption wrought by the enormous new railroad corporations. Yet closer inspection reveals the nuance behind the historical stereotype. Corruption was indeed rampant, and often did involve railroads and wealthy men bribing public officials. Yet it also came in the form of extortion by officeholders, who threatened to air pollution pass harmful laws unless corporations paid off the i heard, legislators. For all the graft that surrounded Vanderbilts career, no evidence has convincingly demonstrated that he corrupted government officials.

The Erie War also suggests why robber barons (or, if you prefer, captains of industry) loom so large in effects the popular imagination: Through such dramatic episodes, they personalized the very process of depersonalization. Lieutenant Jimmy Cross: They Carried! The Erie War was waged by outsized individuals, fighting for vast stakes. Effects! Yet the ma joad, weapons, the air pollution effects, battlefield, and the prize itself reflected the rising institutionalization of the emerging corporate economy. Vanderbilt, Drew, Gould, and Fisk fought with securitiesstocks and bondstraded on Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Five Approaches a formal exchange, financed by large banks, in effects order to gain control of a massive, bureaucratically managed enterprise. They made dehumanization human. Of course, these individuals were indeed important. They made decisions that affected the lives of 2015, millions.

Vanderbilt in air pollution effects particular spanned a long period of economic history, from an age of individual proprietors and small partnerships, to a corporate world of Qualitative Design: Choosing Among, anonymous investors and multi-tiered professional management. As one of the most successful businessmen during this transformation, he attained disproportionate wealth and effects influence. To paraphrase an old cliche, he was in on the ground floorand as the building rose, he stood atop the 2015, roof all the air pollution effects, way, giving directions as it was built. Ironically, this new corporate structure was not dependent upon individuals, as the old society had been. Yet the nature of the corporation allowed Vanderbilt and others to extend their control far beyond their actual holdings. As the Railroad King (to use the newspapers nickname for Vanderbilt), he took a series of dramatic steps that reshaped the railroad industry. Computer! He consolidated smaller lines into some of the first giant corporations in air pollution effects American historycapitalized at levels that dwarfed entire industries at the time. With his son William Henry Vanderbilt as his operational chief, he rationalized the organization of statements, his companies, and brought in professional managers. He introduced new efficiency into the nations transportation system, lowering costs and building key new infrastructure. The New York Central Hudson River Railroad paid steady, healthy dividends to investors, even during the depression that began with the Panic of 1873. Air Pollution! As the Railroad Gazette wrote of ma joad, him after his death in 1877, His early career as a railroad manager was distinguished by a series of bold, startlingly revolutionary measures which attracted universal attention and had an effect reaching far beyond the lines and companies with which he dealt directly.

The Vanderbilt era was the first great era of consolidations. As the effects, nations first big business, railroads occupied the center of the economy, a driver of demand and shaper of strategic interests of other enterprises that gave rise to the classic captains of industry. In Cleveland in the 1860s, a pious young bookkeeper named John D. Rockefeller Sr. formed a petroleum-refining business with partner Henry Flagler. Computer Bus Types! They called it Standard Oil. Using some of Vanderbilts own competitive tacticsdriving down prices and buying out air pollution competitorsthey began to dominate the young oil industry. Relations with railroads, which shipped oil, were a primary concern. Ishikawa Kaoru! Rockefeller worked closely with the Commodore and his son to air pollution effects maintain healthy relations and obtain preferential rates. Railroads were even more central to Andrew Carnegies career. A famously penniless immigrant from Scotland, Carnegie rose through the ranks of the computer, mighty Pennsylvania Railroad as the protege of Thomas A. Scott, first superintendent and then vice-president of the company.

Scott and J. Edgar Thomson, the Pennsylvanias president, were professional managers, rather than dominant stockholders, as Vanderbilt and Jay Gould were in the companies they ran. Though they were excellent executives, they also developed a variety of effects, methods to skim money out of the Pennsylvanias transactions. Dickinson A Fly Buzz! They often demanded stock in air pollution effects companies that contracted with the railroad, and sometimes routed business through shell companies that they personally controlled. Carnegie got his start as an entrepreneur with a series of enterprises that fed the ma joad, Pennsylvanias voracious demands, from sleeping cars to bridges to air pollution iron, obtaining contracts through such pay-offs and his personal relationship with Scott and Thomson. When he constructed his first steel mill in 1873, he went so far as to name the plant after Thomson. Yet he had learned his lessons well: He made sure that the steel company was a private partnership, and kept a close eye on dickinson i heard the various managers. He did not want anyone to profit off his own firm as his mentors had from the Pennsylvania. J. Air Pollution Effects! P. Morgan, too, rose with the railroads.

Born into a banking family, he spent much of his career as a banker to the railways, serving as advisor, organizer, and computer bus types financial agent. Throughout the nineteenth century, railroads continued to be the most capital-intensive (and thus most capital-hungry) companies in America, so the great financial houses were largely devoted to serving their needs. Morgan helped to reorganize and rationalize burgeoning industries, restructuring railroads to end destructive competition and fostering such giants as General Electric and effects US Steel. He helped to move big business out Lieutenant They Carried Essay of the age of the pioneering titans and into an era of institutionalization. Ironically, Morgan helped inspire the single most important, and lasting, federal intervention in effects the economy. When a panic started in ishikawa kaoru New York in 1907, wrote biographer Jean Strouse, he led teams of bankers to stop it. And stop it he did. But his very success made Congress painfully aware of the level of influence held by air pollution effects, this private individual, and of the vulnerability of the financial system. The result was the creation of the Federal Reserve, Americas central bank.

Vanderbilt, Carnegie, Rockefeller, and others are often remembered as monopolists, yet they radically lowered prices. As early entrants into their markets, they fought their way through chaotic competition by strictly controlling costs and increasing efficiency at every step. By making transportation, steel, and oil far cheaper and tesco financial 2015 more widely available, they contributed to the rapid growth the American economy, and the creation of tremendous wealth. Not everyone was happy with these developments. The rise of large companies also gave rise to a new class of lifelong wage workers (by contrast with earlier generations, which had anticipated owning their farms or shops). Unionization and strikes increased rapidly after the air pollution, Civil War. Starting in the 1870s, workers demanded laws to limit the workday to tesco statements 2015 eight hours. Farmers, too, felt helpless before the air pollution effects, railroadsthe greatest and most powerful monopoly on the face of the earth, in the words of one orator. They let the public feel their power in the fuel of their kitchens, the computer bus types, bread of their bodies, the material for their houses. Cheaper transportation integrated the national marketplace, putting farmers in air pollution effects distant regions into direct competition with each other.

And railroads gave discounts to large, long-distance shippers; farmers who sent their harvest and livestock over short distances to local markets resented paying a higher rate per mile. As with workers demands for eight-hour laws, agrarian radicals wanted government action. One council of Lieutenant The Things They Essay, Grangers declared, We hold that a state cannot create a corporation that it cannot thereafter control. Another speaker said, The time would come when the management of the roads must fall into the hands of the public. This call for public regulation, even ownership, marks a major shift in politics. Gone were the days when Jacksonian radicals wanted the government to stay out of the economy, to allow individuals to rise on their merits. Now those on the left embraced government intervention as a means of countering the new power of effects, large corporations, which towered over the economy as no businesses had before the Civil War. It took decades for ma joad, this kind of regulationespecially federal regulationto emerge. Air Pollution Effects! Yet even before the death of Cornelius Vanderbilt in January 1877, the tesco statements 2015, modern argument over private enterprise and the role of government had clearly emerged.

In a sense, it does not matter whether one sees Vanderbilt and his peers as robber barons or captains of industry; it is the fact that we argue about them as one or the effects, other that matters most. They not only changed the ma joad, way we livethey changed the way we think. T. J. Stiles is the author of The First Tycoon: The Epic Life of Cornelius Vanderbilt (2009), winner of the 2009 National Book Award for Nonfiction and air pollution the 2010 Pulitzer Prize for Biography, and financial Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War (2002). Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Please click here to air pollution effects login and access this page. Click here to get a free subscription if you are a K-12 educator or student, and here for more information on the Affiliate School Program, which provides even more benefits. Otherwise, click here for information on financial 2015 a paid subscription for those who are not K-12 educators or students. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Become an Affiliate School to have free access to the Gilder Lehrman site and all its features. Click here to effects start your Affiliate School application today!

You will have free access while your application is being processed. Individual K-12 educators and students can also get a free subscription to the site by making a site account with a school-affiliated email address. Click here to do so now! Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for ishikawa kaoru, History. Your subscription grants you access to effects archives of and Research Choosing Approaches, rare historical documents, lectures by top historians, and a wealth of air pollution effects, original historical material, while also helping to ma joad support history education in schools nationwide. Click here to see the kinds of air pollution effects, historical resources to which you'll have access and here to tesco financial read more about the air pollution effects, Institute's educational programs. Click here to sign up for an individual subscription to Jimmy Cross: The Things Carried Essay the Gilder Lehrman site. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History.

We're sorry, but it looks as though you do not have access to the full Gilder Lehrman site. All K-12 educators receive free subscriptions to the Gilder Lehrman site, and our Affiliate School members gain even more benefits! Not a educator or student? Click here for air pollution effects, more information on purchasing a subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site. Teaching Resource: Essential Questions in Teaching American History Essay: Getting Ready to Lead a World Economy: Enterprise in Nineteenth-Century America Essay: The Square Deal: Theodore Roosevelt and the Themes of ishikawa kaoru, Progressive Reform Video Series: Essential Questions in American History Video Series: Inside the Vault Video Series: Lifetimes Essay: San Francisco and the Great Earthquake of 1906 Essay: The Filibuster King: The Strange Career of William Walker, the Most Dangerous International Criminal of the Nineteenth Century Essay: Theodore Roosevelt: The Making of a Progressive Reformer Essay: Born Modern: An Overview of the West.

This essay would be a good follow-up to Lincoln#039;s concept of improvement found in air pollution effects THE REPUBLIC OF NATURE ch. 4.

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Abortion Argumentative Essay, Pro Choice. February 27, 2016. On January 22, 1973 the United States Supreme Court made a 7 - 2 decision to legalize abortion in effects most of the fifty states. Although abortion was not legal in the past it was being preformed on women since the fifteenth century all over the globe, but, most women did not survive the surgery. That is the biggest reason it was preformed in secret because it was taking so many lives. Dickinson I Heard A Fly! Thanks to modern day medicine and effects technology the success rate for tesco statements, women is nearly one hundred percent. Today, the air pollution decision that was made in Jimmy Cross: The Things Essay 1973 has caused American citizens, mostly women, to debate wether abortion is air pollution, considered murder or just a simple act of not wanting to bring an Among, unwanted child show more content Points made on the pro-life side of the augment also have opinion based and air pollution effects factual based points. This side has much less factual based points but does have many religious ones.

One being that many branches of the Christian faith reject the idea of Qualitative Inquiry Choosing Among abortion being an acceptable action in any situation. This is air pollution, because many branches of computer Christianity believe that sexual intercourse should only air pollution effects, be done for conceptional purposes and only within the binds of marriage, because of this, any child conceived within these terms, or outside of ishikawa kaoru them, is automatically a child of God. Therefore, terminating the pregnancy would be seen as a moral sin. The pro-life side has a strong opinion the every baby has potential, wether Abortion: Pro-lifers and Pro-choices Essay. to have an abortion during the second trimester for her own well-being. According to one of air pollution effects our amendment, No State shall make or enforce any law in which shall abridge the rights or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deny any person of life, liberty, or property (National Archives) In this amendment it states we shall not deny life to any person. The Supreme Court however decided the unborn fetus is not a person, therefore it does not apply to abortion. In legal Persuasive Essay: Pro-choice Abortion. I am pro-choice abortion because I have indeed had an tesco statements, abortion. Five months after my fifteenth birthday I found out I was pregnant. I was not even halfway through my sophomore year of effects high school and computer bus types my boyfriend of 8 months at the time was not either.

He was scared more than I. I had no money to my name. I had no license, no car, and air pollution effects no high school diploma. Damien did not have any of those things either. We were still children ourselves. We were not prepared to have any children of our own. Both Abortion - Pro Life vs. Pro Choice Essay. Pro-Life supporters perceive abortion as murder and a violation of the fetus's right to live. Some supporters believe that accepting abortion will lead to ma joad, the disregard for human life in general. Many right-to-life advocates believe that the air pollution acceptance of abortion encourages sexual immortatality. (Americana, 6) Of all the issues in Qualitative and Research Among Approaches ongoing society wars abortion is the most intimate and the most common.

Almost half of American women have terminated at least one pregnancy, and millions more Abortion: Pro-Life and air pollution effects Pro-Choice Essay. On the other hand, medical doctors propose that having an abortion will save the life of the mother. Doctors argue that abortion is ishikawa kaoru, needed if there are andy life threatening complications. On the contrary, Illinois Representative Joe Walsh, states that, Advances in air pollution effects science and technology, had eliminated any need for Lieutenant Jimmy Cross: The Things, abortions to save the air pollution lives or health of women and said, 'Health of the emily dickinson a fly buzz mother' has become a tool for abortions anytime, for any reason. Comments like this only categorize women Abortion: Pro-Choice is the Wrong Choice Essay. even if it was a boy or girl. (PAS) does not occur at the same time among women who have an abortion some may experience the symptoms right after the abortion others may experience it years later. When a woman goes through this she may experience some of the symptoms like regret, a lowered self esteem, remorse, shame, and insomnia, etc.

The woman may even try her best not link her distress to the whole abortion experience, but there is a way that woman can get through (PAS).They must grieve over the Abortion: A Comparative Essay Abour Pro-life and Pro-choice. pregnant. While I have empathy for this situation, I stand firm that abortion is air pollution, not the answer for this tragic case. Financial Statements! I understand that in the instance of rape, that certain female may not be able to take on the unwanted responsibility of a parent. However, there are so many couples in the world who are willing to adopt children and the option of adoption is available to them. The topic of effects abortion is something that is emily dickinson i heard buzz, valued and pro-life is a good thing that should be the only option. It is the right violating many womens rights and would cross civil rights lines as well. Pro-Life Supporters say that: if a fetus is not able to survive outside of the mothers womb, then it should not be considered its own human being. Almost all abortions take place during this time, when the fetus is not viable. Air Pollution! Viability is when a fetus can survive if they were delivered at that time, usually around the 23rd or 24th week of pregnancy. Many Pro-Choice supporters see that fetus life before viability is nothing more than At other times some mothers do not wish to go along with the pregnancy if they realize the child will come out with deformities. Ishikawa Kaoru! Many people believe abortion is the womens choice.

Back in the day women had basically no rights. Air Pollution! Once a woman was married, she had to Jimmy Cross: The Things Essay, ask her husbands approval for all civil matters. The womans only right was to provide children for the husband. The only role the woman needed to play was to have a male child to keep the family line going (Masae 195-198). Air Pollution Effects! Is the bus types Pro-Life or Pro-Choice: Abortion Analyzed Through the Sociological Lens. sociological issues in Canada: abortion. To begin, a brief history of abortion in Canada is a necessary first step. Abortion became a legalized act in air pollution Canada in1969 (Doull 2013, p. 52), with the stipulations that it should only be used for medical reasons.

Canada has always been one of the Lieutenant Cross: The Things They Essay leading supporters of air pollution abortion rights and has always been two steps ahead of other countries, especially the United States. As stated in Saurette and Kellys Arguing abortion: The new anti-abortion discourse in Canada, But the pro-life campaign saw this as ten steps backwards. Reasons why someone would abort their pregnancy could be from rape, or the mother is ill would not survive the pregnancy, or the timing isnt reasonable with the mother. All of these are logical and detrimental decisions, but the pro-life advocates do not excuse any circumstance. Abortion is tesco financial statements 2015, considered murder no matter what. Pro-choice argues with If we take away the air pollution effects womans right to choose, we will be limiting her other rights as well

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essay evolution Links to our Past. THE ESSAY in science is an art form as well as a means of communicating ideas. All scientists publish their findings somewhere, but relatively few produce books or monographs. Effects? Even fewer produce essays. Modern readers who are interested in evolution or natural history usually recognize the names Gould, Zimmer and Dawkins as essayists. But relatively few are those who have read Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky and many older writers. All of these authors are worth reading today. In some cases they are worth reading not only for the beauty of their prose and the forcefulness of their argument, but also to discover what earlier generations of scientists once thought. Darwin and Wallace are omitted here on purpose.

You will find them on my Darwiniana Page. Formerly a senior editor at Discover magazine he now writes for National Geographic, Science, Audubon , and Natural History , where he succeeds Steve Gould with a regular column on evolution. His journalism prizes include the Pan-American Health Organization Award for Excellence in International Health Reporting, the American Institute Biological Sciences Media Award, and the Everett Clark Award for science writing. After a Lost Balloon : Chapter 1 from Inquiry Choosing Five, At The Water's Edge : Fish with fingers, whales with legs, and how life came ashore but then went back to sea. The story of vertebrate evolution and the closing of Romer's Gap. book details. A professor of cell biology at Brown University, Dr.

Miller wears a number of other hats. With co-author Joe Levine he has written a series of biology textbooks emphasizing evolution. His book Finding Darwin's God is an excellent response to the creationism and intelligent design movements. His essays, participation in creationism debates, and appearances in PBS and other documentaries on evolution give him a high public profile. Click on books covers for reviews and purchasing details at

Top Ten Facts about the Human Genome : This is a short course by Professor Miller that might whet your appetite for more information about human genetics and DNA. Dr. Gould succeeded Dr. Mayr in the teaching chair at Harvard. Through his many books and monthly essays in Natural History magazine he became the foremost popularizer of evolution in the United States. His incisive wit and pugnacious character, not to mention his polymath brilliance, cast him in the roll of the air pollution, teacher you had to love or hate. His last book, The Structure of Evolutionary Theory was far too long. Financial Statements 2015? His life was far too short. Darwin's More Stately Mansion : A famous Victorian story reports the reaction of an aristocratic lady to the primary heresy of her time: Let us hope that what Mr.

Darwin says is not true; but, if it is true, let us hope that it will not become generally known. To my mind Dr. Dawkins has been to the UK what Dr. Gould has been to the USA, its finest teacher of effects evolution. Equally witty and pugnacious, I consider Dr. Dawkins' essay The Forty-fold Path to Enlightenment (in his book Climbing Mount Improbable ) one of the finest pieces of writing in ishikawa kaoru natural history. Dawkins holds the Charles Simonyi Professorship in the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. An Open Letter to Prince Charles : Your Reith lecture saddened me. I have deep sympathy for effects your aims, and admiration for your sincerity.

But your hostility to science will not serve those aims; and your embracing of an ma joad, ill-assorted jumble of mutually contradictory alternatives will lose you the respect that I think you deserve. Click on a book cover to see reviews and purchasing details at Branching Out : Could multiple species of early hominids have existed side by side? This is a review by Dawkins of the book Extinct Humans by Ian Tattersall and Jeffrey H. Air Pollution Effects? Schwartz. Best known for his books bearing upon the Evolution-Creationism debates, Dr. Ruse is a polymathic philosopher and historian of science, particularly with respect to the history of evolutionary thought. Based largely on his testimony, Creation Science was defeated in Arkansas in 1981 as being devoid of science.

His book Can a Darwinian be a Christian should be required reading for all fundamentalists. Darwinism and Atheism: A Marriage Made in Heaven? : Somewhat immodestly let me elevate myself up to the status of Wilson, Dawkins, Dennett, and Lewontin, and consider a Darwinism-based argument which I have myself put forward against Christian belief. Click on a book cover to see reviews and purchasing details at Darwin's New Critics on ishikawa kaoru, Trial: Irreducible Complexity : from Taking Darwin Seriously [1999]. The new Creationists have recently started to break from their strategy of unrelenting attack. Thanks to biochemist Michael J. Behe, author of Darwins Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to effects Evolution [1996], they have started to lift the veil from their own beliefs about origins qua science. Probably unheard of by tesco statements most readers of this website, Dr.

Forsdyke is unusual among modern essayists in science. While he has published a great deal in technical journals of science and has two recent books to his credit, his work as an essayist is presented almost exclusively on his own academic website in well written and highly illustrated pages. It is to be hoped that this body of work will survive his tenure in academia. Pellegrino University Research Professor and Honorary Curator in Entomology at Harvard University, Wilson is the air pollution, author of 18 books, 2 of which have received the Pulitzer Prize; an ardent defender of the liberal arts; and a promoter of global conservation of ishikawa kaoru species and air pollution natural ecosystems. Ma Joad? Founded the discipline of Sociobiology, more commonly called Evolutionary Psychology today, and cofounded the study of island biogeography.

A Global Biodiversity Map : Commentary in air pollution effects Science 289 (5488):2279 [2000]. As genomics and biomedicine are to human health, so ecology and conservation biology are to the planet's health. Unfortunately, compared with their sister disciplines, ecology and conservation biology are still disadvantaged. Click on a book cover to see reviews and purchasing details at The Biological Basis of ma joad Morality : in The Atlantic [1998]. Do we invent our moral absolutes in order to make society workable? Or are these enduring principles expressed to us by some transcendent or Godlike authority? Efforts to resolve this conundrum have perplexed, sometimes inflamed, our best minds for centuries, but the natural sciences are telling us more and more about the choices we make and our reasons for air pollution making them.

Dr. Mayr helped establish the neodarwinian synthesis and was a tireless teacher of evolution. His work, combined with that of Dobzhansky and Simpson who are also represented here, established the basis for the modern theory of tesco financial 2015 evolution. In addition to careers in Ornithology, Taxonomy and effects Systematics, he was a Professor of Zoology and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard and director of its Museum of Comparative Zoology. Ernst Mayr died on February 3, 2005, at the age of 100.

What is a Species, and What is Qualitative Among Not? : The Old Man of American Biology reviews the variety of species concepts, especially his Biological Species Concept, and responds to his critics. Originally published in Philosophy of Science 63:262-277 [1996] and here borrowed from the AAAS website. Click on a book cover to see reviews and purchasing details at effects Darwin's Influence on Modern Thought : This article is based on 1999 lecture that Mayr delivered in Stockholm on receiving the Crafoord Prize from the Inquiry, Royal Swedish Academy of Science. Great minds shape the thinking of successive historical periods. Luther and Calvin inspired the Reformation; Locke, Leibniz, Voltaire and Rousseau, the Enlightenment. Modern thought is air pollution most dependent on the influence of tesco Charles Darwin. See my separate page What Evolution Is for commentary about Dr. Mayr, more of effects his essays, and a complete list of his books.

Dr. Computer? Simpson was a paleontologist and taxonomist whose influential text The Principles of Classification and a Classification of the Mammals [1945] remained the standard for air pollution treatment of the subject for many years. Emily Dickinson Buzz? His was the effects, last of a series of major publications, by authors from emily dickinson i heard buzz, several different disciplines, that became known as the neodarwinian synthesis, the foundation for modern-day evolutionary biology. Born in Russia where he trained as an entomologist, Dr. Dobzhansky emigrated to air pollution effects the USA where his research with fruit flies led to many publications in genetics.

He was one of the principle founders of the emily dickinson a fly buzz, neodarwinian synthesis and trained many students in biology, genetics and evolutionary theory. In contradististinction to some other noted scientists of effects his time, Dr. Dhobzhansky never relinquished his religious orthodoxy. Evolution in the Tropics : American Scientist 38 (2): 209-221 [1950]. Natural selection augments the frequency of favorable types and reduces the frequency of unfavorable types. Populations thus react to changes in their environment by adaptive modifications. This is one of the rare occasions when evolutionary changes taking place in nature under the The Things Essay, influence of natural selection can actually be observed in the process of air pollution effects happening.

A mathematician perhaps best known for Haldane's Dilemma, he was one of the major synthesizers of evolutionary theory in the 1930s. Unfortunately, not many of his writings are currently on the Internet. Emily Dickinson? Those that are tend toward his viewpoints on politics and religion. He has been enshrined in the mythology of air pollution science for remarks attributed to him about God's fondness for beetlesHe made so many of them.. On Being the Right Size : Haldane's essay is widely anthologized and frequently quoted, at least when the subject of biological scaling crops up. Sir Ronald Fisher was a geneticist and a founder of classical statistical analysis. His book The Genetical Theory of ishikawa kaoru Natural Selection in 1930 helped pave the way for the modern Darwinian synthesis, giving it strong mathematical and statistical support. He was Galton Professor of Eugenics at the University of London and later Balfour Professor of Genetics at the University of Cambridge. He ended his career in Australia.

Collected Papers of R. A. Fisher Relating to air pollution Genetics, Evolution and Eugenics : These are all large files in .pdf format and are more than 65 papers published in The Collected Papers of R.A. Fisher edited by J.H. Bennett and published in five volumes by the University of Adelaide between 1971 and 1974. In most cases the ma joad, papers are highly technical and might not be of interest to the general reader. One might at air pollution effects least view the list of and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches titles to see the breadth of research that Fisher conducted.

A tireless advocate of Evolutionary Theory, Professor Huxley took on Richard Owen, Bishop Wilberforceany and all of Darwin's criticseven though he did not fully accept all of Darwin's ideas. He was also a tireless advocate for secular public education and the professionalization of air pollution effects science. Like A. R. Wallace he was outspoken on a wide range of issues. He is credited with having coined the term agnosticism . America's leading botanist in the mid-19th century, and bus types Darwin's strongest early supporter in the USA, in 1857 he became only the third scientist (after Hooker and Lyell) to learn of the theory from Darwin. He debated L. Agassiz between 1859 and 1861 on air pollution, variation and geographic distribution. His discovery of close affinities between East Asian and computer North American floras was a key piece of evidence in favor of evolution.

Natural Science and air pollution effects Religion : I am invited to ishikawa kaoru address you upon the relations of science to religion, in reference, as I suppose, to those claims of natural science which have been thought to be antagonistic to religion, and to those assumptions connected with the Christian faith which scientific men in our day are disposed to question. [1880]. A zoologist and air pollution paleontologist, Agassiz came to ishikawa kaoru the USA in air pollution effects 1846, becoming a professor at emily dickinson i heard a fly buzz Harvard in 1848. He acquiring funding for and built the Museum of Comparative Zoology in 1860. He urged the creation of a National Academy of Sciences, becoming a founding member in 1863, and was appointed a regent of the Smithsonian Institution. Yet, until his death, he was passionate in his opposition to Darwinian evolution. Geographical Distribution of Animals : Christian Examiner and Religious Miscellany 48 (2):181-204 [1850]. The leading anatomist and paleontologist in England during the period of Darwin's voyage and later writings, Darwin turned over to Owen the effects, fossils he collected for description.

Owen was later a leading opponent of Darwin's ideas about Essay evolution and engaged in lengthy and acrimonious public debates with Thomas Huxley, Darwin's principle defender. Owen's review of On the Origin of Species is available here. In October of 1844, a small bomb went off in air pollution effects the world of British science. The bomb took the form of a 400-page book with the grand title Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, presenting a comprehensive account of the history of the Earth, from the dickinson i heard a fly buzz, formation of the Solar System through the air pollution effects, development of ishikawa kaoru plant and animal life, up to the origins of humankind. Air Pollution? Strangely, there was no author's name on bus types, the cover.

Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation : [1844 1st ed. in air pollution effects HTML format] : (anonymous). Qualitative Inquiry And Research Choosing Five Approaches? J. Churchill, 390 pp., [1844]. This was a book that everyone seemed to criticize. But read it they did, and it sold many more copies than Darwin's On The Origin of Species . A number of air pollution noted personalities were evolutionists before Darwin published, based on the reading of this book. President Abraham Lincoln was one of ishikawa kaoru them. Also available as Vestiges of the air pollution effects, Natural History of Creation : [1857 ed. as full-page photos] During Darwin's lifetime Lyell was the world's leading exponent of Lieutenant Jimmy Cross: Essay geology and one of the principle influences on air pollution effects, Darwin's thinking. Few people realize that Darwin's original contributions to science were mainly books on geology. Lyell was Darwin's main sounding board during the 20 years he spent developing the Theory of Evolution, but Lyell never completely agreed with Darwin about computer natural selection or the descent of man.

The Progress Of Geology : A chapter from Lyell's classic Principles of Geology [1830 and many revisions]. Remembered principally as the inventor of the forerunner of the calculating computer, Babbage was a leader in effects several scientific societies and ishikawa kaoru he held the Lucasian Chair in Mathematics at Cambridge University. A polymath, he helped establish the modern British postal system and compiled the first reliable actuarial tables. He also participated in effects the pre-Darwinian debates in natural theology, contributing to the Bridgewater Treatises. The Ninth Bridgewater Treatise : 2nd Ed., London, [1838]. The first class of truths then (those of Pure Mathematics) appears to rest on necessity. Computer Bus Types? The second, (the Laws of air pollution Nature,) on ishikawa kaoru, necessity and our external senses. Air Pollution? The third, (those of Natural Religion,) on our external senses and internal consciousness. The last, (those of Revelation,) on human testimony. I have placed them in the only order which, in my opinion, is consistent with truth; convinced that it is more injurious to religion to overrate, than to undervalue the cogency of the evidence on which it rests. Working at the Musee National d'Histoire Naturelle, Cuvier established the fact of past extinction, founded vertebrate paleontology as a scientific discipline and created the comparative method of organismal biology.

He argued for periodic revolutionary episodes in earth history that replaced whole suites of organisms. His geological study of the Paris basin with Alexandre Brongniart established basic principles of biostratigraphy. William Strata Smith, a civil engineer and surveyor, was well acquainted with areas in southern England where limestone and shales are layered like slices of bread and butter. I Heard? His hobby of collecting and cataloging fossil shells from these rocks led to the discovery that certain layers contained fossils unlike those in other layers. Using these key or index fossils as markers, Smith could identify a particular layer of rock wherever it was exposed. Strata Identified by Organized Fossils : [1816-1819]. A facsimile edition in four parts with explanatory notes. Known primarily for air pollution his rejected concept of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, Lamarck was, nevertheless, one of the most important scientists of his day. He made many contributions to botany, museum curatorship, invertebrate paleontology and taxonomy.

His concept of acquired characteristics was in part adopted by Darwin and retained followers within science up to ma joad the 1930s, until set aside by air pollution effects discoveries in ma joad genetics. Zoological Philosophy [1809]. Of the considerations relevant to the natural history of air pollution effects animals; to the diversity of their organic structure and of the faculties which they derive from dickinson a fly buzz, it; to the physical causes sustaining life in air pollution effects them and producing the movements which they carry out; finally, to those causes which produce feeling in some and intelligence in computer others endowed with it. For many years Paley's writings in moral and air pollution effects political philosophy served as the basic texts and doctrines at Cambridge University. All students had to read them and Darwin was no exception. Paley's analogy of the watch requiring a watchmaker remains the central tenet for those who claim evidence of design in nature (the Intelligent Design movement). Darwin later refuted Paley, and Richard Dawkins et al., continue to do so today. Natural Theology : or, Evidences of the Existence and ishikawa kaoru Attributes of the Deity [12th ed. 1809].

Downloadable text file. Darwin was, during his university years, a student of Paley writings, and effects much of what Darwin later wrote refuted this work by demonstrating the emily buzz, haphazard and contingent nature of evolution. A Scottish geologist and naturalist, Hutton is recognized as the originator of one of the fundamental principles of geology, that of uniformitarianism, which explains the features of the Earth's crust by air pollution means of computer bus types natural processes operating over geologic time. Hutton's 1785 publication led, within just a few decades, to effects the almost total abandonment of the concept that the Earth was formed just a few thousand years ago. Theory of the Earth Or an Investigation of the Laws Observable in the Composition, Dissolution, and Restoration of Land upon the Globe [1785]. When we trace the parts of which this terrestrial system is composed, and when we view the general connection of those several parts, the whole presents a machine of ishikawa kaoru a peculiar construction by air pollution effects which it is adapted to a certain end. We perceive a fabric, erected in wisdom, to obtain a purpose worthy of the power that is apparent in the production of it. In the tradition of science in his time, Gilbert White was a clergyman in the Anglican Church of England.

Education in Lieutenant Cross: They Essay natural history was a normal part of the education of those persons destined to effects take holy orders, and much of what we think of as published science in that era was the recording by clergymen of observations made in geology and field biology. White's Natural History of Selborne is a classic of the genre. The bulk of the a fly buzz, work is composed of a series of letters sent to two sponsors over a period of many years. Early Classics in Biogeography, Distribution, and Diversity Studies : Up to 1950, a collection of essays that may be difficult to find elsewhere. A number of them are listed here, but there are many more.

Send suggestions, additions, corrections to Richard White at R. White.