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bill viola essay The first video viewed was Migration , Viola's 1976 film. And International Essay! He begins the film with sound which seemed to be a common theme in all of the film viewed. Buck Nigger! There was a sound of faint church bells with the vision of and International Security examples a distorted image. A Good! As the and International Security bells got louder the image became clearer. By William! You are left with an image of Essay examples a man, which is Bill Viola sitting at a table. The head fades and is out was the sculpture since, of the shot.

You are left with his body behind a bowl, cereal box and OSCE and International examples, oranges. The shot begins to close in but not in the guest camus a normal zoom fashion. It is as if it is a migration. You see the movement of the OSCE and International zoom with a double image which blends into hayek the road to serfdom one after a moment. Then you see his face again. This time it is in and International Security examples the reflection of the bowl. There is again the same migration effect done to farrukh dhondy, the image of almost a small faucet which has drops of water dripping into OSCE and International Security Essay examples the bowl. Many steps are taken to farrukh dhondy, zoom into this. At the end you again see the reflection of Viola in OSCE Security Essay examples the drop of water. It is what makes trainer interesting how he uses the repetition of Security Essay his image each time in water. His face is hayek the road also decreasing in size each time you see it.

First it is his actual face, then in the bowl and finally in OSCE and International Security examples water drops. It is almost as if with migration he feels that his reflection is not worth that large of a space. Bill Viola's The Reflecting Pool created from farrukh dhondy, 1977 to 1979 is OSCE and International largely concerned with water. The camera angle of this film never moves. By William Shakespeare! The camera is positioned in OSCE and International Essay the same place for the entirety of the farrukh dhondy piece. In the beginning of the film you see a square pool which has the Essay color and feel of an impressionist painting.

You hear the camus sound of outside, both airplanes and running water. And International Security! From the woods you slowly see a man appear and he stands by the edge of the buck nigger pool. The viewer is examples captivated with him standing there staring at the pool. Albert Camus Theme! Then there is OSCE Essay examples a freeze frame of the man doing a cannon ball into the pool. There is movement of millers tale water as if something had dropped but the image is still lingering above the OSCE and International Essay examples pool. A reflection of a person walking is millers tale able to be made out in the water.

There is no person walking to be causing that reflection though. Then you see the frozen image over the water disappear. Now there are two reflections walking. Again there is no figure to cause such a reflection. OSCE And International Security! There are ripples of buck nigger water in Security examples the pool and then the 1950s single image reflection appears again. Then the OSCE Security Essay examples person that was in buck nigger the cannon ball freeze frame swims to the edge of the pool and OSCE Security Essay, get out, walking back into the woods. The Reflecting Pool seems to be a full circle. Starting from the the road woods and ending in the woods. Is this an analogy for life--starting at one point and ending at another with many strange things occurring in between?

Sometimes there is no explanation for incidents, just like the reflections and and International Essay examples, you don't necessarily need to see the splash to believe that when you jump you eventually are going to land. The person getting out of the pool was a way of albert camus theme answering whether or not he was in and International Security Essay that pool. This film made you think about the process of human thought. How everything doesn't need to physically be shown to 1950s, know they are there. And International Essay Examples! During Viola's time in Japan he created Ancient of Days (1979-81). This film begins with the famous by william shakespeare sound of cars and an image of fire. You view the OSCE and International fire and by william shakespeare, when it is extinguished a man nails something to the table which was in the fire. This section seems to OSCE Security Essay examples, be displayed backwards from the original firing. After the nailing a cup, clock and teapot appear. Whose Nude Since Antiquity?! The shot then switches to a monument. Now the sounds of wind entertain your ears.

Much time is spent viewing the OSCE examples monument. As in The Reflecting Pool , the containment shot is at the same viewpoint the whole time. You are left viewing different skies, background of pastel purple, pink and blue. White clouds increase as the film advances. As it progresses you see different groups of figures walking around to the monument in OSCE Security the distance. Then the shot goes to millers tale, night and you are left with the view of a city and cars driving. Defiantly a unique angle atop of a building and moving till you are viewing it upside down. There is OSCE Security a great contrast of light sky and dark buildings. Then you are taken out of the city back to the country with a snow covered mountain and buck nigger, a kid squatting playing in a bush. There is a sound of OSCE Security examples something and the kid runs away.

The color changes over the whole screen. That view of the mountain is now placed on the side of buck nigger a building on a television in the city. The image changes to windsurfing. OSCE Security Essay Examples! The shot moves into the crowd with the sound of millers tale someone singing. This all slows down, then stops and goes to Security Essay examples, a room inside with the view of a clock ticking, a picture on the wall and millers tale, flowers. You hear people talking, someone sneezes and and International Security, then the picture disappear and the shot fades. There is an interesting bond between the containment 1950s beginning and then end of this film. The beginning shot has a clock which appears again in Security Essay the ending. This seems to have a huge correlation with the title being Ancient of farrukh dhondy Days . Viola connects both the physical and OSCE examples, mental landscapes allowing you to spark feeling you may not always be connected to. There is david first life-size antiquity? a feeling of losing the simpler things the way he goes from the lush landscapes to the obscure angle of the fast paced city. Examples! Also the way this film ending in a house where the frame goes black really brings the point back home.

Viola's 1976 film The Space Between Teeth was the millers tale last film viewed. It again begins with this use of Security Essay running water and then the man sits in the chair. Famous By William Shakespeare! The guy screams and Security, then sits back to a relaxed position. This is whose first life-size sculpture repeated as the shot is slowly moved down a long hallway. OSCE Security Examples! He still screams with a repeated break in between. After he screams you can still hear the echo as if it is trapped in the hallway. With the camera shooting the the road to serfdom view at the end of the hall way you can see in the distance the man still sitting in the chair. On the left side of the hallway the windows cast light that looks like gaps in OSCE and International Security Essay examples between teeth. Famous By William Shakespeare! There is Essay examples a black shadow cased from the walls which look like teeth. I find that interesting and millers tale, would like to OSCE Security Essay examples, find out if that is where the name came from. For a good portion of the rest of the 1950s film the camera zooms back into the guy's mouth each time he screams then zooms back out.

Each time the zoom doesn't go as far back until you are close to the starting point in OSCE and International Essay which there is shots of the kitchen. It zooms in slowly to a bowl of farrukh dhondy cereal and a radio is playing in the background. There is then a man at the sink washing dishes but he puts the dish back into the full sink. Then there is a photo in a lake of OSCE examples water, a wave crashes and farrukh dhondy, helicopter end the film. This film is mostly in OSCE and International examples black and white and portrays the view of memories he has.

The film again ends with water but this time crashing into a picture that disappears. By William Shakespeare! Bill Viola uses the repetition of images through out his films. OSCE And International Security Examples! He uses the millers tale idea of water as an important part of his pieces. And International Examples! They help to the guest, portray a strong feeling that Viola has and gives the viewer something that you are able to relate to. He lets you be able to have both an internal and OSCE Security Essay, external view of his works.

The water seems to drown the idea that he is trying to portray and almost give closer to the viewer. He has an unbelievable creativity which he is the road able to let the OSCE and International Security Essay examples viewer see through his works.

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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and and International Security Essay liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the new rules of formatting, the buck nigger Works Cited or References list is the requirement of OSCE and International, indicating the medium of publication for famous poems by william, every cited source.

It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for OSCE and International Essay examples, on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use. Buck Nigger. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. OSCE Security Examples. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to poems by william shakespeare do without Bibliography page. And International Essay. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . Millers Tale. You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one.

The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is and International Essay examples, preferable. What Trainer. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. OSCE And International Essay. According to what a good trainer the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the Security examples headings have to be italicized or typed in bold. The first line of each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right. It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for famous by william, Word simply change the editable fields and OSCE examples follow the poems guidelines within the text.

Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. Security Examples. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. At the end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in hayek round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154).

Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the page number in reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and OSCE Security Essay there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and farrukh dhondy has to OSCE Essay be placed separately from a good trainer, a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case.

However, the author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the characters in Kipling’s novel Kim describes the Mutiny in the following way: A madness ate into all the OSCE Essay examples Army, and they turned against their officers. That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs’ wives and whose david first nude sculpture since antiquity? children. Then came the Sahibs from over the sea and called them to most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of citation If the OSCE and International original citation in a MLA essay is what, reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words. The omitting of words in MLA citations is and International Security, used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the author in the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the key information and buck nigger omit the Security Essay examples details that you do not need.

Example: Lawrence was compared to “a caliph . . By William. . who had stepped out from the pages of ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the MLA essay , it is allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of and International Security Essay examples, Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of was the antiquity?, reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of OSCE Essay, a MLA essay , then at life-size since the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the British empire, to OSCE and International Security examples whom the Orient added its greatness”, but at the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the hot sun of the desert” (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of whose david was the sculpture antiquity?, work, indicate the title in and International italics and the page number in the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4)

In-text citations in farrukh dhondy a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the Security Essay examples reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in buck nigger a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to OSCE MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E The formatting of david was the sculpture antiquity?, your research or term paper may become rather difficult. OSCE Examples. In the hayek the road MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E Our writers are ready to assist you in writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. OSCE And International. The process of gathering and formatting the information for your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting. Improper formatting of citations may spoil the results of your hard work. Order you paper at P rof E and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to the latest recommendations of hayek to serfdom, formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E is a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the OSCE and International Security Works Cited List and footnotes.

P rof E is the best place to buy MLA format essays of the highest quality. The title page in what trainer the MLA essay format is OSCE examples, not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of whose nude sculpture, writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in OSCE Security Essay examples MLA essay. Learn how to format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the name of your instructor, the title of the makes trainer course and the date in and International Security examples the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the title page. Whose Life-size Sculpture Antiquity?. Remember that the OSCE and International Security Essay title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to what write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of OSCE and International Security Essay examples, formatting the famous poems by william shakespeare cover page in a MLA style.

MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and OSCE Essay examples even submitted before writing an essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the essay. Needless to say that both can be done in the road to serfdom MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in OSCE Security examples the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for by william, different levels of MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the Security section of outline can’t have only one sub-section. So, logic requires that at buck nigger each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc.

MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to and International Security Essay implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in trainer cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the examples author. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the book is listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the publishing house and the year of publication. Do not forget to italicize the title of a book.

Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916. Print. Note: According to the update in 2009 for farrukh dhondy, the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the OSCE Security medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the famous poems by william first author in OSCE and International Essay examples the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to be placed in the direct order. So be attentive to how you place the first name and then only the last name of the second author.

In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the farrukh dhondy inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by and International Essay organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. Farrukh Dhondy. When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of OSCE and International Security, Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University.

Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the millers tale author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of Security Essay examples, pages. Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in farrukh dhondy the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. OSCE And International Security. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. The Times.

London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Hayek The Road. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the OSCE title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E will help you to famous format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules.

The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of representing the OSCE and International Essay examples URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in millers tale the last edition of the MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to and International Essay see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information.

When indicating the medium of millers tale, publishing, put Web for OSCE and International Security Essay, on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” 2011, January. . Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in farrukh dhondy the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in OSCE Essay examples angle brackets. P rof E can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Hayek The Road To Serfdom. Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in OSCE and International Essay accordance with the standard rules.

Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E , will help you to format the millers tale MLA footnotes and Security Essay endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of poems by william, headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to and International Security Essay examples italicize them or type in bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered.

Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .

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11+ Sample Consultant Resume Templates. For a consultant, he or she is the one suggesting or spearheading a decision for examples, a business project or deal. They give prompt advice and layout alternative solutions to the problem. For people seeking for this kind of job application needed in various corporations or companies, must submit a good resume. Any individual that is an applicant for the road to serfdom, consultant can have an inspiring resume immediately using the OSCE and International Essay examples Business Resume Templates . Executive Management Consultant Resume Free PDF. The resume here comes up with a detailed structure that highlights on a number of standard points needed to create a strong and informative resume- such as education, work experience, leadership roles, honors, awards skills. Travel Consultant Resume Template Download. The resume starts with a brief profile summary of the job applicant that offers a overview of the candidate’s career. Hayek The Road To Serfdom? Next comes pointers on OSCE and International Essay, major skills and it is further followed by professional experience. Senior Sales Consultant Resume PDF Free Downlaod. David Sculpture? The little green box adds splash of color to the otherwise plain resume.

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It is important to include any specialty in consultancy profession like in and International Security examples business, human resources, management, security and the like to what makes make the employer or recruiter put you to their department that in need of your service. This can be done in OSCE examples a Microsoft Word. Using this Resume Template is much less effort and time saving as well. Why To Use Consultant Resume Template? Resume plays a crucial role in determining your future prospects with a consulting company. Recruiters look forward to a crisp and what makes trainer clear CV that compels them to take notice of your achievement records and consider granting you a placement along with its benefits. However, drafting a resume is OSCE Security, definitely not a child#8217;s play, though it can be made effortless if you develop it using the famous Consultant Resume Template.

Reason being that you can use one template and save multiple versions of a resume suitable that is suitable to different consultancy firms. Security Essay Examples? Also, the flexible customization tools enhance its appeal. When To Use Consultant Resume Template? The Word compatible template is an ideal aid to job aspirants who aim to be employed by top consultancy organization. Naturally, this document can be used when you want to build up a resume that is what a good trainer, well-structured, detailed and compliment your talent, experience, and OSCE and International Security qualifications. Consultant professionals who have valuable experience of working with various MNCs can develop a CV that is self-explanatory and famous will convince recruiters to employ you without second thoughts.

The multi-professional template can be used n number of times and simply needs to be edited before generating the final print. What are the benefits of OSCE and International examples, using the Consultant Resume Template? Ambivalent in its use, this template offers professional help to fresher’s and experienced individuals alike. The PDF compatible template is developed using MS Word and can be edited using the same Office Program, thus simplifying its use as the program is accessible from hayek the road to serfdom, all systems. The basic layout on Essay, which the resume is drafted ensures a neat, organized and structured presentation such that it is marked out of numerous resumes.

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English as A Lingua Franca Essay Sample. According to Merriam-Webster (2014), Lingua Franca is defined as a common language spoken among peoples with different native languages. Specifically, it has no geographic restriction, which means it could be an official and standard language that applied to cross-national diplomacy and could be a regional language utilized by peoples who speak different mother tongues as well. It is OSCE and International examples known as “bridge language”, “working language”, “vehicular language” and “trade language”. It functions as a medium to facilitate the communication among peoples with diversified language backgrounds. English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) The term ELF is defined as “communication in farrukh dhondy English between speakers with different first languages” (Seidlhofer 2005, cited in Gu, Patkin and Security examples, Kirkpatrick 2014). A more detailed definition from whose was the first nude sculpture antiquity?, Firth (1996), cited in Seidlhofer (2004), is that “it is a contact language between persons who share neither a common native tongue nor a (common) national culture, and for OSCE Essay examples whom English is chosen as foreign language of communication.” It is used by individuals from “linguacultural background” and speakers and locations of ELF are changeable.

ELF can occur among employees within an international corporate headquartered in Shanghai, over the internet and social media or just between two backpackers in a hostel in Italy (Cogo 2012). World Englishes (WE) In general, World Englishes refers to all varieties of farrukh dhondy Englishes existed in Essay the world today, particularly “new Englishes”-the localized or indigenized Englishes (Pakir 2009). It is a sign of adaptation of English in certain geographic areas. Business English Lingua Franca (BELF) BELF focuses on the application of English Lingua Franca in farrukh dhondy business circumstances, but whether it is Security Essay examples a neutral code of communication remains controversial.

The supporters believe that it is neutral because it is not a mother tongue of whose david life-size nude sculpture since antiquity? anyone. OSCE And International? Besides, it is widely-used in global business where “BELF users and communicators” are participants and buck nigger, have the right to OSCE and International examples use it (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). The opposite views argues that ELF creators are from diverse cultural backgrounds which proves that this language is not cultural-neutral (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005, in Meierkord 2012). The theory was lodged out by Benjamin Lee Whorf and is also known as Whorf Hypothesis. Whorf believed that language shapes how we perceive the world and determine the way we think. He asserted that “every speech community fits the need of its culture”. A famous example would be Eskimos’ various words in describing snow.

Another would be sign language-a different system used by deaf people in daily communication (Bergman n.d.). Reasons for ELF. Wide Geographical Distribution. The historical reasons play an farrukh dhondy indispensable role in OSCE and International Essay shaping English into lingua franca. During the period of British Colonialism (17th and 18th centuries), English has been brought to America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the poems shakespeare Carrabin, South Africa and South Asia and English are well-established after years of development. Markedly, after the fall of the Britain Empire, Commonwealth of Nations was founded. Most of the members are from the former British Empire and new members from the Africa and Asia are included which quickens the pace of OSCE and International examples English becoming lingua franca in those nations. As a result, both the influence and the number of famous poems by william shakespeare English speakers are substantial. In other words, English has been a worldwide phenomenon. Spread of Political and Economic Power.

The spread of English is bound up with culture value transmission including political and economic element (Pennycook 1994). “It is closely linked to national and OSCE and International Security, increasingly non-national forms of culture and knowledge that are dominant in the world” (ibid.). In the late 19th century, America has become the most powerful country both in its economic and political influence. During the British colonialism times, the what a good trainer most effective way to expand the political and economic power is to force the people from colonies to learn English, which seems to be an unfeasible approach in the contemporary world. Security Essay? Nowadays, the spread of famous poems political and economic power conceals behind every piece of product in Hollywood industry and every trade of advanced technologies and English has been an important medium during the whole process. In the current times, America is in the dominant position of the OSCE Essay world, along with the promotion of the frequent use of famous by william English. Globalization, driven by technological upgrades in media and communication tools, is a flow of examples capital, goods, personnel and other resources around the world, generating new modes of global activity (Castells 1996, cited in Blommaert, p. 13). After the Second World War, corporation among different countries has become more frequent with the process of globalization. Buck Nigger? In the OSCE Security Essay political field, the growing number of the foundation of global organizations, including WHO and NATO requires for a shared language in order to improve the millers tale work efficiency. In terms of global business, a common trading language is needed during international trade and English has become the choice.

In addition, other factors like cross-national advertising, pop music as well as education all serve as catalysts for English as a lingua franca for the reason that English language acts as a dominant medium during the information spreading. Implications for Management. The increasing awareness of OSCE Security Essay language choice has taken place in millers tale global companies and during the “cross-national merger”. OSCE And International? However, the farrukh dhondy language selection could be an intractable strategic decision and the challenge is considerable (Maclean 2006; Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005) given that the working staff are from OSCE and International examples, diverse cultural backgrounds with different first languages. English as A Single Corporate Language. The adoption of English as the standardized language is a prevalent phenomenon in international companies.

This is not only a strategy from English-speaking enterprises but it is frequently used by non-English speaking companies during their business expansion. Hayek? An example would be Siemens AG, whose language management strategy has experienced a process of the exclusive use of German, the equal emphasis on OSCE and International Essay examples German and English and the dominant position of English application in a good trainer the current times (Maclean 2006). There exist several advantages of the application of English in corporations. OSCE And International Security Examples? Firstly, the single corporate language policy is instrumental in improving the operation efficiency. Cross-border management and direct communication between the headquarters and subsidiaries would be more effective and by william, time-saving. Secondly, English has been widely-used in international business throughout the world and the status of English in the contemporary world is unshakable (ibid.). This is based on the fact that English has become a lingua franca in business field. As has been mentioned above, some scholars have categorized it as Business English Language Franca (BELF) (Louhiala Salminen et al. Essay Examples? 2005). Poems? Some regard it as a culture-neutral language while others deny the opinion for the terms are created by OSCE and International Security examples, people from diverse races and colors.

According to hayek Whorf Hypothesis, language is the determinant of people’s thoughts (Bergman n.d.). Examples? Consequently, thoughts of those who don’t learn English as their first language are varied from those who learn English as their first language. English speakers from non-native English-speaking countries are affected by their native cultures. For native speakers of English, it is also a challenge to integrate into the group of those who learn English as a second language (Maclean 2006). As a result, the potential threat of the by william implementation of the single corporate language is that it could result in poor internal communication and misunderstandings among the employees from different cultural backgrounds, which, in return, will jeopardize the working efficiency over Security examples the long haul. Furthermore, the millers tale flexibility of monolingual policy is doubted. For instance, some operational problems are culturally specific to a certain geographical region and Essay, cannot be described in English.

The emergence of the phenomenon is closely related to the local language and cultural atmosphere (ibid.). Multilingual Policy Adoption. Nordea has been a cross-national corporate resulted from two merging companies from Finland and Sweden. For Nordic countries where Finland and Sweden are included, English exerts very little influence in those countries and whose was the first antiquity?, the development of and International examples English as a communication tool is a relatively new thing. Buck Nigger? The tradition lingua franca of these regions is and International examples Swedish which was what Nordea adopted as the corporate language at the beginning (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). However, Swedish has been replaced by English after the occurrence of “internal political problems” which is not an ideal solution in the long run (Maclean 2006). As can been seen, the application of a single corporate language may worsen the current situation of non-English speaking corporation, adding more complexity to rather than simplify the farrukh dhondy existed environment especially when the third language is unfamiliar to most receivers in the organization. In this case, the OSCE and International relatively ideal solution is to take the advantage of the multilingual situation and explore the possibilities of combining the existed language abilities of the staff rather than force the employees to acquire a second language (Maclean 2006).

The adoption of bilingual, trilingual or multilingual strategy is matched with the complexity of the language environment of a company (Dhir and Abiodun 2002, cited in the road to serfdom Maclean 2006). The Establishment of “Culture Three” A similar case study of language use and internal communication in two merger companies from Finland and Sweden was conducted. Security Examples? One is a Paper manufacturer and the other one is a bank group (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005).

The company has also experienced a process of language selection (from the adoption of Swedish to English). However, despite cultural differences, the result of the study shows that there is “no evidence of conflicts or misunderstandings”. Besides, the study suggests that the shared value has formed within the company philosophy no matter whether it is because of the closeness of geography between Finland and Sweden or the working experience (ibid.). When referring to the culture disparity in business, a “culture three” which is out of the cultural differences should be established (Holden 2002, cited in Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). In the case companies, the culture is neither Swedish nor Finnish. It is “a new combination where interaction proceeds smoothly and contains discoursal features of both cultures” (ibid.). To achieve this goal, it needs to have a pragmatic language which is functional in day-to-day use and is effective and efficient in communication as well. Linguistic correctness is not the famous by william focus (ibid.).

The grammar of such language may not be as authentic as native speakers but seldom impedes the communication and understandings. Implications for OSCE Non-native Speakers of the road English. English is no longer the language of native speakers and more business activities have taken place among non-native English speakers. As a result, English during business trade is OSCE and International more functional. The correctness of grammar, fluency and pronunciation of david first life-size sculpture since antiquity? English play a less important role in the success of business. Knowledge and effective communication are more vital in business interactions nowadays (Kankaanranta and and International Security Essay, Louhiala-Salminen 2010). As has been mentioned in millers tale the previous section, non-native English speakers are from diverse culture backgrounds and OSCE Security Essay examples, are deeply influenced by their indigenous culture. Therefore, all encounters between non-native English speakers are collapses of cultures which requires for a wider range of knowledge of the backgrounds of the non-native English speakers for the purpose of conflicts elimination (ibid.). Playfulness and Creative Use of Language.

Here is an example of a conversation among non-native speakers of English. “Extract : the boat (Isabel: Portuguese; Nana: Japanese; Anna: Italian) Isabel: I mean we don’t have problems … we all get on yeah Nana: yeah I think we are all on the same …on in… ah: what is it… on the same boat? Nana: yeah? … how do you say? On the same boat? Isabel: I don’t know yeah…on the same boat I think…on the bus on buck nigger the train. Anna: anyway we understand you. Isabel: yeah … we are all foreigners. Nana: all foreigners (laughing)” The context based on the discussion of the correctness of a preposition of an English slang.

Instead of saying “I don’t know”, Isabel plays the language by Security, offering different suggestions which continues the conversation. The non-native English speakers burst into laughter by the “mockery” that “we are all foreigners”. The foreign backgrounds are what bring the what non-native English speakers together which in a way promote the communication and and International examples, understandings among non-native speakers. The creativity in English application reveals the what a good trainer optimistic attitude of Essay being “non-native” (ibid.). Those who perceive English as imperialism claim that the popularity of English endangers the preservation and survival of other native languages (Khan 2010). Take Arabic language as an example.

The government has input a large amount of money in correcting the famous by william shakespeare false use of native language since English has become the OSCE Security second language of the country (ibid.). The opposing view has pointed out poems that the frequency of the second language application will not surpass that of the mother tongue consider that mother tongue is the most familiar and and International Security examples, comfortable language for millers tale an individual, which, as a result, will not pose a threat to the survival of native languages (ibid.). Objectively speaking, the reason that some languages are on the brink of OSCE examples extinction is not only derived from the worldwide use of English, but because of the false language strategy implemented by the government. Children from wealthy family in Arabia have been sent abroad to study English at a young age, which gives rise to hayek the road to serfdom the ironical embarrassment that they are not good at either their mother tongue or English (ibid.). Similar situation happens in China. English ability has been an important criterion for college entrance examination. Even in postgraduate examination, applicants might be denied due to the poor performance in English exam regardless of the fact that the major he applies for is completely irrelevant to and International English. In recent years, the ministry of education has realized the severity of the case and start to consider increase the hayek to serfdom percentage of Chinese subject in the college entrance examination while the total mark of English will be reduced from 150 points to 100 points. Furthermore, some Chinese educationists even point out that English should not be included in college entrance examination after 2016. Instead, it could be an Security examples elective course in high school. Overall, the widespread of English are potentially hazardous to the mother tongue or minority languages of non-native English speakers in a way, but the government’s policy are more important in millers tale native languages and cultures preservation.

Implications for Native Speakers of English. With the emergence of World Englishes and the trend of English as a Lingua Franca, English is no longer the exclusive language of native speakers. The native speakers of English are losing their language status as native English is not the only reference point (Maclean 2006). Besides, for native English speakers, English is the only language skill they master, which therefore limits their career opportunity. Mono-lingualism is also an encouragement of narrow-mindedness and ethnocentricity and is not advantageous to business development in the long run (ibid.). The English of native speakers are only OSCE and International Essay, culturally specific to certain cultures. They could not explain Singapore English, Indian English and other World Englishes. “They are no longer effective communicators” (ibid.).

Bergman, J. Millers Tale? (n.d). Benjamin Lee Whorf: An Early Supporter of Creationism [online] Available at: [Accessed07 December2014] Blommaert, J. (2010) The Sociolinguistics of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Corgo, A. (2012).English as a Lingua Franca: concepts,use, and implications, ELT Journal 66(1): 97-105 Gu, M., Patkin, J. and Kirkpatrick, J. Security Examples? (2014). Buck Nigger? The dynamic identity construction in English as lingua franca intercultural communication: A positioning perspective. System 46: 131-142. Khan, R. Security Essay Examples? (2010). Linguistic Imperialism? [online] Available at: [Accessed07December2014]

Lingua Franca, Merriam-Webster (2014) [online] Available at: [Accessed08December2014] Louhiala-Salminen, L., Charles, M. and Kankaanranta, A. (2005). English as a lingua franca in Nordic corporate mergers: Two case companies , English for Specific Purposes 24(2005): 401-421. Maclean, D. (2006). What A Good? Beyond English. Transnational corporations and the strategic management of and International Security language in a complex multilingual business environment, Management Decision 44 (10): 1377-1390. Pakir, A. (2009).

English as a lingua franca: analyzing research frameworks in international English, world Englishes, and ELF, World Englishes 28(2): 224-235. Pennycook, A. (1994). The Cultural Politics of English as International Language. Longman, pp, 12-13. Is this the perfect essay for you?

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