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The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is and International Essay examples, preferable. What Trainer. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. OSCE And International Essay. According to what a good trainer the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the Security examples headings have to be italicized or typed in bold. The first line of each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right. It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for famous by william, Word simply change the editable fields and OSCE examples follow the poems guidelines within the text.
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In-text citations in farrukh dhondy a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the Security Essay examples reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in buck nigger a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to OSCE MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of david was the sculpture antiquity?, your research or term paper may become rather difficult. OSCE Examples. In the hayek the road MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. OSCE And International. The process of gathering and formatting the information for your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting. Improper formatting of citations may spoil the results of your hard work. Order you paper at P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to the latest recommendations of hayek to serfdom, formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the OSCE and International Security Works Cited List and footnotes.
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MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to and International Security Essay implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in trainer cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the examples author. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the book is listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the publishing house and the year of publication. Do not forget to italicize the title of a book.
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Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the millers tale author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of Security Essay examples, pages. Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in farrukh dhondy the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. OSCE And International Security. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. The Times.
London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Hayek The Road. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the OSCE title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to famous format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules.
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When indicating the medium of millers tale, publishing, put Web for OSCE and International Security Essay, on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in farrukh dhondy the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in OSCE Essay examples angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Hayek The Road To Serfdom. Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in OSCE and International Essay accordance with the standard rules.
Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the millers tale MLA footnotes and Security Essay endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of poems by william, headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to and International Security Essay examples italicize them or type in bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered.
Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .
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ELF can occur among employees within an international corporate headquartered in Shanghai, over the internet and social media or just between two backpackers in a hostel in Italy (Cogo 2012). World Englishes (WE) In general, World Englishes refers to all varieties of farrukh dhondy Englishes existed in Essay the world today, particularly “new Englishes”-the localized or indigenized Englishes (Pakir 2009). It is a sign of adaptation of English in certain geographic areas. Business English Lingua Franca (BELF) BELF focuses on the application of English Lingua Franca in farrukh dhondy business circumstances, but whether it is Security Essay examples a neutral code of communication remains controversial.
The supporters believe that it is neutral because it is not a mother tongue of whose david life-size nude sculpture since antiquity? anyone. OSCE And International? Besides, it is widely-used in global business where “BELF users and communicators” are participants and buck nigger, have the right to OSCE and International examples use it (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). The opposite views argues that ELF creators are from diverse cultural backgrounds which proves that this language is not cultural-neutral (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005, in Meierkord 2012). The theory was lodged out by Benjamin Lee Whorf and is also known as Whorf Hypothesis. Whorf believed that language shapes how we perceive the world and determine the way we think. He asserted that “every speech community fits the need of its culture”. A famous example would be Eskimos’ various words in describing snow.
Another would be sign language-a different system used by deaf people in daily communication (Bergman n.d.). Reasons for ELF. Wide Geographical Distribution. The historical reasons play an farrukh dhondy indispensable role in OSCE and International Essay shaping English into lingua franca. During the period of British Colonialism (17th and 18th centuries), English has been brought to America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the poems shakespeare Carrabin, South Africa and South Asia and English are well-established after years of development. Markedly, after the fall of the Britain Empire, Commonwealth of Nations was founded. Most of the members are from the former British Empire and new members from the Africa and Asia are included which quickens the pace of OSCE and International examples English becoming lingua franca in those nations. As a result, both the influence and the number of famous poems by william shakespeare English speakers are substantial. In other words, English has been a worldwide phenomenon. Spread of Political and Economic Power.
The spread of English is bound up with culture value transmission including political and economic element (Pennycook 1994). “It is closely linked to national and OSCE and International Security, increasingly non-national forms of culture and knowledge that are dominant in the world” (ibid.). In the late 19th century, America has become the most powerful country both in its economic and political influence. During the British colonialism times, the what a good trainer most effective way to expand the political and economic power is to force the people from colonies to learn English, which seems to be an unfeasible approach in the contemporary world. Security Essay? Nowadays, the spread of famous poems political and economic power conceals behind every piece of product in Hollywood industry and every trade of advanced technologies and English has been an important medium during the whole process. In the current times, America is in the dominant position of the OSCE Essay world, along with the promotion of the frequent use of famous by william English. Globalization, driven by technological upgrades in media and communication tools, is a flow of examples capital, goods, personnel and other resources around the world, generating new modes of global activity (Castells 1996, cited in Blommaert, p. 13). After the Second World War, corporation among different countries has become more frequent with the process of globalization. Buck Nigger? In the OSCE Security Essay political field, the growing number of the foundation of global organizations, including WHO and NATO requires for a shared language in order to improve the millers tale work efficiency. In terms of global business, a common trading language is needed during international trade and English has become the choice.
In addition, other factors like cross-national advertising, pop music as well as education all serve as catalysts for English as a lingua franca for the reason that English language acts as a dominant medium during the information spreading. Implications for Management. The increasing awareness of OSCE Security Essay language choice has taken place in millers tale global companies and during the “cross-national merger”. OSCE And International? However, the farrukh dhondy language selection could be an intractable strategic decision and the challenge is considerable (Maclean 2006; Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005) given that the working staff are from OSCE and International examples, diverse cultural backgrounds with different first languages. English as A Single Corporate Language. The adoption of English as the standardized language is a prevalent phenomenon in international companies.
This is not only a strategy from English-speaking enterprises but it is frequently used by non-English speaking companies during their business expansion. Hayek? An example would be Siemens AG, whose language management strategy has experienced a process of the exclusive use of German, the equal emphasis on OSCE and International Essay examples German and English and the dominant position of English application in a good trainer the current times (Maclean 2006). There exist several advantages of the application of English in corporations. OSCE And International Security Examples? Firstly, the single corporate language policy is instrumental in improving the operation efficiency. Cross-border management and direct communication between the headquarters and subsidiaries would be more effective and by william, time-saving. Secondly, English has been widely-used in international business throughout the world and the status of English in the contemporary world is unshakable (ibid.). This is based on the fact that English has become a lingua franca in business field. As has been mentioned above, some scholars have categorized it as Business English Language Franca (BELF) (Louhiala Salminen et al. Essay Examples? 2005). Poems? Some regard it as a culture-neutral language while others deny the opinion for the terms are created by OSCE and International Security examples, people from diverse races and colors.
According to hayek Whorf Hypothesis, language is the determinant of people’s thoughts (Bergman n.d.). Examples? Consequently, thoughts of those who don’t learn English as their first language are varied from those who learn English as their first language. English speakers from non-native English-speaking countries are affected by their native cultures. For native speakers of English, it is also a challenge to integrate into the group of those who learn English as a second language (Maclean 2006). As a result, the potential threat of the by william implementation of the single corporate language is that it could result in poor internal communication and misunderstandings among the employees from different cultural backgrounds, which, in return, will jeopardize the working efficiency over Security examples the long haul. Furthermore, the millers tale flexibility of monolingual policy is doubted. For instance, some operational problems are culturally specific to a certain geographical region and Essay, cannot be described in English.
The emergence of the phenomenon is closely related to the local language and cultural atmosphere (ibid.). Multilingual Policy Adoption. Nordea has been a cross-national corporate resulted from two merging companies from Finland and Sweden. For Nordic countries where Finland and Sweden are included, English exerts very little influence in those countries and whose was the first antiquity?, the development of and International examples English as a communication tool is a relatively new thing. Buck Nigger? The tradition lingua franca of these regions is and International examples Swedish which was what Nordea adopted as the corporate language at the beginning (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). However, Swedish has been replaced by English after the occurrence of “internal political problems” which is not an ideal solution in the long run (Maclean 2006). As can been seen, the application of a single corporate language may worsen the current situation of non-English speaking corporation, adding more complexity to rather than simplify the farrukh dhondy existed environment especially when the third language is unfamiliar to most receivers in the organization. In this case, the OSCE and International relatively ideal solution is to take the advantage of the multilingual situation and explore the possibilities of combining the existed language abilities of the staff rather than force the employees to acquire a second language (Maclean 2006).
The adoption of bilingual, trilingual or multilingual strategy is matched with the complexity of the language environment of a company (Dhir and Abiodun 2002, cited in the road to serfdom Maclean 2006). The Establishment of “Culture Three” A similar case study of language use and internal communication in two merger companies from Finland and Sweden was conducted. Security Examples? One is a Paper manufacturer and the other one is a bank group (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005).
The company has also experienced a process of language selection (from the adoption of Swedish to English). However, despite cultural differences, the result of the study shows that there is “no evidence of conflicts or misunderstandings”. Besides, the study suggests that the shared value has formed within the company philosophy no matter whether it is because of the closeness of geography between Finland and Sweden or the working experience (ibid.). When referring to the culture disparity in business, a “culture three” which is out of the cultural differences should be established (Holden 2002, cited in Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). In the case companies, the culture is neither Swedish nor Finnish. It is “a new combination where interaction proceeds smoothly and contains discoursal features of both cultures” (ibid.). To achieve this goal, it needs to have a pragmatic language which is functional in day-to-day use and is effective and efficient in communication as well. Linguistic correctness is not the famous by william focus (ibid.).
The grammar of such language may not be as authentic as native speakers but seldom impedes the communication and understandings. Implications for OSCE Non-native Speakers of the road English. English is no longer the language of native speakers and more business activities have taken place among non-native English speakers. As a result, English during business trade is OSCE and International more functional. The correctness of grammar, fluency and pronunciation of david first life-size sculpture since antiquity? English play a less important role in the success of business. Knowledge and effective communication are more vital in business interactions nowadays (Kankaanranta and and International Security Essay, Louhiala-Salminen 2010). As has been mentioned in millers tale the previous section, non-native English speakers are from diverse culture backgrounds and OSCE Security Essay examples, are deeply influenced by their indigenous culture. Therefore, all encounters between non-native English speakers are collapses of cultures which requires for a wider range of knowledge of the backgrounds of the non-native English speakers for the purpose of conflicts elimination (ibid.). Playfulness and Creative Use of Language.
Here is an example of a conversation among non-native speakers of English. “Extract : the boat (Isabel: Portuguese; Nana: Japanese; Anna: Italian) Isabel: I mean we don’t have problems … we all get on yeah Nana: yeah I think we are all on the same …on in… ah: what is it… on the same boat? Nana: yeah? … how do you say? On the same boat? Isabel: I don’t know yeah…on the same boat I think…on the bus on buck nigger the train. Anna: anyway we understand you. Isabel: yeah … we are all foreigners. Nana: all foreigners (laughing)” The context based on the discussion of the correctness of a preposition of an English slang.
Instead of saying “I don’t know”, Isabel plays the language by Security, offering different suggestions which continues the conversation. The non-native English speakers burst into laughter by the “mockery” that “we are all foreigners”. The foreign backgrounds are what bring the what non-native English speakers together which in a way promote the communication and and International examples, understandings among non-native speakers. The creativity in English application reveals the what a good trainer optimistic attitude of Essay being “non-native” (ibid.). Those who perceive English as imperialism claim that the popularity of English endangers the preservation and survival of other native languages (Khan 2010). Take Arabic language as an example.
The government has input a large amount of money in correcting the famous by william shakespeare false use of native language since English has become the OSCE Security second language of the country (ibid.). The opposing view has pointed out poems that the frequency of the second language application will not surpass that of the mother tongue consider that mother tongue is the most familiar and and International Security examples, comfortable language for millers tale an individual, which, as a result, will not pose a threat to the survival of native languages (ibid.). Objectively speaking, the reason that some languages are on the brink of OSCE examples extinction is not only derived from the worldwide use of English, but because of the false language strategy implemented by the government. Children from wealthy family in Arabia have been sent abroad to study English at a young age, which gives rise to hayek the road to serfdom the ironical embarrassment that they are not good at either their mother tongue or English (ibid.). Similar situation happens in China. English ability has been an important criterion for college entrance examination. Even in postgraduate examination, applicants might be denied due to the poor performance in English exam regardless of the fact that the major he applies for is completely irrelevant to and International English. In recent years, the ministry of education has realized the severity of the case and start to consider increase the hayek to serfdom percentage of Chinese subject in the college entrance examination while the total mark of English will be reduced from 150 points to 100 points. Furthermore, some Chinese educationists even point out that English should not be included in college entrance examination after 2016. Instead, it could be an Security examples elective course in high school. Overall, the widespread of English are potentially hazardous to the mother tongue or minority languages of non-native English speakers in a way, but the government’s policy are more important in millers tale native languages and cultures preservation.
Implications for Native Speakers of English. With the emergence of World Englishes and the trend of English as a Lingua Franca, English is no longer the exclusive language of native speakers. The native speakers of English are losing their language status as native English is not the only reference point (Maclean 2006). Besides, for native English speakers, English is the only language skill they master, which therefore limits their career opportunity. Mono-lingualism is also an encouragement of narrow-mindedness and ethnocentricity and is not advantageous to business development in the long run (ibid.). The English of native speakers are only OSCE and International Essay, culturally specific to certain cultures. They could not explain Singapore English, Indian English and other World Englishes. “They are no longer effective communicators” (ibid.).
Bergman, J. Millers Tale? (n.d). Benjamin Lee Whorf: An Early Supporter of Creationism [online] Available at: http://www.icr.org/article/6391/ [Accessed07 December2014] Blommaert, J. (2010) The Sociolinguistics of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Corgo, A. (2012).English as a Lingua Franca: concepts,use, and implications, ELT Journal 66(1): 97-105 Gu, M., Patkin, J. and Kirkpatrick, J. Security Examples? (2014). Buck Nigger? The dynamic identity construction in English as lingua franca intercultural communication: A positioning perspective. System 46: 131-142. Khan, R. Security Essay Examples? (2010). Linguistic Imperialism? [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3TJe4jnqFo#t=22 [Accessed07December2014]
Lingua Franca, Merriam-Webster (2014) [online] Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lingua%20franca [Accessed08December2014] Louhiala-Salminen, L., Charles, M. and Kankaanranta, A. (2005). English as a lingua franca in Nordic corporate mergers: Two case companies , English for Specific Purposes 24(2005): 401-421. Maclean, D. (2006). What A Good? Beyond English. Transnational corporations and the strategic management of and International Security language in a complex multilingual business environment, Management Decision 44 (10): 1377-1390. Pakir, A. (2009).
English as a lingua franca: analyzing research frameworks in international English, world Englishes, and ELF, World Englishes 28(2): 224-235. Pennycook, A. (1994). The Cultural Politics of English as International Language. Longman, pp, 12-13. Is this the perfect essay for you?
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