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KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. The Computer as a Communication Device. This landmark 1968 essay foresaw many future computer applications and advances in communication technology, such as distributed information resources and high culture vs popular culture online interactive communities that are commonplace today as Internet chat rooms and peer-to-peer applications. Originally published in Science and Technology , April 1968 . Published on poetic examples, KurzweilAI.net November 9, 2001. In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face. That is a rather startling thing to vs popular culture, say, but it is egyptian makeup our conclusion.

As if in confirmation of it, we participated a few weeks ago in culture culture a technical meeting held through a computer. In two days, the group accomplished with the aid of a computer what normally might have taken a week. We shall talk more about the mechanics of the meeting later; it is sufficient to note here that we were all in Outside the Box the same room. But for all the communicating we did directly across that room, we could have been thousands of miles apart and high culture communicated just as effectively-as people-over the distance. Our emphasis on people is deliberate. Story In The? A communications engineer thinks of vs popular culture, communicating as transferring information from the Box, one point to another in codes and signals. But to communicate is more than to send and to vs popular culture, receive. Do two tape recorders communicate when they play to each other and record from each other? Not really-not in our sense. We believe that communicators have to do something nontrivial with the Essay, information they send and high culture culture receive. Examples? And we believe that we are entering a technological age in which we will be able to interact with the richness of living information-not merely in the passive way that we have become accustomed to culture vs popular culture, using books and libraries, but as active participants in an ongoing process, bringing something to it through our interaction with it, and not simply receiving something from it by our connection to it.

To the people who telephone an the road, airline flight operations information service, the tape recorder that answers seems more than a passive depository. It is an often-updated model of culture vs popular culture, a changing situation-a synthesis of information collected, analyzed, evaluated, and assembled to represent a situation or process in an organized way. Still there is not much direct interaction with the airline information service; the tape recording is not changed by the customer’s call. We want to emphasize something beyond its one-way transfer: the increasing significance of the jointly constructive, the mutually reinforcing aspect of communication-the part that transcends “now we both know a fact that only one of us knew before.” When minds interact, new ideas emerge. We want to talk about the creative aspect of communication. Creative, interactive communication requires a plastic or moldable medium that can be modeled, a dynamic medium in which premises will flow into consequences, and Analysis of a in the above all a common medium that can be contributed to and experimented with by all.

Such a medium is at culture hand–the programmed digital computer. Outside? Its presence can change the nature and value of communication even more profoundly than did the printing press and the picture tube, for, as we shall show, a well-programmed computer can provide direct access both to informational resources and to the processes for high culture culture, making use of the resources. Communication: a comparison of models. To understand how and why the egyptian makeup, computer can have such an effect on communication, we must examine the idea of modeling-in a computer and culture culture with the egyptian makeup, aid of a computer. For modeling, we believe, is basic and central to communication. Any communication between people about the same thing is high culture a common revelatory experience about Outside the Box, informational models of that thing. Each model is a conceptual structure of vs popular, abstractions formulated initially in the mind of poetic examples, one of the persons who would communicate, and if the culture, concepts in the mind of one would-be communicator are very different from those in the mind of another, there is no common model and no communication. By far the most numerous, most sophisticated, and most important models arc those that reside in men’s minds, In richness, plasticity, facility, and economy, the mental model has no peer, but, in other respects, it has shortcomings.

It will not stand still for careful study. To Serfdom? It cannot be made to culture vs popular, repeat a run. Egyptian Makeup? No one knows just how it works. It serves its owner’s hopes more faithfully than it serves reason. Vs Popular Culture? It has access only to the information stored in one man’s head. It can be observed and manipulated only by one person.

Society rightly distrusts the modeling done by a single mind. Analysis In The? Society demands consensus, agreement, at least majority. Fundamentally, this amounts to the requirement that individual models be compared and brought into some degree of accord. The requirement is for high vs popular culture, communication, which we now define concisely as “cooperative modeling”–cooperation in the construction, maintenance, and use of a model. How can we be sure that we are modeling cooperatively, that we are communicating, unless we can compare models? When people communicate face to face, they externalize their models so they can be sure they are talking about the same thing. Even such a simple externalized model as a flow diagram or an outline–because it can be seen by all the communicators–serves as a focus for discussion. It changes the Analysis of a, nature of communication: When communicators have no such common framework, they merely make speeches at each other; but when they have a manipulable model before them, they utter a few words, point, sketch, nod, or object. The dynamics of such communication are so model-centered as to suggest an important conclusion: Perhaps the reason present-day two-way telecommunication falls so far short of face-to-face communication is simply that it fails to provide facilities for vs popular culture, externalizing models. Is it really seeing the expression in the other’s eye that makes the face-to-face conference so much more productive than the telephone conference call, or is it being able to create and modify external models?

In a technical project meeting, one can see going on, in fairly clear relief, the modeling process that we contend constitutes communication. Nearly every reader can recall a meeting held during the formulative phase of Thinking Outside Essay, a project. Each member of the project brings to such a meeting a somewhat different mental model of the culture, common undertaking-its purposes, its goals, its plans, its progress, and its status. Each of these models interrelates the past, present, and future states of affairs of (1) himself, (2) the group he represents; (3) his boss; (4) the project. Many of the primary data the participants bring to the meeting are in undigested and uncorrelated form. To each participant, his own collections of data are interesting and important in poetic techniques and of themselves. High Culture Vs Popular? And they are more than files of techniques, facts and recurring reports. They are strongly influenced by insight, subjective feelings, and educated guesses. Thus, each individual’s data are reflected in his mental model.

Getting his colleagues to incorporate his data into their models is the essence of the communications task. Suppose you could see the models in the minds of two would-be communicators at this meeting. You could tell, by observing their models, whether or not communication was taking place. If, at the outset, their two models were similar in structure but different simply in the values of certain parameters, then communication would cause convergence toward a common pattern. That is the high vs popular, easiest and most frequent kind of communication. If the two mental models were structurally dissimilar, then the achievement of communication would be signaled by structural changes in one of the egyptian makeup, models or in both of them. We might conclude that one of the communicating parties was having insights or trying out new hypotheses in order to high vs popular, begin to understand the other-or that both were restructuring their mental models to achieve commonality. The meeting of many interacting minds is a more complicated process.

Suggestions and recommendations may be elicited from all sides. Introjection Psychology? The interplay may produce, not just a solution to a problem, but a new set of rules for solving problems. That, of course, is the high vs popular, essence of creative interaction. The process of maintaining a current model has within it a set of changing or changeable rules for the processing and disposition of information. The project meeting we have just described is representative of a broad class of of a, human endeavor which may be described as creative informational activity. Let us differentiate this from another class which we will call informational housekeeping. The latter is what computers today are used for culture, in the main; they process payroll checks, keep track of bank balances, calculate orbits of egyptian makeup, space vehicles, control repetitive machine processes, and high vs popular maintain varieties of debit and Thinking Outside credit lists. Mostly they have not been used to make coherent pictures of not well understood situations. We referred earlier to a meeting in which the participants interacted with each other through a computer.

That meeting was organized by Doug Engelbart of Stanford Research Institute and was actually a progress-review conference for a specific project. The subject under discussion was rich in detail and broad enough in scope that no one of the attendees, not even the host, could know all the information pertaining to this particular project. Tables were arranged to form a square work area with five on a side. The center of the area contained six television monitors which displayed the alphanumeric output of a computer located elsewhere in culture vs popular the building but remotely controlled from a keyboard and egyptian makeup a set of electronic pointer controllers called “mice.” Any participant in the meeting could move a near-by mouse, and thus control the movements of a tracking pointer on the TV screen for all other participants to see. Each person working on culture vs popular, the project had prepared a topical outline of his particular presentation for Outside, the meeting, and his outline appeared on the screens as he talked–providing a broad view of his own model.

Many of the outline statements contained the names of particular reference files which the speaker could recall from the computer to appear in detail on vs popular, the screens, for, from the beginning of the project, its participants had put their work into the computer system’s files. So the Analysis of a, meeting began much like any other meeting in the sense that there was an overall list of culture, agenda and that each speaker had brought with him (figuratively in his briefcase but really within the computer) the material he would be talking about. The computer system was a significant aid in exploring the egyptian makeup, depth and breadth of the material. More detailed information could be displayed when facts had to be pinpointed; more global information could be displayed to answer questions of relevance and interrelationship. A future version of this system will make it possible for each participant, on his own TV screen, to thumb through the speaker’s files as the speaker talks–and thus check out culture vs popular culture, incidental questions without interrupting the presentation for substantiation. Obviously, collections of primary data can get too large to digest. There comes a time when the complexity of a communications process exceeds the available resources and the capability to cope with it; and at that point one has to simplify and draw conclusions. It is frightening to realize how early and drastically one does simp1ify, how prematurely one does conclude, even when the stakes are high and when the poetic, transmission facilities and information resources are extraordinary. Deep modeling to high culture vs popular culture, communicate–to understand–requires a huge investment.

Perhaps even governments cannot afford it yet. But someday governments may not be able not to afford it. For, while we have been talking about the egyptian makeup, communicant ion process as a cooperative modeling effort in a mutual environment, there is also an aspect of communication with or about an uncooperative opponent. As nearly as we can judge from high culture culture, reports of recent international crises, out of the churchill, hundreds of high vs popular, alternatives that confronted the decision makers at each decision point or ply in the “game,” on the average only a few, and never more than a few dozen could be considered, and only a few branches of the game could be explored deeper than two or three such plies before action had to be taken. Each side was busy trying to model what the other side might be up to–but modeling takes time, and the pressure of events forces simplification even when it is dangerous. Whether we attempt to communicate across a division of interests, or whether we engage in a cooperative effort, it is clear that we need to be able to model faster and to greater depth. The importance of improving decision-making processes–not only in government, but throughout business and hayek the professions–is so great as to warrant every effort. As we see it, group decision-making is simply the culture vs popular, active, executive, effect-producing aspect of the kind of communication we are discussing. We have commented that one must oversimplify.

We have tried to say why one must oversimplify. But we should not oversimplify the main point of this article. We can say with genuine and strong conviction that a particular form of Outside the Box Essay, digital computer organization, with its programs and its data, constitutes the dynamic, moldable medium that can revolutionize the art of modeling and that in high culture so doing can improve the churchill fight, effectiveness of culture, communication among people so much as perhaps to revolutionize that also. But we must associate with that statement at once the qualification that the computer alone can make no contribution that will help us, and that the computer with the programs and the data that it has today can do little more than suggest a direction and provide a few germinal examples. Emphatically we do not say: “Buy a computer and your communication problems will be solved.”

What we do say is that we, together with many colleagues who have had the experience of working on-line and poetic techniques interactively with computers, have already sensed more responsiveness and facilitation and “power” than we had hoped for, considering the inappropriateness of present machines and the primitiveness of high culture, their software. Many of us are therefore confident (some of us to psychology definition, the point of religious zeal) that truly significant achievements, which will markedly improve our effectiveness in communication, now are on the horizon. Many communications engineers, too, are presently excited about the application of digital computers to communication. However, the function they want computers to vs popular culture, implement is the switching function. Computers will either switch the churchill on the beaches, communication lines, connecting them together in required configurations, or switch (the technical term is “store and culture vs popular culture forward”) messages. The switching function is important but it is not the one we have in mind when we say that the computer can revolutionize communication. We are stressing the modeling function, not the fight, switching function.

Until now, the vs popular, communications engineer has not felt it within his province to facilitate the modeling function, to make an interactive, cooperative modeling facility. Information transmission and information processing have always been carried out separately and have become separately institutionalized. There are strong intellectual and Outside the Box social benefits to be realized by the melding of these two technologies. There are also, however, powerful legal and administrative obstacles in the way of any such melding. Distributed intellectual resources. We have seen the culture, beginnings of communication through a computer–communication among people at egyptian makeup consoles located in the same room or on the same university campus or even at distantly separated laboratories of the same research and development organization.

This kind of communication–through a single multiaccess computer with the aid of telephone lines–is beginning to vs popular, foster cooperation and promote coherence more effectively than do present arrangements for sharing computer programs by exchanging magnetic tapes by of a Story in the, messenger or mail. Computer programs are very important because they transcend mere “data”–they include procedures and processes for structuring and manipulating data. These are the main resources we can now concentrate and culture vs popular culture share with the aid of the tools and techniques of computers and communication, but they are only a part of the whole that we can learn to concentrate and share. The whole includes raw data, digested data, data about the location of churchill, data–and documents–and most especially models. To appreciate the import ante the new computer-aided communication can have, one must consider the dynamics of “critical mass,” as it applies to cooperation in creative endeavor. Take any problem worthy of the name, and you find only a few people who can contribute effectively to its solution. Those people must be brought into culture close intellectual partnership so that their ideas can come into contact with one another. But bring these people together physically in one place to form a team, and you have trouble, for the most creative people are often not the best team players, and there are not enough top positions in a single organization to keep them all happy. Let them go their separate ways, and each creates his own empire, large or small, and devotes more time to the role of emperor than to the role of problem solver.

The principals still get together at meetings. Of A Story In The Newspaper? They still visit one another. But the time scale of their communication stretches out, and the correlations among mental models degenerate between meetings so that it may take a year to do a week’s communicating. There has to be some way of facilitating communicant ion among people wit bout bringing them together in one place. A single multiaccess computer would fill the bill if expense were no object, but there is no way, with a single computer and culture vs popular culture individual communication lines to egyptian makeup, several geographically separated consoles, to avoid paying an unwarrantedly large bill for transmission.

Part of the economic difficulty lies in our present communications system. When a computer is used interactively from a typewriter console, the signals transmitted between the console and the computer are intermittent and not very frequent. They do not require continuous access to a telephone channel; a good part of the time they do not even require the full information rate of such a channel. The difficulty is that the culture, common carriers do not provide the Thinking the Box Essay, kind of service one would like to have–a service that would let one have ad lib access to a channel for short intervals and not be charged when one is high culture vs popular not using the channel. It seems likely that a store-and-forward (i.e., store-for-just-a-moment-and-forward-right-away) message service would be best for this purpose, whereas the common carriers offer, instead, service that sets up a channel for one’s individual use for a period not shorter than one minute. The problem is further complicated because interaction with a computer via a fast and flexible graphic display, which is for of a in the Newspaper, most purposes far superior to interaction through a slow-printing typewriter, requires markedly higher information rates. Culture? Not necessarily more information, but the same amount in faster bursts–more difficult to handle efficiently with the conventional common-carrier facilities. It is perhaps not surprising that there are incompatibilities between the requirements of computer systems and psychology the services supplied by the common carriers, for high, most of the common-carrier services were developed in support of voice rather than digital communication. Nevertheless, the incompatibilities are frustrating. It appears that the best and quickest way to overcome them-and to move forward the development of interactive communities of geographically separated people-is to set up an experimental network of multiaccess computers.

Computers would concentrate and interleave the concurrent, intermittent messages of many users and their programs so as to utilize wide-band transmission channels continuously and the Box Essay efficiently, with marked reduction in overall cost. Computer and information networks. The concept of computers connected to computers is not new. Computer manufacturers have successfully installed and high vs popular culture maintained interconnected computers for some years now. But the computers in Thinking the Box Essay most instances are from families of machines compatible in both software and hardware, and they are in the same location. More important, the interconnected computers are not interactive, general-purpose, multiaccess machines of the culture vs popular, type described by David [1] and Licklider [2]. Thinking Outside Essay? Although more interactive multi-access computer systems are being delivered now, and although more groups plan to be using these systems within the next year, there are at present perhaps only high culture, as few as half a dozen interactive multiaccess computer communities . These communities are socio-technical pioneers, in winston churchill fight beaches several ways out ahead of the culture, rest of the computer world: What makes them so? First, some of the road, their members are computer scientists and engineers who understand the concept of vs popular, man-computer interaction and the technology of interactive multiaccess systems. Second, others of their members are creative people in other fields and disciplines who recognize the usefulness and Thinking the Box Essay who sense the impact of interactive multiaccess computing upon their work. Third, the high vs popular culture, communities have large multiaccess computers and have learned to use them. Introjection Psychology? And, fourth, their efforts are regenerative.

In the culture culture, half-dozen communities, the computer systems research and poetic examples development and the development of vs popular, substantive applications mutually support each other. They are producing large and on the growing resources of programs, data, and know-how. But we have seen only the beginning. High Culture Culture? There is poetic techniques much more programming and data collect ion–and much more learning how to cooperate–to be done before the full potential of the concept can be realized. Obviously, multiaccess systems must be developed interactively. The systems being built must remain flexible and open-ended throughout the process of development, which is evolutionary. Such systems cannot be developed in small ways on small machines. They require large, multiaccess computers, which are necessarily complex. Indeed, the sonic barrier in the development of such systems is complexity.

These new computer systems we are describing differ from other computer systems advertised with the same labels: interactive, time-sharing, multiaccess. They differ by having a greater degree of open-endedness, by rendering more services, and above all by culture vs popular, providing facilities that foster a working sense of community among their users. The commercially available time-sharing services do not yet offer the power and Story Newspaper flexibility of soft ware resources–the “general purposeness”–of the interactive multiaccess systems of the System Development Corporation in Santa Monica, the University of California at Berkeley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology in high culture Cambridge and Lexington, Mass.–which have been collectively serving about a thousand people for several years. The thousand people include many of the leaders of the ongoing revolution in the computer world. For over a year they have been preparing for the transition to a radically new organization of hardware and software, designed to support many more simultaneous users than the Analysis of a Story in the, current systems, and to offer them–through new languages, new file-handling systems, and new graphic displays–the fast, smooth interaction required for truly effective man-computer partnership. Experience has shown the importance of making the response time short and the conversation free and easy. We think those attributes will be almost as important for culture vs popular, a network of Analysis Story Newspaper, computers as for a single computer.

Today the on-line communities are separated from one another functionally as well as geographically. Each member can look only to the processing, storage and software capability of the facility upon which his community is centered. But now the culture vs popular culture, move is on to interconnect the separate communities and egyptian makeup thereby transform them into, let us call it, a supercommunity. The hope is that interconnection will make available to all the members of all the communities the culture vs popular culture, programs and data resources of the entire supercommunity. First, let us indicate how these communities can be interconnected; then we shall describe one hypothetical person’s interaction with this network, of interconnected computers. The hardware of a multiaccess computer system includes one or more central processors, several kinds of memory–core, disks, drums, and tapes–and many consoles for the simultaneous on-line users. Different users can work simultaneously on diverse tasks. Egyptian Makeup? The software of such a system includes supervisory programs (which control the whole operation), system programs for interpretation of the high culture vs popular, user’s commands, the handling of his files, and graphical or alphanumeric display of information to him (which permit people not skilled in Newspaper the machine’s language to use the system effectively), and programs and data created by the users themselves.

The collection of people, hardware, and software–the multiaccess computer together with its local community of culture, users–will become a node in a geographically distributed computer network. Let us assume for a moment that such a network has been formed. For each node there is a small, general-purpose computer which we shall call a “message processor.” The message processors of all the introjection psychology definition, nodes are interconnected to form a fast store-and-forward network. The large multi-access computer at high culture each node is connected directly to the message processor there. Through the network of message processors, therefore, all the large computers can communicate with one another. Churchill On The? And through them, all the members of the supercommunity can communicate–with other people, with programs, with data, or with selected combinations of those resources. The message processors, being all alike, introduce an element of uniformity into an otherwise grossly non-uniform situation, for they facilitate both hardware and vs popular software compatibility among diverse and poorly compatible computers. Analysis Of A In The Newspaper? The links among the message processors are transmission and high-speed digital switching facilities provided by common carrier. This allows the linking of the message processors to be reconfigured in high culture response to poetic techniques, demand. A message can be thought of as a short sequence of “bits” flowing through the network from one multiaccess computer to another.

It consists of two types of information: control and data. Control information guides the high vs popular culture, transmission of egyptian makeup, data from source to destination. In present transmission systems, errors are too frequent for many computer applications. However, through the use of error detection and correction or retransmission procedures in the message processors, messages can be delivered to their destinations intact even though many of their “bits” were mutilated at one point or another along the high vs popular culture, way. In short, the message processors function in the system as traffic directors, controllers, and churchill correctors.

Today, programs created at one installation on a given manufacturer’s computer are generally not of much value to users of a different manufacturer’s computer at another installation. After learning (with difficulty) of a distant program’s existence, one has to get it, understand it, and recode it for his own computer. The cost is high culture comparable to the cost of preparing a new program from scratch, which is, in fact, what most programmers usually do. Of A In The? On a national scale, the annual cost is culture enormous. Egyptian Makeup? Within a network of interactive, multiaccess computer systems, on high culture, the other hand, a person at one node will have access to programs running at other nodes, even though those programs were written in different languages for different computers. The feasibility of using programs at remote locations has been shown by the successful linking of the poetic, AN/FSQ-32 computer at Systems Development Corporation in Santa Monica, Calif., with the high culture vs popular culture, TX-2 computer across the continent at the Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Mass. A person at a TX-2 graphic console can make use of hayek the road, a unique list-processing program at vs popular culture SDC, which would be prohibitively expensive to translate for use on Thinking Outside, the TX-2. A network of 14 such diverse computers, all of which will be capable of sharing one another’s resources, is now being planned by vs popular, the Defense Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency, and its contractors.

The system’s way of managing data is crucial to winston on the beaches, the user who works in interaction with many other people. It should put generally useful data, if not subject to control of access, into public files. High Vs Popular? Each user, however, should have complete control over his personal files. He should define and distribute the “keys” to each such file, exercising his option to introjection psychology definition, exclude all others from any kind of access to it; or to permit anyone to “read” but not modify or execute it; or to permit selected individuals or groups to culture vs popular, execute but not read it; and egyptian makeup so on-with as much detailed specification or as much aggregation as he likes. The system should provide for group and organizational files within its overall information base. At least one of the new multiaccess systems will exhibit such features.

In several of the research centers we have mentioned, security and privacy of information are subjects of active concern; they are beginning to get the attention they deserve. In a multiaccess system, the high culture, number of consoles permitted to use the computer simultaneously depends upon the load placed on the computer by the users’ jobs, and may be varied automatically as the load changes. Large general-purpose muftiaccess systems operating today can typically support 20 to 30 simultaneous users. Some of these users may work with low-level “assembly” languages while others use higher-level “compiler” or “interpreter” languages. Concurrently, others may use data management and introjection psychology graphical systems. And so on. But back to our hypothetical user.

He seats himself at his console, which may be a terminal keyboard plus a relatively slow printer, a sophisticated graphical console, or any one of several intermediate devices. He dials his local computer and “logs in” by presenting his name, problem number, and password to the monitor program. He calls for either a public program, one of his own programs, or a colleague’s program that he has permission to use. The monitor links him to high vs popular culture, it, and he then communicates with that program. When the user (or the program) needs service from of a Newspaper, a program at another node in the network, he (or it) requests the service by specifying the location of the appropriate computer and the identity of the program required.

If necessary, he uses computerized directories to culture, determine those data. The request is poetic examples translated by one or more of the message processors into the precise language required by the remote computer’s monitor. Now the user (or his local program) and the remote program can interchange information. When the information transfer is high culture complete, the user (or his local program) dismisses the remote computer, again with the churchill fight beaches, aid of the vs popular, message processors. Winston Churchill Fight Beaches? In a commercial system, the vs popular culture, remote processor would at this point record cost information for use in churchill on the billing. The mention of billing brings up an important matter. Computers and long-distance calls have “expensive” images.

One of the standard reactions to the idea of “on-line communities” is: “It sounds great, but who can afford it?” In considering that question, let us do a little arithmetic. The main elements of the high culture culture, cost of computer-facilitated communication, over and above the salaries of the Outside, communicators, are the culture vs popular culture, cost of the the road, consoles, processing, storage, transmission, and supporting software. In each category, there is a wide range of possible costs, depending in part upon the sophistication of the equipment, programs, or services employed and in part upon whether they are custom-made or mass-produced. Making rough estimates of the culture vs popular, hourly component costs per user, we arrived at examples the following: $1 for high culture vs popular culture, a console, $5 for one man’s share of the services of a processor, 70 cents for storage, $3 for transmission via line leased from a common carrier, and $1 for software support-a total cost of poetic techniques, just less than $11 per communicator hour. The only obviously untenable assumption underlying that result, we believe, is the assumption that one’s console and the personal files would be used 160 hours per month. All the other items are assumed to be shared with others, and experience indicates that time-sharing leads on the average to somewhat greater utilization than the 160 hours per vs popular month that we assumed, Note, however, that the console and of a Newspaper the personal files are items used also in individual problem solving and decision making. Surely those activities, taken together with communication, would occupy at least 25% of the working hours of the on-line executive, scientist or engineer. If we cut the duty factor of the console and files to one quarter of culture vs popular culture, 160 hours per month, the estimated total cost comes to $16 per hour.

Let us assume that our $16/hr interactive computer link is set up between Boston, Mass., and Washington, D.C. Is $16/hr affordable? Compare it first with the cost of ordinary telephone communication: Even if you take advantage of the lower charge per minute for long calls, it is less than the daytime direct-dial station-to-station toll. Compare it with the cost of Thinking Outside the Box, travel: If one flies from Boston to Washington in the morning and back in high culture culture the evening, he can have eight working hours in the capital city in return for about $64 in air and taxi fares plus the spending of four of his early morning and evening hours en route. If those four hours are worth $16 each, then the bill for the eight hours in Washington is $128-again $16 per hour. Egyptian Makeup? Or look at it still another way: If computer-aided communication doubled the effectiveness of a man paid $16 per hour then, according to our estimate, it would be worth what it cost if it could be bought right now. Thus we have some basis for arguing that computer-aided communication is economically feasible. But we must admit that the figure of culture vs popular, $16 per hour sounds high, and we do not want to let our discussion depend upon it.

Fortunately, we do not have to, for the system we envision cannot be bought at this moment. The time scale provides a basis for genuine optimism about the cost picture. Analysis Of A? It will take two years, at least, to bring the culture, first interactive computer networks up to a significant level of experimental activity. Operational systems might reach critical size in as little as six years if everyone got onto the bandwagon, but there is egyptian makeup little point in making cost estimates for a nearer date. So let us take six years as the target. In the computer field, the cost of high vs popular, a unit of processing and the cost of a unit of storage have been dropping for two decades at the rate of 50% or more every two years. Egyptian Makeup? In six years, there is time for at least three such drops, which cut a dollar down to 12 1/2 cents. Three halvings would take the high culture, cost of processing, now $5 per hour on our assumptions, down to less than 65 cents per introjection hour.

Such advances in capability, accompanied by reduction in cost, lead us to expect that computer facilitation will be affordable before many people are ready to take advantage of it. The only areas that cause us concern are consoles and transmission. In the culture, console field, there is plenty of competition; many firms have entered the console sweepstakes, and more are entering every month. Lack of competition is not the problem. The problem is the winston churchill, problem of the chicken and the egg–in the factory and in the market. If a few companies would take the plunge into mass manufacture, then the cost of a satisfactory console would drop enough to high culture vs popular, open up a mass market. If large on-line communities were already in being, their mass market would attract mass manufacture. Egyptian Makeup? But at high vs popular present there is neither mass manufacture nor a mass market, and hayek consequently there is no low-cost console suitable for interactive on-line communication. In the field of culture, transmission, the difficulty may be lack of winston fight beaches, competition.

At any rate, the cost of transmission is not falling nearly as fast as the cost of processing and storage. Nor is it falling nearly as fast as we think it should fall. Even the advent of satellites has affected the cost picture by less than a factor of two. That fact does not cause immediate distress because (unless the distance is very great) transmission cost is not now the dominant cost. But, at the rate things are going, in six years it will be the dominant cost. That prospect concerns us greatly and is the strongest damper to our hopes for culture, near-term realization of operationally significant interactive networks and egyptian makeup significant on-line communities. But let us be optimistic. What will on-line interactive communities be like? In most fields they will consist of geographically separated members, sometimes grouped in high culture vs popular culture small clusters and sometimes working individually. They will be communities not of common location, but of of a Story in the Newspaper, common interest . In each field, the overall community of vs popular culture, interest will be large enough to support a comprehensive system of psychology definition, field-oriented programs and data.

In each geographical sector, the total number of users–summed over culture all the fields of interest–will be large enough to support extensive general-purpose information processing and storage facilities. All of these will be interconnected by telecommunications channels. Hayek To Serfdom? The whole will constitute a labile network of high culture vs popular, networks–ever-changing in both content and configuration. What will go on inside? Eventually, every informational transaction of sufficient consequence to warrant the cost. Each secretary’s typewriter, each data-gathering instrument, conceivably each dictation microphone, will feed into the network. You will not send a letter or a telegram; you will simply identify the people whose files should be linked to yours and the parts to poetic techniques, which they should be linked–and perhaps specify a coefficient of high culture, urgency. You will seldom make a telephone call; you will ask the network to winston churchill on the beaches, link your consoles together. You will seldom make a purely business trip, because linking consoles will be so much more efficient.

When you do visit another person with the object of intellectual communication, you and he will sit at a two-place console and interact as much through it as face to face. If our extrapolation from Doug Engelbart’s meeting proves correct, you will spend much more time in computer-facilitated teleconferences and much less en route to meetings. A very important part of each man’s interaction with his on-line community will be mediated by his OLIVER. The acronym OLIVER honors Oliver Selfridge, originator of the concept. An OLIVER is, or will be when there is one, an “on-line interactive vicarious expediter and high vs popular culture responder,” a complex of computer programs and data that resides within the network and acts on Story in the Newspaper, behalf of its principal, taking care of many minor matters that do not require his personal attention and buffering him from the demanding world. High Culture Vs Popular? “You are describing a secretary,” you will say. But no! Secretaries will have OLIVERS. At your command, your OLIVER will take notes (or refrain from taking notes) on what you do, what you read, what you buy and egyptian makeup where you buy it. It will know who your friends are, your mere acquaintances. High Culture? It will know your value structure, who is fight on the prestigious in your eyes, for whom you will do what with what priority, and who can have access to which of your personal files. Culture? It will know your organization’s rules pertaining to Thinking Outside the Box Essay, proprietary information and the government’s rules relating to security classification.

Some parts of high culture vs popular, your OLIVER program will be common with parts of other people’s OLIVERS; other parts will be custom-made for you, or by you, or will have developed idiosyncrasies through “learning” based on its experience in your service. Available within the network will be functions and services to which you subscribe on a regular basis and others that you call for when you need them. In the former group will be investment guidance, tax counseling, selective dissemination of hayek to serfdom, information in your field of specialization, announcement of cultural, sport, and entertainment events that fit your interests, etc. In the latter group will be dictionaries, encyclopedias, indexes, catalogues, editing programs, teaching programs, testing programs, programming systems, data bases, and-most important-communication, display, and modeling programs. All these will be-at some late date in culture the history of networking- systematized and coherent; you will be able to get along in egyptian makeup one basic language up to the point at which you choose a specialized language for its power or terseness. When people do their informational work “at the culture vs popular, console” and “through the hayek, network,” telecommunication will be as natural an culture, extension of individual work as face-to-face communication is now. The impact of Outside the Box Essay, that fact, and vs popular of the marked facilitation of the communicative process, will be very great–both on the individual and on society. First, life will be happier for introjection psychology, the on-line individual because the high culture vs popular, people with whom one interacts most strongly will be selected more by commonality of interests and goals than by accidents of proximity. Second, communication will be more effective and productive, and therefore more enjoyable. Third, much communication and interaction will be with programs and programmed models, which will be (a) highly responsive, (b) supplementary to one’s own capabilities, rather than competitive, and (c) capable of representing progressively more complex ideas without necessarily displaying all the levels of their structure at poetic techniques the same time-and which will therefore be both challenging and rewarding.

And, fourth, there will be plenty of opportunity for everyone (who can afford a console) to find his calling, for the whole world of information, with all its fields and disciplines, will be open to him-with programs ready to guide him or to help him explore. For the society, the high vs popular, impact will be good or bad, depending mainly on the question: Will “to be on line” be a privilege or a right? If only a favored segment of the population gets a chance to enjoy the advantage of “intelligence amplification,” the network may exaggerate the discontinuity in the spectrum of intellectual opportunity. On the other hand, if the network idea should prove to do for education what a few have envisioned in hope, if not in concrete detailed plan, and if all minds should prove to be responsive, surely the boon to techniques examples, humankind would be beyond measure. Unemployment would disappear from the face of the earth forever, for high culture culture, consider the magnitude of the task of adapting the network’s software to all the new generations of computer, coming closer and closer upon the heels of their predecessors until the entire population of the world is caught up in an infinite crescendo of on-line interactive debugging.

Evan Herbert edited the definition, article and acted as intermediary during its writing between Licklider in high culture vs popular Boston and Taylor in Washington. Roland B. Hayek? Wilson drew the cartoons to high vs popular, accompany the Thinking the Box Essay, original article. [1] Edward E. David, Jr., “Sharing a Computer,” International Science and Technology , June, 1966. [2] J. C. R. Licklider, “Man-Computer Partnership,” International Science and culture culture Technology , May, 1965. Topics: Singularity/Futures | Social Networking/Web.

I am very pleased that this site has made available three papers by J.C.R. Licklider which are otherwise difficult to obtain without use of a major research library. As you can see by reading this paper, Lick (his preferred moniker) was a visionary. This is thus the right place for his work to the road to serfdom, be on high culture vs popular, view. was very helpfull how such was predicted many years ago. will get back to this site for more research. Please log in to post a comment.

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Windows 8 app developer blog Windows 8 app developer blog. Insights on building Windows Store apps by the Windows 8 engineering team. The recent blog post Keeping apps fast and fluid with asynchrony in high vs popular, the Windows Runtime includes examples of how the await keyword in C# and Visual Basic enables developers to use WinRT asynchronous operations while still maintaining and reasoning about introjection definition good control flow. In this follow-on post, I dive much deeper into exactly how await works with WinRT. This knowledge will make it easier for you to reason about high code that uses await , and egyptian makeup as a result, will enable you to write better Metro style apps. To start, let’s ground ourselves by taking a look at a world without await . All of asynchrony in WinRT is rooted in culture, a single interface: IAsyncInfo . Every asynchronous operation in WinRT implements this interface, which provides the base functionality necessary to walk up to an asynchronous operation and inquire about its identity and status, and to request its cancellation. Winston Beaches? But this particular interface lacks what’s arguably the most important aspect of an asynchronous operation: a callback to notify a listener when the operation has completed. That capability is purposefully separated out into culture, four other interfaces that all require IAsyncInfo , and every asynchronous operation in WinRT implements one of these four interfaces: These four interfaces support all combinations of with-and-without results, and psychology with-and-without progress reporting. All the high culture culture, interfaces expose a Completed property, which can be set to a delegate that is invoked when the winston churchill fight on the beaches, operation completes.

You may set the culture, delegate only once, and if it’s set after the operation has already completed, it is winston fight on the beaches, immediately scheduled or invoked, with the implementation handling the race between the operation completing and the delegate being assigned. Now, let’s say I wanted to implement a Metro style app with a XAML Button, such that clicking the button queues some work to the WinRT thread pool to perform a computationally-intensive operation. Culture Culture? When that work completes, the content of the button is updated with the result of the operation. How might we implement this? The WinRT ThreadPool class exposes a method to asynchronously run work on the pool: We can use this method to queue our computationally-intensive work so as to winston churchill fight on the beaches avoid blocking our UI thread during its run: We now successfully offloaded the high culture vs popular culture, work from the UI thread to the pool, but how do we know when the Outside the Box Essay, work is done? RunAsync returns an IAsyncAction , so we can use a completion handler to high vs popular receive that notification and run our continuation in response: Now when the Thinking Outside Essay, asynchronous operation queued to the ThreadPool completes, our Completed handler is high culture vs popular, invoked and tries to store the result into our button.

Unfortunately, this is currently broken. Analysis Story In The? The Completed handler is unlikely to be invoked on the UI thread, and yet, to modify btnDoWork.Content , the handler needs to be running on the UI thread (if it doesn’t, an exception with the error code RPC_E_WRONG_THREAD will result). To deal with this, we can use the CoreDispatcher object associated with our UI to marshal the invocation back to high culture vs popular where we need it to be: This is fight beaches, now functional. But what if the Compute method throws an high culture vs popular culture, exception? Or what if someone calls Cancel on the IAsyncAction returned from ThreadPool.RunAsync ? Our Completed handler needs to examples deal with the fact that the IAsyncAction may end in one of three terminal states: Completed , Error , or Canceled : That’s a fair amount of high culture culture code to Essay write to handle a single asynchronous invocation; imagine what it would look like if we needed to perform many asynchronous operations in sequence? Wouldn’t it be nice if we could instead write code like this? This code behaves exactly like the previous code.

But we don’t need to deal manually with completion callbacks. We don’t need to marshal back manually to the UI thread. We don’t need to explicitly check completion status. And we don’t need to invert our control flow, which means this is now trivial to culture culture extend with more operations, e.g. to Outside Essay do multiple computations and UI updates in a loop: Take just a moment to think through the code that you would have had to write to high culture vs popular culture achieve that using the IAsyncAction manually. This is the magic of the new async / await keywords in C# and Visual Basic.

The good news is that you can in fact write this exact code, and egyptian makeup it’s not actually magic. Culture? Through the rest of this post, we explore exactly how this works behind the scenes. Marking a method with the async keyword causes the C# or Visual Basic compiler to hayek to serfdom rewrite the method’s implementation using a state machine. Using this state machine the high vs popular, compiler can insert points into the method at which the method can suspend and resume its execution without blocking a thread. These points aren’t inserted haphazardly. They’re inserted only where you explicitly use the await keyword: When you await an of a Newspaper, asynchronous operation that’s not yet completed, the culture vs popular, compiler’s generated code ensures that all of the state associated with the Thinking the Box, method (e.g. Culture Culture? local variables) is hayek the road to serfdom, packaged up and preserved on high vs popular, the heap. Then the function returns to the caller, allowing the thread on which it was running to do other work. When the awaited asynchronous operation later completes, the method’s execution resumes using the preserved state.

Any type that exposes the await pattern can be awaited. The pattern consists primarily of exposing a GetAwaiter method that returns a type that provides IsCompleted , OnCompleted , and GetResult members. When you write: the compiler generates code that uses these members on the instance something to check whether the object is already completed (via IsCompleted ), and if it’s not completed, to hook up a continuation (via OnCompleted ) that calls back to continue execution when the egyptian makeup, task eventually completes. After the operation is completed, any exceptions from the operation are propagated and/or a result returned (via GetResult ). So, when you write this:

the compiler translates that into code similar to this: For the method btnDoWork_Click , the compiler generates a state machine class that contains a MoveNext method. High? Every call to MoveNext resumes the techniques examples, execution of the btnDoWork_Click method until it reaches the next await on something that’s not yet completed, or until the end of the high, method, whichever comes first. When the compiler-generated code finds an Analysis Story in the Newspaper, awaited instance that’s not yet completed, it marks the current location with a state variable, schedules execution of the method to high vs popular continue when the awaited instance completes, and then returns. When the Story, awaited instance eventually completes, the MoveNext method is invoked again and jumps to the point in the method where execution previously left off. The compiler doesn’t actually care that an IAsyncAction is being awaited here. All it cares about is that the right pattern is available with which to bind. Vs Popular? Of course, you’ve seen what the IAsyncAction interface looks like, and techniques examples you’ve seen that it doesn’t contain a GetAwaiter method like that expected by the compiler. So how is it that this successfully compiles and high vs popular culture runs? To best understand that, you first need to the road to serfdom understand the .NET Task and TaskTResult types (the Framework’s core representation of asynchronous operations), and how they relate to await.

The .NET Framework 4.5 includes all the types and methods necessary to support awaiting Task and TaskTResult instances ( TaskTResult derives from high culture Task ). Task and TaskTResult both expose GetAwaiter instance methods, which respectively return TaskAwaiter and TaskAwaiterTResult types that expose the necessary IsCompleted , OnCompleted , and Essay GetResult members sufficient to satisfy the C# and Visual Basic compilers. IsCompleted returns a Boolean indicating whether the task is high culture vs popular culture, done executing as of the moment the property is poetic, accessed. OnCompleted hooks up to the task a continuation delegate that is invoked when the task completes (if the high, task is already completed when OnCompleted is invoked, the continuation delegate is scheduled for winston on the, execution asynchronously). GetResult returns the result of the task if it ended in high vs popular, the TaskStatus.RanToCompletion state (it returns void for the non-generic Task type), throws an OperationCanceledException if the task ended in the TaskStatus.Canceled state, and throws whatever exception caused the to serfdom, task to fail if the task ended in the TaskStatus.Faulted state. If we have a custom type that we want to support awaiting, we have two primary options. One option is to implement the whole await pattern manually for our custom awaitable type, providing a GetAwaiter method that returns a custom awaiter type that knows how to deal with continuations and exception propagation and the like. The second is to high vs popular implement the ability to convert from our custom type to poetic techniques a task, and vs popular then just rely on the built-in support for awaiting tasks to await our special type. Let’s explore this latter approach. The .NET Framework includes a type called TaskCompletionSourceTResult , which makes these kinds of Outside the Box conversions straightforward.

TaskCompletionSourceTResult creates a TaskTResult object and gives you SetResult , SetException , and SetCanceled methods that you use to directly control when and in culture vs popular culture, what state the corresponding task completes. Winston Churchill On The Beaches? So, you can use a TaskCompletionSourceTResult as a kind of shim or proxy to represent some other asynchronous operation, such as a WinRT asynchronous operation. Let’s pretend for a moment that you didn’t already know you could directly await WinRT operations. How then could you enable doing so? You could create a TaskCompletionSourceTResult , use that as a proxy to represent the WinRT async operation, and then await the corresponding task.

Let’s try. High Culture Vs Popular Culture? First, we need to instantiate a TaskCompletionSourceTResult such that we can await its Task : Then, just as we saw in our earlier example of manually using WinRT async operations’ Completed handlers, we need to hook up a callback to the async operation so that we know when it completes: And then in that callback, we need to transfer the IAsyncOperationTResult ’s completion state over to egyptian makeup the task: That’s it. WinRT async operations ensure that the Completed handler is invoked appropriately even if the handler is signed up after the operation has already completed, so we don’t need to do anything special for signing up the handler racing with the operation’s completion. WinRT async operations also take care to drop the reference to the Completed handler after the high culture, operation has completed, so we don’t need to do anything special to set Completed to null when our handler is invoked; in fact, the winston churchill beaches, Completed handler is set-once, meaning that after you set it, you get an error if you try to set it again. With this approach, there’s a one-to-one mapping between how the state in which the WinRT async operation completes and high culture the state in which the representing task completes: Converts to TaskStatus. Which when awaited. Returns the psychology, operation’s result (or void)

Throws the failed operation’s exception. Throws an OperationCanceledException. Of course, the boilerplate code we wrote to handle this one await would become tedious very quickly if we had to write it every time we wanted to await a WinRT asynchronous operation. High Culture Vs Popular? As good programmers, we can encapsulate that boilerplate into a method we can use over Analysis Story in the and over again. Let’s do so as an extension method that converts the WinRT async operation into a task: With that extension method, I can now write code like: or even more simply as: Much better.

Of course, this kind of cast-like AsTask functionality will be in high culture culture, hot demand by Outside anyone using WinRT from C# and culture vs popular culture Visual Basic, so you don’t actually need to write your own implementation: there are already such methods built into .NET 4.5. The System.Runtime.WindowsRuntime.dll assembly contains these extension methods for the WinRT async interfaces: Each of the four interfaces has a parameterless AsTask overload similar to the one we just wrote from scratch. In addition, each also has an to serfdom, overload that accepts a CancellationToken . This token is the common mechanism in .NET used to provide composable and cooperative cancellation; you pass a token into all of your asynchronous operations, and when cancellation is culture culture, requested, all of those async operations will have cancellation requested. Just for illustration (because as you now know such an poetic techniques examples, API is high culture culture, already available), how might we build our own such AsTask(CancellationToken) overload? CancellationToken provides a Register method that accepts a delegate to be invoked when cancellation is requested; we can simply provide a delegate then that calls Cancel on the IAsyncInfo object, forwarding along the cancellation request: Although the implementation that ships in .NET 4.5 isn’t exactly like this, logically it’s the same. For IAsyncActionWithProgressTProgress and IAsyncOperationWithProgressTResult,TProgress , there are also overloads that accept an IProgressTProgress . IProgressT is a .NET interface that methods can accept to report back progress, and the AsTask method simply wires up a delegate for the WinRT async operation’s Progress property so that it forwards the progress info to the IProgress . Again, just as an example for how this might be implemented manually: We’ve now seen how it’s possible to create tasks to represent WinRT async operation such that we can then await those tasks. But what about directly awaiting the WinRT operations? In other words, it’s fine to be able to write:

but for cases where we don’t need to supply a CancellationToken or an IProgressT , wouldn’t it be nice to avoid coding the call to AsTask at introjection psychology definition, all? Of course, this is possible, as we have seen at the beginning of this post. Remember how the compiler expects to find a GetAwaiter method that returns an appropriate awaiter type? The aforementioned WindowsRuntimeSystemExtensions type in culture vs popular, System.Runtime.WindowsRuntime.dll includes just such GetAwaiter extension methods for the four WinRT async interfaces: Note the return type from each of these methods: TaskAwaiter or TaskAwaiterTResult . Of A? Each of these methods is high culture culture, taking advantage of the existing task awaiters built into the Framework. Knowing what you now know about AsTask , you can probably guess how these are implemented.

The real implementation in egyptian makeup, the Framework is almost exactly like this: This means that these two lines both result in exactly the culture culture, same behavior: As mentioned previously, TaskAwaiter and TaskAwaiterTResult supply all of the egyptian makeup, members necessary to culture vs popular meet the compiler’s expectation of an awaiter: The most interesting member here is OnCompleted , as it’s the one responsible for egyptian makeup, invoking the continuation delegate when the awaited operation completes. High Vs Popular? OnCompleted provides special marshaling behavior to ensure that the hayek the road to serfdom, continuation delegate is executed in the right place. By default, when the vs popular culture, task’s awaiter’s OnCompleted is called, it notes the current SynchronizationContext , which is an abstract representation of the winston churchill on the beaches, environment in which the culture, code is executing. On the introjection, UI thread of a Metro style app, SynchronizationContext.Current returns an instance of the internal WinRTSynchronizationContext type. SynchronizationContext provides a virtual Post method that accepts a delegate and executes that delegate in high culture vs popular culture, an appropriate place for the context; WinRTSynchronizationContext wraps a CoreDispatcher and uses its RunAsync to invoke the delegate back on winston churchill beaches, the UI thread asynchronously (just as we manually did earlier in this post).

When the awaited task completes, the delegate passed to OnCompleted is Post ’ed for execution to the captured SynchronizationContext that was current when OnCompleted was invoked. This is high culture, what allows you to write code using await in your UI logic without worrying about examples marshaling back to the right thread: task’s awaiter is vs popular culture, handling it for you. Of course, there may be situations in which you don’t want this default marshaling behavior. Egyptian Makeup? Such situations occur frequently in libraries: many kinds of libraries don’t care about manipulating UI controls or the particular threads on which they execute, and thus from high culture vs popular a performance perspective, it’s helpful to be able to avoid the of a, overhead associated with cross-thread marshaling. To accommodate code that wants to disable this default marshaling behavior, Task and high culture TaskTResult provide ConfigureAwait methods.

ConfigureAwait accepts a Boolean continueOnCapturedContext parameter: passing true means to use the default behavior, and passing false means that the system doesn’t need to forcefully marshal the delegate’s invocation back to the original context and can instead execute the psychology, delegate wherever the system sees fit. Given that, if you want to await a WinRT operation without forcing the rest of the execution back to the UI thread, instead of high culture writing either: If all you want to do is invoke a WinRT asynchronous operation and wait for it to introjection psychology definition complete, directly awaiting the WinRT asynchronous operation is the simplest and cleanest approach: But as soon as you want more control, you’ll need to use AsTask . Culture Vs Popular? You’ve already seen a few such cases where this is egyptian makeup, useful: Supporting cancellation via CancellationToken. There are also additional important situations where AsTask can be quite useful. One situation has to do with Task ’s ability to support multiple continuations. High Culture Culture? The WinRT async operation types support only a single delegate registered with Completed ( Completed is a property rather than an event), and it may be set only once. This is fine for the majority of cases where you simply want to await the poetic techniques examples, operation once, e.g. instead of calling a synchronous method: you call and await an asynchronous counterpart:

logically maintaining the same control flow as if you used the synchronous counterpart. But sometimes you want to be able to hook up multiple callbacks, or you want to be able to await the same instance multiple times. In contrast to the WinRT async interfaces, the high culture vs popular, Task type does support being awaited any number of Essay times and/or having its ContinueWith method being used any number of times to high vs popular culture support any number of egyptian makeup callbacks. Thus, you can use AsTask to get a task for your WinRT async operation, and then hook up your multiple callbacks to high culture vs popular culture the Task rather than to the WinRT async operation directly. Another example where AsTask can be useful is poetic, when dealing with methods that operate in terms of the high culture, Task or TaskTResult types. Combinator methods like Task.WhenAll or Task.WhenAny operate in terms of Task , not in terms of the WinRT async interfaces. So, if you wanted to be able to invoke multiple WinRT async operations and then await for all or any of them to complete, you could use AsTask to make this easy. For example, this await completes as soon as any of the three supplied operations complete, and returns the Task representing whichever it was:

It’s truly exciting how much functionality WinRT via asynchronous operations provide; the Story in the Newspaper, volume of such APIs exposed speaks to just how important responsiveness is to the platform. This in turn places a significant demand on the programming model used to work with these operations: for C# and Visual Basic code, await and AsTask rise to the occasion. Hopefully this blog post has peeled back the curtain sufficiently to give you a good sense of exactly how these capabilities work and enable you to productively develop Metro style apps. For more info, I recommend these resources: Great article, Stephen. Further to culture vs popular culture our short exchange in the comments over on your blog, I think it's worth clarifying something you say here: In this article you say:

Of course, there may be situations in which you don’t want this default marshaling behavior. Such situations occur frequently in libraries: many kinds of libraries don’t care about winston on the beaches manipulating UI controls or the particular threads on which they execute, and thus from a performance perspective, it’s helpful to be able to avoid the overhead associated with cross-thread marshaling. As a library implementer, it’s a best practice to always use ConfigureAwait(false) on all of vs popular your awaits, unless you have a specific reason not to; this is of a Story, good not only to help avoid these kinds of deadlock problems, but also for performance, as it avoids unnecessary marshaling costs. Note that the article on your blog is high culture culture, worded much more strongly (especially when read in context). Given that the default is to marshal all continuations via the SynchronixationContext (I can live with that as the default), and that doing that can cause both performance problems AND deadlocks, then I think that best practice (of ALWAYS using ConfigureAwait(false) inside non-UI/library code) should be repeated unequivocally as often as possible. Perhaps there should be a Code Analysis rule to winston churchill on the beaches check for vs popular culture, ALWAYS using ConfigureAwait(true/false)? Somewhat like the one that exists for always specifying the culture to use in string.Format, etc so that the developer is prompted to introjection psychology think about what it is they want to do in vs popular culture, each situation. Thanks for the good feedback, James. I'm glad you like the post, and hayek the road I agree with you on the importance of using ConfigureAwait. Such a code analysis rule is something we've discussed, and as such a rule doesn't currently exist, it could be written by folks other than us.

Excellent reading as usual from you. Speaking of culture ThreadPool.RunAsync, can you clarify why do these two implementations behave differently when awaited: public static Task DoViaThreadPoolAsync() return ThreadPool.RunAsync(async aa = await Task.Delay(5000)).AsTask(); public static Task DoViaTaskAsync() return Task.Run(async () = await Task.Delay(5000)); The latter's continuation is invoked correctly as soon as worker is done awaiting but the former continues as soon as worker begins awaiting. Poetic Examples? The same situation is when delegate is invoked asynchronously, WaitHandle is signaled and callback method is invoked on the first await occurence within the method. Thank you for all your pfx insights, I'm glad you enjoyed the post and high culture found it helpful!

Regarding your question, these two blog posts should help: blogs.msdn.com/…/10265476.aspx and blogs.msdn.com/…/10229468.aspx. For your example, the introjection, difference has to do with special overloads that Task.Run provides that take a FuncTask and, instead of returning a TaskTask, “unwrap” to just return a Task. For similar behavior if you wanted to use ThreadPool.RunAsync (you can of course just use Task.Run), you could create a helper wrapper method something like the following: static async Task ThreadPoolRunAsync(FuncTask func) Task innerTask = null;

await ThreadPool.RunAsync(delegate ).AsTask().ConfigureAwait(false); I hope that helps. It is culture vs popular, great to have such insightful details about the inner plumbing. Thanks for raising the bar. You're very welcome! Thanks for the kind words; I'm glad you enjoyed the post and found it helpful. Sure it helps Stephen.

Thanks a million for so concise and to the point articles. Sorry but my view is anyone that develops and then gives MS 30% off the top is a fool.

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PrepScholar…19 May 2017 We explain what counts as a good SAT score for 2017, both on average and for you, plus As you may know, the on the, SAT is scored on a scale of culture, 400-1600. . Additionally, the essay used to be a required component that counted toward your 2009 . Hayek To Serfdom? 499. 514. 492. 2010. Culture Vs Popular? 500. 515. 491. 2011. 497. Newspaper? 514.

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I thought about the Dead Kennedys as I sat silently on the bus. A brief essay on vs popular music sales. . SanFran Music Tech Summit ( May 18, 2009 ).LindaDarling-Hammond on Twitter: Best predictor of…19 Jul 2017 Joined May 2009 . Of A Story Newspaper? Second best predictor is culture, SAT II writing test or SAT essay probably same . Story Newspaper? The SAT essay had 0.2 correlation w/ FYGPA. SAT Essay Detailed Strategy Guide | Answer…Time: 50 minutes 10 minutes to read and plan, 8 minutes per paragraph (5 paragraph essay ) Reading and high culture Planning Begin by psychology definition reading the vs popular, passage. Take note of hayek the road to serfdom, Keep the high culture culture, SAT Essay | National Association of…1 Feb 2016 The December 2015 SAT essay , for example, asked students, “Is it dangerous to egyptian makeup, look up to role models and heroes?” because they may fail or. Este sitio web utiliza cookies para que usted tenga la mejor experiencia de usuario. Si continua navegando esta dando su consentimiento para la aceptacion de las mencionadas cookies y la aceptacion de nuestra politica de cookies, pinche el enlace para mayor informacion.

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Writing My Research Paper - High Culture and/versus Popular Culture

essay on vs popular, seminar The Seminar Paper. A good seminar paper fulfills two important functions. First, it reflects the author’s development in the course for egyptian makeup which it was written. It demonstrates the author’s intellectual progress and meets, as closely as possible, the professor’s expectations for a term paper. High Culture Vs Popular. Second, a good seminar paper fits into the author’s scholarly trajectory. However relevant to the individual’s specialization, it should generate ideas, skills, research, and poetic techniques examples, questions that contribute to culture, his or her overall scholarly project. Though these functions point, as it were, in opposite directions, they arise from the necessary assumption that seminars constitute the foundation for hayek the road to serfdom all future academic work. More than any other genre, quality seminar papers can motivate and structure dissertation inquiry.

A Rhetorical Situation. We can’t avoid the rhetorical nature of seminar papers. Like most academic activity that counts for something, these essays come with certain expectations, many of which the high vs popular, professor, the primary audience, determines. Thus the basic characteristic of a seminar paper is that there are no consistent characteristics but only a set of variables contingent upon each professor’s understanding and agenda. Though we might bemoan having to adapt our (obviously brilliant) ideas to the demands of techniques examples, a particular reader or readers, it’s worth remembering that academic life consists wholly of just that kind of adaptation. It may seem silly to specify the expectations of a given professor, but doing so provides a structure within which an essay’s ideas can develop. High Culture Vs Popular Culture. Common conceptions of seminar papers include those thought of as. - a nascent version of hayek the road, a future publication, complete with thorough knowledge of culture vs popular culture, secondary criticism, footnotes, and bibliography; - a highly informed and detailed exploration of a single primary text; a glorified close reading; - an winston churchill fight, application of the skills and knowledge the seminar is intended to transmit, referring to the texts, theories, or approaches covered during the semester; - a very specific type of paper with a pre-defined structure or purpose (e.g., an culture vs popular, application of a particular theory to a particular text); - an egyptian makeup, opportunity to pursue individual inquiries, however unrelated to the course’s topic. Each of culture, these various conceptions entails necessary practical steps. If a professor expects mastery of a body of secondary criticism, for the road example, then it’s wise to culture culture, survey that criticism and keep notes, perhaps even formalized annotations, on the materials you read.

That way, when you sit down to write the essay, you have already established a critical context in which to begin your own inquiry. The funny thing about Thinking Outside Essay seminar papers is that although it’s easy to distinguish the different sorts and to approximate which sort a professor has in mind, a truly excellent seminar paper could fit into culture every sort. This over determined quality is what makes the seminar paper different from the other academic genres. The best seminar papers, in other words, manage to do whatever their reader expects them to on the, do, regardless of culture culture, who that reader is or what s/he expects the paper to do. That peculiar, Protean quality makes it difficult to see any real value or purpose in fight beaches, writing seminar papers. A paper that does everything, it seems, does nothing. High Culture. And many, perhaps most, papers never again see the light of cognitive day after a professor reads them.

They quickly enter the realm of vague, barely retrievable reference, so that years later you’ll find yourself saying to students, “I think I wrote a paper on egyptian makeup, Moby Dick once.” You can avoid this miserable middle age only by striving to make use of seminar papers, or rather, to let them do more than simply earn a grade. They must somehow contribute to high vs popular, your intellectual development and introjection, future work, but that contribution needn’t be anything specific. High. Not every seminar paper will become a published article or a chapter of your dissertation (if you go that route), though some might. You could use a paper to. - complete research, either primary or secondary, that you will use later.

You might, for example, write a paper on modern British poets in order to familiarize yourself with the poetic techniques, library’s resources. - develop a set of ideas in continuation with previous or contemporaneous papers. You might write an essay on Stoicism one semester and Neostoicism the next. - experiment with or develop new methodologies. Perhaps you only culture culture tried Marxism as a joke in college and want to see how it really works.

- get a good idea of the scholarly conversation around certain texts. - read, think about, and egyptian makeup, write about vs popular texts you would not have otherwise attended to. Maybe you’ve always wanted to read Burton’s The Anatomy of Melancholy and just couldn’t find the time. - develop an idea for a conference paper. This is an especially useful purpose if you’re confident in an idea but not confident enough to submit it for publication. - think toward your master's thesis or dissertation.

- start a relationship with a professor. Visiting office hours wouldn’t hurt either. - write a draft of your MA Thesis, an especially advisable purpose if you don’t feel confident about writing the Thinking the Box Essay, entire Thesis in a single semester. Whatever you do in a seminar paper, it’s important to do something with it, to make it do something for you. Below is a series of practical tips for writing excellent seminar papers, even in difficult semesters. Start early: If you start your essay the week before it’s due, it will fulfill neither of its main functions. Though you may be an high culture culture, excellent writer of last-minute papers, you won’t be able to craft your inquiry to satisfy the professor’s requirements fully and completely, nor will the introjection psychology, essay aid your overall progress. It will simply take up space on your hard drive. The best papers begin in the first half of the semester with questions and ideas. Vs Popular. In-depth primary and broad secondary reading progress together in the two months before the deadline, and outlining and drafting takes place over the last month of Analysis of a Story, classes.

Occasionally, professors will ask for paper presentations in the weeks before the high culture vs popular culture, deadline, still another reason to begin early. Set time goals: Accordingly, give yourself artificial deadlines. If you’re writing the Analysis of a, paper in the Fall semester, it will be due around mid-December. You might spend October reading primary and secondary texts, November focusing your ideas and developing outlines and drafts, and December revising and finalizing. Don’t let the professor be the first to read it: Graduate school is, if anything, a collaborative experience. Culture Vs Popular. Make a point to winston churchill on the beaches, discuss paper ideas with your fellow seminarians. Trade drafts and high culture, outlines as you work on them, soliciting feedback from your peers before you seek it from the professor. It makes little sense for the professor, the person who will grade it, to be the first to see a paper. Have ONE idea with purpose: Many of us mistakenly try to take up too large a topic for a single 20-30 page essay.

Doing so prevents the paper from demonstrating any real mastery and from contributing to scholarly impetus. Instead, take a single idea, one main question, and explore it extensively. Footnotes and Thinking Outside, bibliography: Even if a given professor doesn’t require footnotes or knowledge of secondary criticism, it’s still good practice to include it. Culture Vs Popular Culture. Try to situate yourself in the current conversation over egyptian makeup, the texts that concern your paper. That way, when you do try to vs popular, turn the essay into an article or chapter, that essential component will already be built in.

Be honest: All but the least rational professors understand the pressure each semester presents, and hayek the road, they recognize that you are teaching and culture, writing two other papers at the same time as you’re writing one for their course. It’s safe to be honest about the limits of your time. If, for example, you recognize while writing that you need to cover a certain text but don’t have time to hayek, do it well, include a footnote to vs popular culture, explain the situation, stressing what the section would do if you had time to do it. Besides showing that you recognize what a complete argument looks like, you’ll also have a good place to examples, start revision in the future. Reflect the learning of the course: Even if your essay diverges widely from the course’s topic, it should somehow gesture in that direction, perhaps in high culture vs popular culture, footnotes. Cite at least one theorist: Get over your rabid formalism (if you ever had any). You don’t have to become a hard theorist, nor do you have to sacrifice emphasis on hayek, the text, to write a theoretically informed essay. Citing a theorist or using theory to articulate a point can give your paper a sophistication it would probably otherwise lack.

“A word may be a fine-sounding word, of an unusual length, and very imposing from culture its learning and novelty, and Thinking Outside the Box Essay, yet in the connection in which it is introduced may be quite pointless and irrelevant. It is not pomp or pretension, but the high culture, adaptation of the expression to the idea, that clinches a writer's meaning.” William Hazlitt, “On Familiar Style” We almost always focus our writerly efforts on argument and method—and quite rightly, because content makes up the soul of academic life. But we often emphasize argument at the expense of of a Story in the Newspaper, clear, strong prose, mimetic as it can be, active and culture vs popular culture, exact, self-conscious and purposeful. Poststructuralism correctly taught us not to rely on the relationship between words and things, yet that relationship is still the only means for churchill on the signification (or significance).

Put another way, the world may be an unclear, insoluble, contradictory place, yet writing needn’t simply surrender to culture, unclarity. Clear writing, however ultimately unstable, indicates clear thought: only when you articulate ideas with precision have you mastered them. Dismayingly, many English graduate students simply don’t know how to write strong academic prose. They often seem unaware that quality writing results more from Analysis in the discipline and continual revision than from preternatural ability. Far too many first drafts, far too little revision. Writing, like a muscle, strengthens with continual use, its sinews most solid when worked with purpose and action.

You owe your ideas the service of your best writing, and high culture, those who will judge your work—professors, fellowship and award committees, journals, university presses, tenure review boards—will perceive your ideas through the medium of egyptian makeup, your style. To be sure, the ideas cannot exist but within the culture, medium. Academic writing centers on action, on the assumption that things (whether texts, characters, forms, authors, readers, cultures) do or enact some function. Richard Lanham, author of Revising Prose (see below), encourages writers to ask “Who’s kicking who?” to specify what action the elements of egyptian makeup, a given sentence perform. This action provides the backbone, the culture, foundation, of a sentence or piece of prose. For example, we might reword the static sentence, “The seven books of the Harry Potter series have intriguing effects on readers emotionally” to specify the hayek to serfdom, action taking place and, as a consequence, the subject and objective complement: “The Harry Potter books intrigue the reader’s emotions” or “The Harry Potter books affect readers emotionally.” What seemed like one idea in the original sentence we reveal to contain two distinct ideas, and the author can choose which action s/he was trying to convey. In this way and culture, much more generally, academic writing revolves around verbs, and thus the choice of verb, the psychology definition, action around which the culture culture, sentence (and the argument) builds, becomes the most important a writer makes.

You should, as Hamlet rightly says, “suit the action to the word, the. Other stylistic habits—the good to be practiced, the bad to be shunned—appear below, adapted from a list titled “Suggestions for the Writing of Acceptable Essays,” given to this handbook’s authors by Professor John Rumrich: - Eliminate weak and extraneous words, such as very , quite , rather , total(ly) , somewhat , and the like. - Never use the passive voice if you can avoid it. - Avoid vague and wordy approaches to sentences, such as, o Another example of…is when… o It is important to note that… - Do not dangle modifiers; do not write such sentences as this one: “After presenting a scene of Analysis of a Story Newspaper, darkness, the culture vs popular, boat sits quietly on the Thames.” - Do not stack up great bunches of prepositional phrases; avoid such sentences as this one: An explanation of the status of mankind with respect to the overall plan is followed by a consideration of the passions. - Do not use for , as , or since when you mean because . - Do not use the pronouns this , these , that , those , which , or it unless they have clear and winston, unmistakable antecedents. - However should not come at the first of high vs popular, a sentence; place it deeper in the sentence: e.g., The irony in psychology definition, The Rape of the Lock , however, grows more complex than one might expect. - Semi-colons should be used in sentences composed of two independent clauses that are not connected by high culture, and , or , for , nor , yet , but . - Typed dashes are made of Thinking Outside Essay, two hyphens and no spaces: Shelley—or rather the high culture, speaker—begins the stanza with an imperative.

- Avoid vague and static sentences built around the verb to be . Instead of “Hamlet is poetic techniques examples, representative of a new kind of high vs popular culture, character,” write “Hamlet represents a new kind of egyptian makeup, character.” Below is a helpful excerpt from Gerald Graff’s “Scholars and Sound Bites: The Myth of culture vs popular, Academic Difficulty.” PMLA 115: 5 (October 2000), 1050-1. Do's and Don'ts for academic writers. 1. Be dialogical. Begin your text by directly identifying the prior conversation or debate that you are entering. What you are saying probably won't make sense unless readers know the conversation in hayek the road to serfdom, which you say it. 2. High. Make a claim, the sooner the better, and flag it for the reader by a phrase like “My claim here is that [. Psychology Definition. . .].” You don't have to use such a phrase, but if you can't do so you're in trouble. 3. Remind readers of your claim periodically, especially the high culture culture, more you complicate it. If you're writing about a disputed topic (and if you aren't, why write?), you'll also have to stop and tell readers what you are not saying, what you don't want to be taken as saying. Egyptian Makeup. Some of them will take you as saying that anyway, but you don't have to make it easy for them.

4. Vs Popular. Summarize the objections that you anticipate can be made (or that have been made) against your claim. Definition. Remember that objectors, even when mean and nasty, are your friends--they help you clarify your claim, and they indicate why it is of interest to others besides yourself. If the objectors weren't out there, you wouldn't need to high culture vs popular culture, say what you are saying. 5. Say explicitly—or at least imply—why your ideas are important, what difference it makes to the world if you are right or wrong, and so forth. Thinking The Box. Imagine a reader over your shoulder who asks, “So what?” Or, “Who cares about any of this?” Again, you don't have to write in such questions, but if you were to write them in and couldn't answer them, you're in trouble. 6. (This one is already implicit in several of the above points.) Generate a metatext that stands apart from your main text and puts it in vs popular, perspective.

Any essay really consists of churchill fight on the beaches, two texts, one in which you make your argument and a second in high culture culture, which you tell readers how (and how not) to read it. This second text is usually signaled by reflexive phrases like “I do not mean to suggest that [. . .],” “Here you will probably object that [. . Essay. .],” “To put the point another way [. ],” “But why am I so emphatic on this point?,” and vs popular culture, “What I've been trying to say here, then, is [. . .].” When writing is Story Newspaper, unclear or lame (as beginning student writing often is), the reason usually has less to do with jargon or verbal obscurity than with the absence of such metacommentary, which may be needed to explain why it was necessary to write the essay. 7. Remember that readers can process only one claim at a time, so there's no use trying to squeeze in secondary and tertiary claims that are better left for high another book, essay, or paragraph or at least for another part of your book or essay, where they can be clearly marked off from your main claim. If you're an academic, you are probably so eager to in the, prove that you've left no thought unconsidered that you find it hard to resist the culture, temptation to say everything at once, and consequently you say nothing that is understood while producing horribly overloaded paragraphs and sentences like this sentence, monster-sized discursive footnotes, and readers who fling your text aside and turn on the TV. 8. Be bilingual.

It is not necessary to avoid academese—you sometimes need the Outside Essay, stuff. But whenever you have to say something in academese, try to culture vs popular, say it in the vernacular as well. You'll be surprised to winston, find that when you restate an academic point in your nonacademic voice, the point is vs popular culture, enriched (or else you see how vacuous it is), and you're led to new perceptions. 9. Don't kid yourself. If you could not explain it to your parents or your most mediocre student, the chances are you don't understand it yourself. None of what I have said in this essay should be mistaken for the claim that all academic scholarship can or should be addressed to a nonacademic audience.

The ability to egyptian makeup, do advanced research and the ability to explain that research to nonprofessional audiences do not always appear in high culture vs popular culture, the same person. To adapt a concept from the philosopher Hilary Putnam, there is a linguistic division of poetic techniques examples, labor in which the work of research and that of popularization are divided among different people, as Friedrich Engels was rewrite man for Karl Marx. Yet even Marx's most difficult and uncompromising texts have their Engels moments—Engels could not have summarized Marx's doctrine if they did not. In short, it is time to rethink the view that the university is not in the “gist business.” Many other books and aids have proven useful in improving academic style. High Culture Vs Popular. Below are just a few: Griffith, Kelley. Writing Essays about Literature: A Guide and winston, Style Sheet . Vs Popular. Boston: Thomson, 2006.

Griffith’s study provides a nice introduction to writing on literary texts, though the poetic examples, guide speaks primarily to undergraduates. Lanham, Richard. Revising Prose . New York: Longman, 2000. Lanham’s book is culture, a classic guide for making prose dynamic and clear. The book centers on the “Paramedic Method,” a set of egyptian makeup, discrete steps for articulating ideas as clearly and actively as possible.

The first two chapters, on “Action” and high culture, “Shape,” apply directly to most graduate student writing. Williams, Joseph M. Hayek To Serfdom. Style: Ten Lessons in Clarity and high culture vs popular culture, Grace . New York: Longman, 2003. Churchill Fight. This guide offers a counterpoint of praxis to Lanham’s gnosis .