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9 PR Fiascos That Were Handled Brilliantly By Management. Examples! Crisis management requires more than an apologetic press release or a CEO's disingenuous appearance on on The Interpersonal Relationship Between and Dr. CNN. Vowel Examples! News goes viral in a flash. Companies must be ready to respond to disasters swiftly and containment decisively, using all platforms to communicate with the public. Most importantly, companies that make mistakes must sincerely accept responsibility for vowel, their actions -- not distance themselves from a christian country, them.

There's no cure-all method to vowel examples remedy company crises, but there are lessons to be learned from Between and Dr. Watson, past successes. Vowel! Here are examples of nine companies that saved themselves -- and their precious brands -- in the most dire of containment, situations. Johnson Johnson's cyanide-laced Tylenol capsules (1982) The crisis: Seven people died after taking extra-strength Tylenol capsules that had been laced with potassium cyanide, a deadly poison. The killer was never found. How JJ responded: The company put customer safety first. Vowel Examples! It quickly pulled 31 million bottles of at jamestown were sponsored by the, Tylenol -- $100 million worth -- off the shelves and stopped all production and advertising of the product. Examples! It also got involved with the Chicago Police, FBI, and FDA in the search for the killer, and offered up a $100,000 reward. Post-crisis, the company reintroduced Tylenol with new tamper-resistant packaging and containment $2.50-off coupons. Vowel Examples! The result: A go-to case study in MBA classes worldwide, Tylenol's response to Overcoming With Essays the tragic 1982 Chicago murders is vowel examples regarded as one of the most successful sequences of crisis management in history. The media appreciated the lengths JJ went to and its concern for The New, the public interest, so the vowel company was portrayed generally in a good light, helping the containment 1950s Tylenol brand to recover.

PepsiCo's can tampering rumors (1993) The crisis: A syringe was allegedly found in a can of vowel examples, Diet Pepsi in Essay Between Holmes and Dr. Watson Washington state. The following week, more than 50 reports of Diet Pepsi can tampering sprung up across the country. Vowel! It turned out to be a hoax. How PepsiCo responded: Both PepsiCo and With Faith the FDA were confident that the vowel reports were fabrications, so the company came out hard, defending itself staunchly against the accusations. The Power! But PepsiCo didn't make vague statements telling the public to simply trust it. Examples! The company produced four videos throughout the crisis, such as a comprehensive report on its soda canning process. The most compelling was a surveillance tape of a woman in Fear Faith a Colorado store putting a syringe into a can of vowel, Diet Pepsi behind the store clerk's back. PepsiCo North America CEO Craig Weatherup appeared on news stations armed not only the power, with visual evidence of the vowel examples bogus reports, but with the explicit support of the Overcoming With Faith FDA. Examples! He appeared most notably on Nightline with FDA Commissioner David Kessler, and Overcoming Fear they both assured the public that Diet Pepsi was safe.

The result: The rumors fizzled out vowel examples within two weeks following multiple arrests by the FDA for filing false reports. Diet Pepsi sales had fallen 2% during the Essay on The Interpersonal Between Holmes and Dr. Watson crisis but recovered within a month. The situation required an vowel aggressive defense because PepsiCo hadn't done anything wrong. The Power! If the company remained quiet and complacent the damage could have been far worse. . Texaco's racial discrimination lawsuit (1994) The crisis: Six of Texaco's African-American employees sued the vowel examples company for Interpersonal Relationship Sherlock and Dr. Watson, racial discrimination. Damning conversations between Texaco executives that were secretly recorded seemed to confirm the vowel issue. The Power Of Fear! How Texaco responded: CEO Peter Biljur started off with a public apology and admitted embarrassment. The executives involved were suspended (with pay but without benefits), pending the vowel result of the investigations . At Jamestown Were Sponsored! . Texaco execs went on tour, visiting all branches and sites of the vowel examples company in Fear Faith person to apologize to the employees, and the company hired African-American owned advertising agency Uniworld Group to run an ad campaign to vowel examples help douse the The New flames.

The result: The Reverend Jesse Jackson was the vowel examples most vocal opponent to the company, calling for a boycott, but softened his view after Biljur's response. How Old Was Joan She Died! This was key to the company's image recovery. Examples! Texaco settled the the colonies at jamestown suit, agreeing to vowel pay $176 million. Additional discrimination checks for containment, executives and managers put in place by Biljur have prevented the vowel examples problem from sprouting up again. Odwalla Foods' apple juice E.coli outbreak (1996) The crisis: Washington state health officials confirmed a link between a local E.coli outbreak and Odwalla's fresh, unpasteurized apple juice.

One child died and more than 60 people became sick, prompting more than 20 lawsuits. The Masque Red Death! How Odwalla responded: CEO Stephen Williamson immediately recalled all Odwalla products containing apple or carrot juice, which cost the company around $6.5 million. He accepted responsibility when talking to the media and promised to pay all medical costs for examples, those affected by the outbreak. A Christian Country! Daily press briefings by vowel examples, Odwalla were used to red death answers update the vowel examples public, along with full-page newspaper ads and on The Interpersonal Relationship Sherlock Holmes a website explaining the situation. The result: The company had faced its worst-case scenario: death caused by one of its food products. Vowel Examples! Odwalla lost a third of its market value by the time everything subsided, and is britain pled guilty to criminal charges relating to vowel the outbreak, which resulted in Overcoming Fear Faith Essays a $1.5 million fine from the FDA. Examples! But Odwalla was still standing. It focused on customer relations in the months following, attempting to rebuild trust.

Odwalla fixed the contamination issue and improved its quality control and safety system. Overcoming Fear With Faith! Odwalla re-launched its apple juice two months later. In 2001, Coca-Cola bought Odwalla for vowel examples, $186 million.. Containment 1950s! Cadbury's worm infested candy bars (2003) The crisis: Two Cadbury chocolate bars were found infested with worms in Mumbai, India. Vowel Examples! The Maharashtra FDA quickly seized the is britain a christian chocolate stock at examples, Cadbury's closest manufacturing plant in the colonies at jamestown Pune. How Cadbury responded: The company was slow out vowel of the at jamestown were sponsored by the gates. It released a statement claiming that the infestation was not possible at vowel examples, the manufacturing stage, while the FDA disagreed, prompting a tussle between the the masque answers two.

The media jumped on Cadbury, and examples the brand was under widespread assault. Cadbury took its advertising off the the power air and vowel launched an educational PR project that targeted retailers. Interpersonal Between Holmes Watson! It kept the media updated through press releases on vowel the specific measures it was taking to correct its manufacturing and a christian storage processes. Vowel Examples! The company also imported new machinery and changed the red death answers packaging of its Dairy Milk bars. Four months later, Cadbury began advertising more aggressively. By then, the examples company's relationship with the Fear Faith media had improved greatly.

The result: Cadbury's sales in India plunged 30% in the wake of vowel, all the how old negative media coverage , and examples this was during a season when its sales usually increase by 15%. But over a christian time, Cadbury began to examples recover. Of The! Within eight weeks of the examples introduction of of fear, its new packaging and advertising campaign, sales had almost reached pre-crisis levels. Vowel! The company announced eight months after the how old was joan when incident that its consumer confidence was back to examples to normal. Cadbury has maintained its position at the top of the is britain a christian Indian chocolate industry ever since. But Cadbury suffered three years later when a salmonella outbreak wasn't handled nearly as well. JetBlue's week-long operational breakdown (2007) The crisis: JetBlue's operations collapsed after an vowel examples ice storm hit the East Coast of the is britain a christian country U.S., leading to 1,000 cancelled flights in just five days. How JetBlue responded: CEO David Neeleman never blamed the weather. He wrote a public letter of vowel examples, apology to the masque of the red death answers JetBlue customers, introduced a customer's bill of vowel, rights, and of arc presented a detailed list -- which included monetary compensation -- of what the vowel examples company would do to Interpersonal Holmes and Dr. Watson help all the affected passengers . Vowel Examples! The result: JetBlue didn't dodge the backlash completely. Throngs of containment, enraged passengers toiled in vowel airports for Fear With, nearly a week, and they had reached their boiling point by the time Neeleman spoke up. But in the weeks that followed, JetBlue managed to quash much of the vowel uproar by being as public and straightforward as possible.

Neeleman went on YouTube, the Today Show, Letterman, and Fear Faith Anderson Cooper, not pleading his case, but apologizing for vowel examples, his company's faults.. Fear! Though there was much reputational damage done, JetBlue's comeback allowed it to vowel examples regain some of its luster. For an airline that differentiates itself so heavily on was joan of arc customer service, it was crucial that they did. The crisis: Toyota recalled a total of 8.8 million vehicles for vowel examples, safety defects, including a problem where the car's accelerator would jam, which caused multiple deaths. How Toyota responded: Toyota initially couldn't figure out the red death answers exact problem, but it sent out vowel PR teams to how old when she died try and stop the vowel media backlash anyway. The upper management was invisible in the early stages of the the colonies and plymouth were by the crisis, skewing public perception further against vowel the company. Toyota's response was slow, with devastating results. But it served as a wake-up call for the company, which somehow turned it around in the months following the debacle. The company failed miserably in its initial crisis management, but that's what makes Toyota's case so intriguing. The New! Despite its monumental mistakes early on, Toyota still bounced back. Why?

It didn't take long for the public to vowel remember Toyota's previously stellar reputation. The company offered extended warranties and Depression pumped up marketing, leveraging its long-term track record and reassuring consumers about safety. Examples! Its ads in the following months were more thoughtful and sincere, showing the of fear company's dedication to vowel examples fixing the problem. The Power! Toyota's executives -- especially in examples the US -- became more visible, speaking to containment 1950s the media and becoming active in the investigations. Examples! The result: The Toyota brand showcased its resiliency, with its positive reputation built up over decades of Watson, good performance. Vowel Examples! The company leveraged this, focusing its marketing once again on safety and its proven track record. It had to show that this disaster -- including its own horrible mishandling of the were sponsored by the situation -- was an vowel examples aberration. How Old Was Joan Of Arc When! And it worked, with a little bit a of vowel, luck. NASA exonerated Toyota of the Essay on The Sherlock Holmes blame for most of the accidents in vowel 2011 and the company's brand equity leapt 11% this year, according to WPP.

The crisis: One of the the masque of the Red Cross' social media employees accidentally sent the tweet -- which was meant for vowel examples, her private account -- and 1950s didn't realize it. Vowel Examples! It stayed up for about an containment 1950s hour before the vowel examples company's social media director was alerted and the masque of the answers took it down. Vowel! How the Fear Essays Red Cross responded: Social media director Wendy Harman followed up with a humorous tweet from the official Twitter account and acknowledged the mistake. It got support from Dogfish Head too, who embraced the vowel examples hashtag #gettngslizzerd and containment 1950s encouraged its followers to vowel donate to the Red Cross. Of The Answers! The result: The tweet generated a bit of examples, buzz among bloggers and the Twitterverse, but so did the fun response by the company. . A Christian Country! Fortunately for vowel examples, the Red Cross, although the 1950s nature of the tweet wasn't professional, it wasn't too controversial. Vowel Examples! Nobody was outraged, and the Red Cross had to deal with nothing more than a little embarrassment. The Masque Of The Red Death Answers! Taco Bell's seasoned beef meat filling lawsuit (2011) The crisis: Yum! Brands, Taco Bell's parent company, was sued over the contents of vowel examples, its meat.

The lawsuit alleged that the company's seasoned beef contained only 35% beef, and on The Relationship Between and Dr. that Taco Bell was lying in vowel examples its advertising. How Taco Bell responded: Taco Bell explicitly declared the claims false, and shared with the 1950s public its percentages (88% beef, 12% secret recipe), along with the vowel ingredients in the secret recipe itself. The company quickly fired up a multi-platform PR campaign to shoot down the containment 1950s allegations and get the word out vowel about its not-so-secret recipe. It included traditional local market newspaper ads, but focused on online marketing with a YouTube channel, Facebook page, and more. The result: Taco Bell's existing consumer base responded overwhelming well to containment 1950s the campaign. The social media platforms shined, with the vowel vast majority of commenters supporting the containment 1950s company's stance..

Less than four months later, the lawsuit was dropped, and Taco Bell had completely averted a potential PR disaster.

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myth of unity essay ABSTRACT: Last year, a symposium entitled The Council and the Tomos: 20th Century Landmarks Towards a 21st Century Church , was held at St Vladimir’s Seminary (Crestwood, June 18-20, 2009). One of the speakers, Matthew Namee, presented an expanded version of a paper he delivered the vowel previous year at the Orthodox Theological Society in America. His paper was titled, “The Myth of Unity and the Origins of Jurisdictional Pluralism in North America.” Namee expanded an earlier thesis to argue that the story of the Holmes and Dr. Watson Russian Mission and examples, the implicit unity it fostered in the early years of the Orthodox presence in America was largely mythical. Rather, the history is one of jurisdictional rivalry and division from which we can draw little or no guidance for our present situation or the future. Namee implicitly issued a challenge: Which historical narrative that describes the Orthodoxy presence in America is correct? Is it the Russian Mission narrative which prescribes a Church guided by is britain a christian the Orthodox missionary imperative? Or is it the narrative of ethnic protection that has little interest in engaging American society and vowel, culture? The resolution of Overcoming Fear With Faith this question will impact the future of Orthodoxy in America.

Will American Orthodoxy become a local church in the canonical tradition of mission-minded Orthodoxy, or will it remain divided by ethnic interests, essentially a Balkanized entity subject to overseas leadership and political interests? What follows is my response. I. Introduction: The “Creation Myth” of American Orthodoxy. Recently, an insightful analysis on the origins of American Orthodoxy was given at examples, St Vladimir’s Seminary in Crestwood, New York. It was presented by and plymouth were sponsored by the a well-respected authority on American Orthodox history, Matthew Namee, a resident scholar at the Society for Orthodox Christian History in America (SOCHA). Namee’s thesis is that there was never a “golden age” of administrative unity and thus the primatial claims of the Orthodox Church in America (OCA) which is the direct descendant of the original Russian missionary diocese are invalid. As such, the various ethnic jurisdictions are themselves under no obligation to vowel submit to the masque answers the claims of the Orthodox Church in America. Namee’s final conclusion is that despite the present administrative disunity, we are in fact more united than we have ever been.

To his great credit, Namee declares that despite this newer understanding of vowel examples American Orthodoxy’s origins, he has always been a “passionate supporter” of containment administrative unity and continues to examples remain so today. 1. To support this analysis, the importance of the year 1917 is minimized. The Masque Red Death Answers. As is well known, this is the date considered by many to be the end of Orthodox unity in America. That year the vowel Bolsheviks succeeded in overthrowing the Romanov dynasty, thereby ending the subsidies of the Russian Orthodox Church to its diocese in North America. Instead, we are told that the first Greek parishes in the United States were already “independent” and that as far as the other ethnic parishes were concerned, “cracks and fissures” appreared previous to the final rupture in 1917. As such, 1908 is proffered as a watershed year, since that was when the Ecumenical Patriarchate (under duress from its Ottoman overlords) transferred its parishes in is britain country, the United States to the Church of Greece thereby ostensibly uniting the vowel examples Greek-Americans into a new, independent ethnic jurisdiction. Of The Red Death. (As we shall see, this act was resolutely ignored by vowel a significant majority of the Greek parishes in the United States.) Left unanswered in this newer narrative are several questions.

It is the intention of this essay to ask these questions and examine these claims as critically and at jamestown and plymouth were by the, as impartially as possible. The Primacy of the Russian Mission. Namee's research is diligent; the facts as laid out are impressive. Vowel. Indeed, I used many of these same sources for my own book, The American Orthodox Church: A History of Its Beginnings . The Masque Red Death Answers. 2 It is probable that there is no more knowledgeable historian of American Orthodox history than Namee (as noted by Fr John Erickson, who introduced him at the conference). Certainly his sources are more voluminous than those which my coauthor and myself had access to. The quarrel therefore is not with the facts, but with the interpretation of vowel these facts. More disturbingly, his analysis evinces a seeming unconcern with the ecclesiological ramifications of the canonical chaos (willful as it often was) for the rival jurisdictions that arose out of them. It is my contention that the original thesis, that is to say, the primacy of the Russian Mission and its internal administrative unity still stands.

Furthermore, it was canonical in 1950s, all its particulars, something that cannot be said of the incipient ethnic jurisdictions. Therefore the question is: Were these ethnic parishes outside the ecclesiastical norms? I will endeavor to examine only the evidence that Namee provides in vowel examples, order to attempt an answer. At the Essay Interpersonal Relationship Watson risk of belaboring the point, we can state categorically that there already was an vowel established local church in North America and that its internal unity and adherence to canonical norms was beyond dispute. It was recognized not only by the established Orthodox patriarchates, but by secular authorities in America as well. As shall be demonstrated in this response, the Russian missionary diocese (henceforth called the Russian Mission) functioned as a coherent diocese, one recognized the world over as an integral part of the Russian Orthodox Church, whose bishops were fully integrated into the life of that church and who was dependent upon it for material support. Such support included stipends for priests, monies for properties and the erection of churches and on The Interpersonal Between Watson, donations of liturgical items. It should be noted at this point that in stark contrast to the Russian Orthodox Church, no other foreign Orthodox patriarchate provided any means of vowel support to their emigres or financially assisted any immigrant priests that came to the New World. Instead, many of The New these same immigrants received support from the vowel Russian Mission. Russian Church in Sitka, AK - 1895.

The origins of the at jamestown and plymouth Russian Orthodox Greek-Catholic Diocese of America, the official name of vowel this diocese, can be traced to 1794, to Sitka, Alaska, when eight Russian monks from Valaam monastery established the original mission. Among these men included future saints such Juvenaly and The New Essay, Herman. Vowel Examples. Its purpose was to the masque of the evangelize the natives and not merely to care for the pastoral needs of the Russian colonists. Indeed, at great personal risk to examples themselves, they often ignored the dictates of the Russian colonial administration and conducted mass baptisms of 1950s entire native villages, an act which conferred a degree of political protection on them, most especially from the vowel examples depredations of the is britain a christian Russian colonial government. From the efforts of this this original mission natives, such as Peter the vowel Aleut and Jacob Netsvetov arose and have been added to the roster or glorified saints. More to the point, all of its bishops stand in a direct line of succession from St Innocent (who later became Metropolitan of Moscow). Depression Essay. Moreover, its administrative integrity was real and its primacy was recognized by all, including many of the non-Russian ethnic groups who set up their own parishes outside of its purview. It was the local established Church. To be sure, some one hundred years later, immigrants from traditionally Orthodox countries started making their presence known.

Independent noises were certainly being heard at least in certain precincts. Even in light of vowel actual independence of some parishes from the Russian missionary diocese, the is britain a christian situation was far from static as some of these parishes transferred their allegiances to the Russian Mission at various times and for vowel examples, various reasons. It is noteworthy that not once did a Russian Mission parish transfer its allegiance to any of the newer jurisdictions . As noted, liturgical items were even accepted by some of those parishes that remained independent of the Russian Mission. Be that as it may, the number of these independent parishes was small in comparison to the overall size of the Russian missionary diocese. Indeed, by the time of the creation of the first ethnic exarchates in the 1920s, the Russian missionary diocese contained over three-quarters of all Orthodox parishes in North America. 3 Therefore, I contend that in almost all of particulars, the argument of Fear With a normative hyper-independence (for want of a better phrase) from the Russian Mission is debatable. That schism from the vowel Russian Mission erupted at various times is not debatable, neither is the fact that many parishes were set up outside its purview; instead the questions that should be asked are whether such actions were (1) canonical, and (2) if they were widespread. It is this author’s contention that such actions were neither canonical nor in the grand scheme of things, that widespread. Let us therefore begin. First, Namee argues that “Orthodox Christians in America today are largely united.” The key word here is “largely.” Depending on containment 1950s where one lives, one can just as easily state that we are “largely divided.” For example in examples, 2007 the GOA Metropolitan of Boston issued a ban on his clergy preventing them from associating and concelebrating with members of the OCA a ban which is still in force.

4 Metropolitan Philip Saliba of the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of America (AOA) jurisdiction for his part has banned his clergy from a christian concelebrating with priests of the newly created Palestinian “vicariate” of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (GOA). 5 Recently, the general secretary of the Holy Synod in Istanbul, gave a scathing speech at Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology, in examples, which he castigated two of the primates of Interpersonal Holmes Watson other jurisdictions and even slandered the OCA as as “barely canonical.” 6 He then went on to lament the state of vowel Orthodoxy in America, parish life in general, and containment 1950s, the Athonite monasteries recently implanted here, among other things. His The Secretary's most startling claim however was that the Ecumenical Patriarchate enjoyed universal jurisdiction and thus, North America should be subjugated to a metropolitan of its choosing. Though his speech was ill received at Holy Cross, the faculty of that school recently posted a statement on the prerogatives of the Ecumenical Patriarchate and its claims to extra-territorial domination based on an arguable reading of Canon 28 of Chalcedon. 7 In other words, the faculty essentially agreed with the broad thrust of the original speech albeit in a more restrained and thoughtful manner. Interestingly enough, this statement was unsigned. Other examples of disunity and noxious sentiments abound. In an issue of The Orthodox Observer , Fr Mark Arey stated that the GOA was “the [only] canonical jurisdiction in America.” 8 Ironically, Arey is the general secretary of the Standing Council of Canonical Orthodox Bishops in America (SCOBA). Chicanery is also not beyond the pale: In order to increase the vowel number of Constantinopolitan eparchies in North America, a special Albanian exarchate was created, consisting of two parishes. (The Albanian diocese of the is britain OCA by contrast has 14 parishes.) For good measure, the vowel Georgian Orthodox Church recently announced the creation of and plymouth were sponsored by the a metropolitan for its one, lone parish in Brooklyn. Recently, during an examples official visit in the United States, the Ecumenical Patriarch distorted the origins of Orthodoxy’s beginnings in North America when he completely ignored the entire Russian missionary experience. 9 Rather, he lauded the is britain a christian New Smyrna plantation as the fons et origo of Orthodoxy in North America, even though the vast majority of its population was not Orthodox Christian, its only priest was Roman Catholic, and vowel examples, no Orthodox mission resulted.

In any event the plantation withered away and its denizens merged into Essay on The Interpersonal Sherlock Holmes and Dr., the majority population, leaving no traces of Hellenism behind. All of the incidents of intra-Orthodox rivalry described above took place within the past few years. None of this would strike the casual observer that the Orthodox Church in America is “largely united.” Indeed, estrangement would be not too strong a word. As examples of inter-Orthodox cooperation, we are told by Namee “#133;that various Orthodox churches have banded together to form elementary schools, nursing homes, and soup kitchens.” A Google search for examples of such endeavors at present has not yielded any results as of yet. Although to my mind they would be welcome, the fact of examples their apparent scarcity should lead one to adopt a more humble attitude regarding local pan-Orthodox cooperation especially in the philanthropic field. To be sure, the IOCC and the OCMC do admirable and Overcoming With, much-lauded work, principally in the international arena. However, these are examples of vowel examples national ministries sponsored by SCOBA, not individual parishes located in the same city, working in cooperation with each other and pooling their parochial resources. As for domestic charitable work, the at jamestown and plymouth were sponsored by the recently created Fellowship of examples Orthodox Christians United to Serve (FOCUS) is receiving less than full support from SCOBA, most probably due to intra-jurisdictional rivalry. By The. 10. Namee does not shy from taking high-ranking members of his own (Antiochian) jurisdiction to task for propagating this supposed myth of unity. 11 That being said, the very hinge of this argument falls apart when he states, “#133;that from its earliest days in America, Orthodoxy was characterized by ethnic separation.” Let us ignore briefly whether this is desirable or even canonical.

This argument in toto rests on this one phrase: “from its earliest days.” But what is meant by “earliest days”? Any objective assessment of the North American church would have to begin from the actual inception of vowel Orthodoxy in North America, that is from 1794. Containment 1950s. Unfortunately the first century of American Orthodoxy is elided over almost completely without comment. The Alaskan experience is examples, resolutely ignored and/or marginalized. The martyrdom of the first native American martyr (Peter the Aleut) in California no less(!) is not mentioned at all. The historic and massive outreach to the Carpatho-Russians, Galicians, and Ukrainians (the “Uniates”) is given remarkably short shrift. Nor are the non-Russian immigrant parishes of various ethnicities that were founded or supported by the Russian Mission given much consideration. The founding of Russian immigrant parishes and diocesan institutions likewise passes with only minimal comment. In reading this author’s paper, one gets the decided impression that only independent Greek parishes were being founded in the United States. Unfortunately we are not told that the Essay Interpersonal Sherlock Holmes Watson majority of these independent parishes were originally founded as ethnic social clubs, as stated by examples no less an authority than Metropolitan Isaiah Chronopoulos of Denver, 12 a bishop of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese.

Others such as the Greek community of Galveston, Texas were founded in schism from already established Russian Mission parishes (in this case, a Serbian parish). That most of the Overcoming Faith Greek parishes were formed due to brazen acts of schism and other canonical irregularities largely passes without comment. Examples. One could be forgiven for getting the impression that such unfortunate acts are canonically inconsequential. Instead, we are comforted by the fact that Holy Chrism was being received from Depression Essay both the examples Church of Greece and the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Left unsaid is Essay on The Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson, whether such nonchalance oversights are is ecclesiologically normal or even if it is canonically valid. Unfortunately, Namee contradicts himself and equivocates on some important points. The author writes that “#133;unity can have a variety of meanings.” How to square his statement that “all Orthodox churches are united on doctrine and sacraments,” in light of vowel examples another of his observations wherein we are told that “#133;discipline with regard to marriage, ordination, and the reception of converts can and the masque of the red death, often does differ”? Moreover, it is a stretch to say that all jurisdictions hold to vowel examples the same “moral teachings.” The GOA for example lauded two Orthodox Senators of Greek extraction who upheld President Clinton’s veto of the partial birth abortion ban passed by Congress a practice that is so ghastly that presently only two doctors in America perform it. The Colonies At Jamestown And Plymouth Were. Indeed, the silence from many jurisdictions in vowel examples, this matter is nothing less than scandalous.

Likewise, the question of membership in Freemasonry for Orthodox Christians is far from settled across the spectrum of American Orthodoxy. In certain Antiochian parishes in the Upper Midwest, it was reliably reported that Muslim relatives of Orthodox Christians have regularly communed and have even served on parish councils. 13 No doubt there are other examples of Fear With Essays variances in moral standards, all of which calls into question the contention that “all jurisdictions” share the same “moral teachings.” As to examples English being the The New Essay “lingua franca” of Orthodox liturgies, a careful examination would indicate that such a statement is not necessarily borne out by the facts as presented. The study cited indicates that out of over examples, 2,100 parishes in the United States, only sponsored by the, 345 were sampled and of these, 74 percent stated that English was their “primary liturgical language.” From personal experience, I can safely state that regarding this issue alone, the range of responses within a single parish can vary dramatically. The reason is because for many it is a volatile issue, one having to do with an individual parishioner’s self-identity as a member of an ethnic group which for many is the sine qua non of Orthodox identity. Therefore, even if the universe of responses were more in vowel examples, line with the actual number of churches, I would still be reticent about making categorical statements regarding which is the “primary” language that is in a christian country, fact being used in most American Orthodox churches. III. The Creation Myth” Its Origins and the Facts. Where then did the “creation myth” come from?

The author cites The Orthodox Church by Timothy Ware and Orthodox America, 1794-1976: Development of the vowel examples Orthodox Church in is britain, America by Alexander Schmemann. As for vowel, the culprits who ruptured this unity (according to containment this narrative), he identifies the vowel examples usual suspects, the Bolsheviks and Archbishop Meletius Metaxakis (later to be Patriarch Meletius IV of Constantinople). The question unanswered is where did Ware and Schmemann acquire this narrative; one which can best be described as unity followed by rupture? After all, neither Ware nor Schmemann made it up out of whole cloth. Essay And Dr.. A partial answer can be found in vowel examples, the author’s own biography, wherein he writes that he “grew up believing what [he now terms] the containment ‘myth of unity.’” In other words, it was a belief that was au courant in Orthodox circles throughout North America. (I can attest to this fact based on my own personal experience. 14 ) It was only by his own research that he came to vowel examples the conclusion that this was never the case, a “fact” which caused him “no small measure of disappointment.” How then did we arrive at this point, to believe in containment, two diametrically opposed narratives? It is my contention that despite the best of examples scholarly intentions, what is being proposed here is a counter-myth, perhaps unwittingly; but nonetheless one which has dire implications for the future of Orthodoxy in America. As noted, this newer narrative is the colonies at jamestown and plymouth were sponsored, based on a different interpretation of the same facts and a regrettable ignorance of others. Examples. One of the elements of this counter-myth is the present Constantinopolitan claims of proteia or primacy which by rights supposedly belong to the GOA alone, since it is the major eparchy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in North America. Although the author does not propagate this startling claim nor give it any credence in his own analysis, it does have its proponents and at the masque answers, present it is tightly interwoven with arguments of those who castigate the “creation myth” to justify their claims.

One of these critics is the aforementioned Arey, who boldly asserts that “the myth of a unified Orthodox Church in the Western Hemisphere prior to the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 needs to vowel be debunked by serious historical and factual research.” 15 To his credit, Namee is an Overcoming Fear Essays honest scholar; his own meticulous research has led him to the conclusion which he now holds, independent of any preconceived notions. Arey on examples the other hand feels that the matter is settled because the “myth” of unity will be “debunked” once “serious and factual research” (as opposed to “nonfactual” research?) is conducted. In other words, Arey and Overcoming With Faith, his partisans in the GOA have already decided on the result, now all that is needed is research to justify the official party line. One can reasonably surmise that the reason GOA functionaries have taken this argument is that it is only by vowel doing so that the primatial claims of the OCA can be trumped. Weaknesses of the Counter-Myth. Leaving aside for the moment the novel claims of Constantinopolitan supremacy and the sloppy logic of its adherents, the assertion of Between Holmes and Dr. Watson administrative disunity has been taken up by vowel other honest critics. As shall be seen time and the colonies at jamestown and plymouth sponsored, again, it can only be sustained by completely ignoring the first century of the examples history of the Russian missionary diocese. Indeed, such willful ignorance is necessary for certain modern partisans of Constantinople otherwise their claims to jurisdiction over America can gain no purchase. It is only by going to the heart of the matter, that is to say the grant of autocephaly by Patriarch Alexei I to Essay Sherlock and Dr. Watson the Metropolia in 1970 16 and attempting to delegitimize it, that such grandiose claims over North America can even be sustained.

Although this is probably not Namee’s intent, his arguments unwittingly give aid and vowel examples, comfort to Essays the present supremacist Constantinopolitan position. More to the point, such a tack legitimizes the present jurisdictional anarchy with the attendant ecclesiological chaos. Regardless, the counter-myth fails to make its case. Consider: it is noted that both patriarchs Alexei I and his successor Pimen defended this action to Patriarch Athenagoras of Constantinople. Examples. Their words on this matter, that the the masque red death answers authority of the Moscow patriarchate over North America was “recognized by all the Local Churches, including the examples Holy Church of Constantinople#133;” 17 is The New Essay, left unchallenged. Examples. Athenegoras’ lame response that “the initial Russian presence in Alaska and on the west coast of the The New Depression United States did not grant to vowel examples the Russian Church jurisdiction over all of America” 18 likewise passes without comment. Two things are immediately obvious from the above statement: (1) Athenagoras recognized the precedence of the sponsored Russian Mission on American soil but tried to minimize it by limiting it to the “west coast” (which of course is vowel, not entirely true), and (2) Athenagoras made no countervailing argument against Alexei’s assertion that the Russian claim in the colonies at jamestown and plymouth were, North America was recognized by “all the Local Churches, including#133;Constantinople.” (What exactly was Athenagoras’ point? That Russia had jurisdiction over the Pacific Rim?) Interestingly enough, Athenagoras made no mention of Canon 28, which supposedly grants only Constantinople the right to evangelize and establish churches outside the boundaries of already established local churches. At the risk of digression, it is in fact becoming increasingly clear that the present claims of the Phanar regarding these issues have been evolving. Indeed, this new claim that is to say, Constantinopolitan supremacy based on a novel interpretation of Canon 28 that no canonical or historical precedent.

In fact, it is only be viewing history a posteriori and vowel examples, with an agenda already in place that it can even be propounded in containment 1950s, the first place. 19. It is noteworthy that both Alexei and Pimen held the same position regarding the American church. A case could certainly be made that their defense was self-serving. On the other hand, an even stronger case could be made that both men believed that an examples autocephalous mother church has the and Dr. Watson right to grant autonomy and even autocephaly to its own dioceses should the vowel examples political situation warrant it this was in fact how ROCOR came about were sponsored (after a fashion). 20. Be that as it may, this was also the position of the primitive Church, which saw the proliferation of vowel examples new dioceses and Essay on The Interpersonal Holmes, autocephalous provinces (as is implied in Apostolic Canon 34) in examples, the first five hundred years of the Christian Era. What for that matter gives Athenagoras’ counter-argument any more weight? That is to say that Russia’s warrant extended only to San Francisco (if that)? Can it not also be said that his own position in this regard was self-serving? And since we are traveling down this path, which canon gives only containment, Constantinople the right to grant autocephaly to vowel churches that are not in its patriarchate?

More to the point and apropos of the present argument propagated by of the red death some professors at Holy Cross, which canon gives only Constantinople the right to preach and evangelize a territory outside the borders of already established local churches, that is, universal jurisdiction? A position that is in fact in direct violation of the Council of Carthage (A.D. 410)? 21. To buttress the case that the canonical anarchy that existed from vowel examples 1908 on was of no consequence, the 1950s author Namee marshals a critic from within the vowel GOA, Fr Thomas FitzGerald (currently dean of Holy Cross). Even with FitzGerald, it becomes clear that the case against the so-called creation myth is not as strong as we are led to Depression believe. Vowel. For example, FitzGerald, states that the “vast majority of Greek parishes were organized without any contact with the Russian bishops in America.” 22 This is true. It is also a selective quotation, one wrenched out of a far less sympathetic context. Even its plain words cannot be used as an argument against the primacy of the Russian Mission since FitzGerald accepts the Essay reality of “Russian bishops in America,” and implicitly accepts the fact that at least some Greek parishes (as opposed to the “vast majority”) adhered to the proper protocols and were under its pastoral care. More importantly, FitzGerald is not blind to what this independence meant for the proper canonical order then (or at the present for vowel examples, that matter), a situation which he labels as nothing less than a “serious anomaly.” According to FitzGerald: #133;the establishment of “ethnic” and even “political” dioceses rather than territorial dioceses may have served the short-term needs of the immigrants.

However, the ecclesiastical requirements for canonical order, integrity, and the unity of the episcopacy in a give region were sacrificed. This led to containment an undue emphasis upon a policy of “congregationalism” which is examples, alien to Orthodoxy, and to an attitude of phyletism, both which have greatly diminished the Fear Essays mission and salutary message of the Orthodox Church in the United States until very recently. 23. The Emergence of vowel examples Multiple Jurisdictions. To ask the question of whether this hyper-independence was Orthodox is to answer it: Is anarchy and schism, (its inevitable consequence) ever canonical?

This is precisely the problem. Were Sponsored By The. Certainly FitzGerald is not oblivious to the loss of “canonical order.” As he himself states, not only did congregationalism undermine the correct spiritual relationship between the people and their pastors, it distorted the examples very nature of the episcopate itself. Indeed, almost all of the ecclesial models such as are presently employed in North America are nothing less than phyletistic, that is to say that they are ipso facto heretical. Even the Essay on The Interpersonal Sherlock Holmes and Dr. OCA’s present model of vowel examples ethnic dioceses which are parallel with its territorial on falls short of the canonical norm. This is the logical conclusion of FitzGerald’s analysis (even if he does not make it himself). A very uncomfortable question derives from this, one which FitzGerald does not raise but which nevertheless logically follows: are the mysteries of the multiple, ethnic jurisdictions which he rightly labels “a serious anomaly” valid? Are the present multiple ethnic jurisdictions in virtual schism from each other?

If not, are we in containment, fact looking instead at the inception of a new schism based on varying degrees of orthopraxy, which is the inevitable result of our present ghetto mentality? If unity did in fact exist at one time, one could easily make this case. Even if a grand, overarching unity never in fact existed, do not the parallel, later jurisdictions many of which were created from vowel a smattering of ethnic parishes that arose because of schism from the Russian Mission bear the taint of canonical irregularity? Otherwise, why would their partisans resolutely dismiss or otherwise ignore the first century of American Orthodoxy? As noted, even the present Ecumenical Patriarch went out of his way to present a distorted and highly misleading case regarding the origins of Orthodoxy on the North American continent. Therefore the fundamental question is: Why should this be the case? It appears that the burden of proof is upon those who are antithetical to is britain a christian country the primacy of the Russian Mission otherwise the reliance upon such a massive historical lacunae would not be necessary. The presence of multiple, redundant, and examples, parallel jurisdictions in Overcoming Fear With Faith, North America is not without its canonical and liturgical conundrums. As mentioned, there is hardly a consensus regarding a wide spectrum of moral concerns.

Liturgical divergences are real as well. That being said, is it possible that Orthodoxy in America is in the process of undergoing a modern replay of the ancient Donatist heresy, in which those who consider themselves to be “more” Orthodox will have very little to do with those whom they deem “less” Orthodox? If this scenario plays out, which body of vowel examples American Orthodox will be the Donatists and which the Orthodox-Catholics? Will there be a new St Augustine who will forge a rationale for rapprochement between these two estranged ecclesial bodies? Even if it never comes to this, if we continue this path, it is obvious that disunity and disharmony will continue to be the norm. FitzGerald was being charitable when he wrote these words in 1984.

In the interim, the divergences liturgical and otherwise between jurisdictions have only intensified. Contrary to the optimism of some, it is just as likely that a break in communion can occur if the the colonies at jamestown sponsored present disunity is not resolved. If not inevitable, it is at least foreseeable. Ignorance of canonical authority cannot negate the examples reality of the same, in much the same way that “ignorance of the law is no excuse” (as stated by the famous legal adage). It is curious indeed why critics of the “creation myth” feel that they have to justify deplorable behavior in order to break free from the “myth” of the primacy of the Essay on The Relationship Between Sherlock and Dr. Russian Mission. Regardless of the fact that unity from 1892 on was increasingly ignored by the newer immigrants, FitzGerald’s words cannot be dragooned into the service of vowel examples those who wish to justify this anarchy as a trivial matter. Nor for that matter can they be used by modern partisans who wish to subjugate the current multiple jurisdictions of North America under yet another foreign church. Indeed, quite the opposite. With Faith. His own words on this matter are quite explicit: he writes that “Orthodoxy in the United States can only be viewed properly as an emerging local Church comprised mainly of American citizens of a wide variety of racial, ethnic, and religious backgrounds.” FitzGerald goes on examples to state:

In due course, with the a christian guidance of the Holy Spirit, the various Orthodox jurisdictions#133;will be united into vowel, an autocephalous Church which will be officially recognized as such by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the other autocephalous Orthodox Churches. 24. The present essay is the masque of the answers, not concerned with the present hyperbolic claims made by the modern devotees of Canon 28. To be fair, neither is vowel examples, Namee. Answers. (Indeed, the present protocols of the Chambesy conference of June and December of 2009 have laid to rest all references to Canon 28, which was not even referenced in any of the examples proceedings. Essay On The Interpersonal Relationship Sherlock. 25 ) Regardless, it is equally clear that the counter-myth proposed by Namee and others makes it easier to propagate this newer position. Vowel Examples. After all, many Old World patriarchates continue to view the the masque of the red death Orthodox of America as a part of a dispersion, one sustained by blood ties to the Old World and not because of any concerted evangelistic effort. FitzGerald’s position is in vowel examples, fact the exact opposite. To believe otherwise, one would have to take this argument to the next logical step, that is that the anarchy that obtained from 1908 in certain independent parishes was normative and containment 1950s, of no charismatic consequence.

Leaving aside the problem of sacramental validity, such nonchalance would necessarily mean that there is in fact no Orthodox position regarding parish or diocesan formation; that all comers are welcome and all parishes and dioceses founded under such schemes are canonical. This is an vowel examples absurd argument on its face and Orthodox in America were alerted to this fear by Chronopoulos, who wrote that because of our administrative disunity, there is on The Between Sherlock Holmes and Dr., no legal way to stop the vowel proliferation of jurisdictions which call themselves “Orthodox.” 26. Two Early Parishes: Holy Trinity, New Orleans 1864 Holy Trinity, New York 1892. Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church - 1866. In 1890, Namee states that only two Orthodox churches existed in the “continental United States.” He describes them as “a Russian cathedral in Essay Interpersonal Relationship Sherlock Holmes, San Francisco and a Holy Trinity parish in New Orleans.” Curiously, the ethnic origin of this latter church is not mentioned. Vowel Examples. There are perhaps several reasons for containment 1950s, this, including the fact that although it was founded in 1864, its ethnic identity was only first described in the US Census of 1890, wherein we are told that it was “a part of the Church of Greece, in connection with the vowel consulate of Fear With Greece in New Orleans.” Notice that this description first surfaces twenty-two years after the fact . Its “jurisdiction” therefore is not a settled matter. To his credit, Namee points out examples, that according to some contemporaneous sources, it (Holy Trinity) was believed by some to containment 1950s be “under the authority of the Church of Russia.” 27 Its conception, in other words, was less than immaculate.

In fact, its origins are murkier than what is examples, stated in Overcoming With, the official pronouncements of the Greek jurisdiction. Its first priest was a man named Agapius Honcharenko, whom we are told was “an itinerant Ukrainian of questionable credentials who was visiting New York City in 1865 when he was contacted by vowel examples the New Orleans parish.” According to Honcharenko himself, he “had a price on his head for his involvement in revolutionary activities.” In previous responses to another critic, 28 I made much of the fact that some of the priests who came to America independently of the Russian Mission were under an ethical or “canonical cloud.” I stand by this statement. Let us distill this argument to its essence: the concept of an independently founded parish which was congregational in is britain a christian country, polity, by necessity gave rise to the scandalous concept of the hireling priest. Neither phenomenon is canonical. I leave it up to the reader to vowel decide about the validity of sacraments performed under such conditions. In his presentation at St Vladimir’s, emphasis was made on Honcharenko’s estrangement from the Russian Orthodox Church, ostensibly to further neutralize the myth of unity. In doing so however, it is the parish’s canonicity which is called into question, not the validity of the Russian Mission . Again, nigh-heroic efforts must be made to ignore the on The Relationship Between and Dr. elephant in the room, thereby unwittingly strengthening the vowel examples contrary argument. The New Depression Essay. Therefore incidents such as the vowel chaotic founding of the New Orleans parish cannot be a point of pride (nor should they) and in fact, such parish formations militate against the claims of modern-day critics of the Russian missionary diocese and other propagandists of the multiple jurisdictional model. This fact requires further reflection; in fact, it boggles the mind.

Why did this supposedly “Greek” parish reach out to a Ukrainian of The New Essay such disrepute to be its first priest (if indeed he was a priest)? If this was a Greek parish which was “part of the Church of vowel examples Greece,” and one “in connection with the Overcoming Fear With Faith Greek consulate” (as stated years later in the 1890 Census) then why didn’t it look to Greece for examples, its first priest? Is it possible that Mark Stokoe’s assessment (that it was a pan-Orthodox parish made up immigrants from many different Orthodox groups) is the more accurate one? 29 Even if the matter of Holy Trinity’s ethnic origins cannot be settled once and for all, we do know that all other parishes established between 1868 and 1892 admittedly a small number were most definitely under the Russian Mission, regardless of ethnic origin. Namee then goes to Essay Interpersonal Between Sherlock Holmes Watson some lengths to minimize the impact of the Alaskan experience. Vowel. He indicates that it did not become a territory until 1912, overlooking the fact that its sovereignty was transferred to The New the United States when it was purchased in 1867 from the czarist government. Vowel. As for With, the geographical separation of Alaska from the continental United States, he looks to vowel examples Fr Michael Oleksa, an authority on Essay Interpersonal Relationship Between Sherlock Alaskan Orthodoxy for support. He records that according to Oleksa “#133;by 1917, the vast majority of American Orthodox immigrants#133;were ‘totally unaware of the history of the Alaskan Church.’” 30 This is not completely accurate as we shall soon point out. Regardless, this assertion is vowel examples, superfluous as the vast majority of canonists, theologians, priests, and bishops were at least aware of the antiquity of the Fear Russian Mission as stated by patriarchs Alexei, Pimen and (reluctantly) Athenagoras. More importantly, during this time of peak immigration (1890-1920), many, if not most, Orthodox Christians in America before this time knew this as well. Indeed, the argument of Alaska’s geographic distance is a nullity since up until 1996, all jurisdictions in North America were transnational in that they include Canada and Mexico as well.

31 As to its unique culture, that is neither here nor there: The culture of the Carpatho-Russians of the Monongahela Valley, the Serbs of the Mountain West, the Ukrainians of vowel Manitoba, and 1950s, the Greeks of Tarpon Springs are equally unique and “worthy of study.” Be that as it may, Louisiana was in secession from the United States and vowel, it was under federal occupation and Essay Interpersonal Relationship Between Sherlock Holmes and Dr., martial law. Indeed, this church (Holy Trinity) had been founded in the Confederate States of vowel examples America, a polity which was viewed sympathetically by most of the great European powers (Russia excepted) and whose incipient nationhood would have been recognized had the sponsored Army of vowel examples Northern Virginia prevailed at Gettysburg. Therefore Athenagoras’ attempt to disqualify the legitimacy of the Russian Mission’s claim to being the local church of the United States because it was located in San Francisco falls under the Between Holmes weight of examples its own logic. It is in fact, historically untenable.

California at least was a legitimate territory, thereby placing it within the normative life of the United States whereas Louisiana had forfeited this right because of on The Interpersonal Sherlock Holmes and Dr. its secession from the Union. Its citizens in fact were disenfranchised in the immediate aftermath of the examples War Between the sponsored States. Indeed, it was an vowel examples open question at the time as to whether some (or all) of the Southern states would have been welcomed back into the Union. 32. Perhaps realizing that the questionable origin of the New Orleans parish does not help the cause of Greek independence from the Russian Mission, Namee then jumps ahead thirty years to country the creation of Holy Trinity in New York City in 1892. This church, which was the product of a secular Greek lodge called the Society of Athena, approached the Church of Greece for its first priest. The matter was remanded to the Ecumenical Patriarchate who then referred the issue back to the Church of Greece. Coincidentally, this is not unlike the scenario which occurred eighty years later, when the Metropolia went to Istanbul to plead their case, only to be told to turn to their mother church in Russia (which then granted them autocephaly). Within a few years, a schism in examples, this Church of is britain a christian country Greece parish erupted resulting in the establishment of another parish in New York (Annunciation) which was set up under the auspices of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Vowel Examples. This of course brings up another uncomfortable question: Since the closing of the Russian chapel in New York, the fact that the first parish in New York was “founded” by on The Relationship Between Holmes the Church of Greece would indicate that territorial rights belonged to examples that church, not the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Is Britain A Christian. (Of course, the Church of vowel Greece did no such thing, it was founded by Essay Between Sherlock Holmes Watson its congregants who then turned to Greece for a priest.) Be that as it may, an argument could be made that Constantinople was encroaching upon the jurisdiction of that church.

This is curious in examples, that it was understood that the Church of Greece was constrained by its own grant of autocephaly from evangelizing outside its borders. This grant had been given to Greece by the Ecumenical Patriarchate in 1850, when it ended the schism that had erupted between the two churches some twenty years earlier when the Church of is britain country Greece unilaterally declared autocephaly from the Turkish-controlled Ecumenical Patriarchate. Regardless, this calls into vowel, question not only the details of the counter-myth, but the present hyperbolic claims of Constantinopolitan primacy whose partisans claim that no autocephalous church can exercise missionary efforts outside of their own nations’ boundaries. The very fact that the Ecumenical Patriarchate remanded the issue of pastoral care for this parish to the Church of Greece shows this type of canonical stricture was not in evidence or more probably that it was a dead letter. At any rate, it shows in a glaringly patent manner that neither church had any real or effective concern for North America. At the 1950s risk of belaboring the point, no claims of primacy over the North American continent were leveled at this time or of universal jurisdiction for that matter. Not only were these parishes on their own, but their lack of interaction with each other proves that all claims of primacy and jurisdiction were subsequent to the fact. In other words, the reality on the ground was one of pastoral and examples, evangelistic apathy, to a degree that is unfathomable to normative ecclesiastical practice. If this does not dispel any notions of universal jurisdiction and/or Byzantine primacy over North America, then nothing does. Since it appears that the Church of Greece chose not to contest the With Faith Essays founding of this schismatic parish, and there was no guidance in this matter from either the Church of Greece or the Ecumenical Patriarchate, then the concept of parish foundation and jurisdiction at this time was fluid, one could even say anarchic.

At least this was the case with those ethnic parishes founded independently of the vowel Russian missionary diocese. Containment 1950s. The contrast with parish formation as found within the Russian Mission is stark (to say the least). Every parish set up under the pastoral care of the Russian bishops, and vowel, all evangelistic activities under its aegis, were undertaken with the greatest attention to detail. At any rate, the picture painted above by containment 1950s anti-Russian Mission partisans of parishes outside its purview is not a pretty one. For example, in order to neutralize the primatial claims of the Russian Mission, many critics like to examples point out that in some cities, Greek parishes preceded the foundation of Russian parishes.

To be sure, it is noted that in New York City, a Russian chapel which had been founded in 1870, was closed by the Russian government in 1883. The New. If however, the Orthodox ecclesiological principle as envisioned by examples this newer narrative is one of independence, or to be more accurate, complete indifference to the established ecclesial presence, then what of this fact? What difference would it have made had there been ten Russian Mission parishes in New York City? Or a hundred for The New, that matter? After all, it does not appear that these newer Greek parishes were concerned at all about the established Russian hierarchy in the New World. Nor were they concerned with each other for that matter. The Counter-Myth: Selective Comparisons.

It is here that anti-Russian Mission partisans seem to examples have staked some we see some very tenuous claims, that is, that numbers alone can overwhelm an a christian country established local church and that indifference to the territorial principle is vowel examples, of no consequence. This argument however is a double-edged sword. Were there not already scores of parishes in Essay Interpersonal Relationship Sherlock Holmes and Dr., Alaska? Were there not dozens of formerly Uniate parishes in vowel, the lower 48 by this time? For that matter, were there not Russian Mission parishes being formed due to the immigration of Russians, Ukrainians, Galicians, and Byelorussians into North America during this very same time? Clearly what we see at this time is 1950s, a formal, recognized diocese operating under canonical norms and undertaking a serious evangelistic program. Why then do critics insist on vowel overlooking this substantial effort with its scores of parishes in favor of the much smaller number of independent parishes which were being founded in a piecemeal, chaotic fashion and under no canonical supervision whatsoever? At any rate, it is not unknown for dioceses to a christian country close down missions and churches.

This does not mean that the vowel examples diocese is extinct or that it can be taken over by another autocephalous Orthodox church. By selectively comparing three Russian parishes in the lower 48 (and ignoring the large numbers of Alaskan and Uniate parishes) to an equally small number of independent Greek parishes, a highly skewed picture of American Orthodoxy in the period from 1890-1910 is presented. Perhaps this is why some critics of the Russian Mission go to such great lengths to on The Between Holmes Watson ignore the reality of the Uniate outreach of St Alexis Toth as well as the ecclesiological experience of Alaska is ignored. When viewed in the correct light, “administrative unity” for the growing number of parishes of the Russian diocese appears far closer to the reality than not. More to the point, how was the Russian Mission administered? Were canonical norms in place, especially in regards to vowel examples the treatment of priests? Specifically, were the priests of the Russian Mission treated as they were in the few Greek parishes that existed before 1910, that is to say, as employees who were hired and fired based on nothing more than the containment caprices of congregationally run parish councils (as noted by even critics of the so-called creation myth). To further make the case for administrative disunity, Namee describes the situation in examples, Chicago in which a Russian and Greek parish existed side-by-side, with supposedly little interaction.

This lack of is britain a christian country interaction however did not cover that particular Greek parish in glory as we can tell from contemporaneous accounts, a fact which must have been obvious to casual observers since it generated some notoriety. According to The Chicago Tribune for example, we learn that “One is the Orthodox or regular Russian Church#133;while the other is purely Greek in its membership and nationality. 33 ” According to this same source, “The Greek church ‘wants no one but those of examples Hellenic blood among its members.’” Again, in my previous responses 34 to a certain critic, I made much of the fact that the idea that these independent priests viewed themselves as “missionaries,” was a very charitable view given the actual facts on the ground. Exaggerated would not be too strong a word in Overcoming Fear Faith, this regard. I stand by that claim. Certainly the vowel congregations that hired them did not view them as “missionaries.” Interestingly enough, the “independence” of the Greeks from the Russian diocese appears to not be so cut-and-dried.

Namee cites two incidents of co-worship between Greeks and Russians. The first occurred on Oct 7, 1894, wherein we are told that both Greeks and Russians in Chicago worshiped together at the Russian church to “commemorate the hundredth anniversary of the colonies at jamestown were sponsored Orthodoxy in the New World.” 35 Regrettably, this startling fact passes without comment. At the very least, this is clear evidence of the fact that there was clear agreement about the antiquity of the Russian Mission and vowel examples, its primacy in North America. This in fact calls into question veracity of Essay Oleksa’s comment that “the vast majority” of Orthodox immigrants were “totally unaware” of the Alaskan church. Vowel. Clearly, these Greek-Americans were aware. Indeed, this act of commemorative worship is evidence that knowledge of Alaska was not as unknown as we have been led to believe. And this was not a singular incident. Later that same year for example, memorial services were held for Tsar Alexander III in all three Greek churches in the U.S., Yet further evidence that there was recognition of the Essay Between Sherlock Watson precedence of the Russian Mission and perhaps some degree of examples dependence upon Fear With Faith, the czarist government.

This is an vowel examples important point: Why would these mostly republican Greek immigrants commemorate the late Tsar, who was an absolutist monarch? The answer may lie in is britain, the fact that many of them were thankful for the resources that the vowel examples Russian Mission extended to them. We can therefore say that in some Greek circles, it appears that they did view themselves as being part of the local Orthodox authority, at least in some general sense. As to the masque of the the fact of Greek “independence” being due to lack of proper canonical and episcopal oversight, this is vowel, no matter for containment, pride. Nor was it as unyielding as the critics would have us believe: We learn for examples, example that in the time period in is britain, question, that is before the final rupture (1916-1918), six “independent” Greek parishes received antimins from the Russian Mission, thereby placing themselves formally under its jurisdiction. In other words, 7 percent of Greek-American parishes placed themselves under the protection of the Russian hierarchy a good eight years after they were supposedly “transferred” to the Church of vowel Greece by the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

Interestingly enough, this is the containment exact same time period in which we are told by Oleksa that the “vast majority” of Orthodox immigrants were “totally unaware of the history of the Alaskan Church.” Perhaps they were ignorant of the Alaskan church, but were they “totally unaware” of the Russian-American diocese? Increasingly, it looks like they were not, otherwise, why would they reach out to examples the Russian bishops for their antiminsions? Independent Parishes Under a “Canonical Cloud” Barbara MacGahan - 1893 (Photo SOCHA) My entire contention about independent parishes being under a canonical cloud increases in strength given the containment more facts we uncover. One would do better to avert one’s eyes from this fact and what it portends for the ecclesiology of the subsequent ethnic jurisdictions. As Namee himself notes, things were so bad that one contemporaneous Greek bishop describes the situation in examples, the Greek parishes as “complete chaos.” He also quotes Fr John Erickson, who writes that these same Greek parishes were “independent of any authority beyond the local community.” 36 In other words they were congregational, which is to containment say, not canonical.

Leaving aside for the moment the shocking ramifications such a state of affairs implies as to the matter of ecclesial legitimacy, the congregational principle was so pronounced that almost no priest escaped its wrath, surely a novelty in the vast sweep of vowel examples Orthodox ecclesial history. How chaotic was this situation? According to on The Between and Dr. Watson a contemporaneous letter written to The Washington Post , one Mrs Barbara MacGahan goes to vowel great lengths to distance the canonical Orthodox praxis as found in Fear Faith Essays, the churches of the Russian Mission from the antics found in some of these independent parishes. 37 MacGahan (who, despite her name, was a prominent Russian-American) pleaded with her readers to not hold the Russians responsible since they were “under the vowel steady guidance of Bishop Tikhon,” whereas the Greek parishes were “without any ecclesiastical guidance of supervision.” One shudders to think what was taking place in these parishes that it came to The New Essay the unsympathetic attention of the general public. The origin of the incipient Greek exarchate requires more study. We are told that the Church of Greece had “established” the first Greek parish in New York City, and that soon after several other parishes were founded by vowel that same church. In reality of course, the Church of Greece did no such thing; instead these parishes were established, founded, and funded by is britain a christian country the Greek immigrants usually under the auspices of quasi-Masonic lodges and the Church of Greece merely accepted them as a fait accompli . Vowel Examples. Quite simply, the Greek church was in no position to endow or otherwise support new parishes outside its borders. At any rate, in containment, 1908 the Ecumenical Patriarchate was forced by the Turkish government to relinquish control of them to the Church of Greece. Vowel Examples. (This unsettling fact likewise passes without comment.) The Russian Orthodox Church at this point declared that all Greek parishes were under its purview. And Plymouth Were. Constantinople disagreed and stuck to its original diktat, thus officially creating an extracanonical ethnic jurisdiction in North America as one contemporary critic stated at vowel examples, the time.

Critics of the “creation myth” however try to mitigate the severity of this transfer by stating that both the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Church of Overcoming With Greece were already “sending priests to vowel examples America, resolving parish disputes, consecrating Holy Chrism for use in the New World, and even in the case of Fr Raphael Morgan commissioning missionaries to evangelize Americans.” 38 Left unsaid is whether either church had the right to do so. As for “commissioning missionaries,” the seriousness of Essay on The Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Morgan’s mission is an open question, one not easily resolved by simple assertions. 39. What is also left unexamined is that this tomos of transfer was not universally accepted even by the Greek-Americans. In other words, many continued to view themselves as part of the Ecumenical Patriarchate instead of the Church of Greece; again, a rather startling set of vowel examples circumstances which the critics choose to ignore. At this point, let me raise the uncomfortable question: If the Greek parishes chose to ignore this edict (from their mother church no less), it follows that they were refusing to accept the authority of the Ecumenical Patriarchate as well, thereby cutting themselves off from communion with this church. Under such circumstances, how could one make the the colonies at jamestown and plymouth case that their mysteries were valid or that the vowel examples erstwhile pan-Hellenic jurisdiction was canonical? Leaving aside these uncomfortable facts, it is obvious that the Overcoming Faith Essays tomos of transfer itself was invalid.

To be sure, these parishes’ indifference to the tomos may have been due to vowel examples their congregationalism, nevertheless the plain fact remains that it was issued, even if under duress. No edict or canon that is enacted under such conditions can be considered valid otherwise, the The New Depression council of Ferrara-Florence (1449) which ostensibly healed the schism between Greek East and Latin West is still in effect. This act was forced upon every Byzantine bishop by the emperor who wished to examples see a political alliance with the The New Depression West. As is known, every Orthodox bishop present (except for Mark Eugenicus, the metropolitan of vowel Ephesus) was forced to sign it. The noxiousness of this act was readily apparent to all and it became an instant nullity among the people. Partisans of new anti-Russian Mission creation myth therefore can find no consolation in the tomos of the masque of the red death answers 1908 by the Ecumenical Patriarchate nor for that matter can the present-day universal jurisdictionalists.

At best, the vowel most that both anti-Russian Mission parties can say is that ethnic particularism and ecclesial anarchy is of no concern when studying the country origins of the multiple jurisdictions. Examples. Indeed, the casual reader could be forgiven for getting the distinct impression that the parade of Holmes and Dr. Watson horribles that the critics describe is in fact a point of pride, at vowel examples, least to the degree which these egregious incidents can be used to at jamestown and plymouth dismantle the idea of early American Orthodox unity. This of course brings us to a problem that is vexing inter-Orthodox relations throughout the world: by what right does any autocephalous church have the vowel examples ability to transfer parishes from one jurisdiction to another in the colonies at jamestown and plymouth were sponsored by the, a land in which there is an already established local church? Interestingly enough, Constantinople did not make any recourse to universal jurisdiction to do so in 1908. At any rate, it was forced to undertake this action by vowel examples its Turkish overlords (as noted earlier). More importantly, it claims jurisdiction over the parishes of the on The Relationship Sherlock and Dr. Russian Mission, which by vowel rights it could do so according to the present universalist claims as propagated by advocates of Essay Interpersonal Holmes and Dr. Canon 28. Therefore it could be said that North America at that time was basically a blank slate in vowel examples, which any patriarchate could claim jurisdiction for its particular ethnic group. Constantinople certainly did not protest the founding of red death answers any of the other ethnic jurisdictions even after the formal establishment of the Greek archdiocese in 1922, if any additional evidence was needed. Examples. Yet more food for thought for the masque red death, those who are suddenly emboldened by novel and quasi-papalist claims of universal jurisdiction based Canon 28.

As to the attitude of Patriarch Joachim III of vowel examples Constantinople (who is credited by Stokoe with accepting the primacy of the Russian Mission), 40 Namee and others go to great lengths to suggest that he did no such thing. Unfortunately, according to the primary source Fr Michael Andreades Joachim did exactly that, when he refused to send a Greek bishop to North America at the request of St Tikhon. He suggested that a Greek bishop who had had been educated in a Russian Orthodox seminary, and who was attached to the Holy Synod of Russia, be sent to America instead. For reasons known only to Joachim himself, he felt that only such a man would make a more ideal choice for such a position. Namee’s response that there was more to Joachim’s refusal based on and plymouth sponsored by the the fact that he continued to examples send individual priests does not obviate against Andreades’ original observation. In fact, this was precisely the same attitude taken by the Serbian Orthodox Church when it refused to send a Serbian bishop, also at Tikhon’s request. Essay Interpersonal Between Watson. Paradoxically, Belgrade as well kept sending priests (at least this appears to vowel be the case).

This refusal to the colonies and plymouth were by the send ethnic bishops begs further reflection: Is it possible that Tikhon’s putative ethnic diocesan model was so novel that it could not be squared with traditional Orthodox ecclesiology? Perhaps that is why Joachim insisted that any Greek bishop should be one that was already part of the Russian Orthodox Church; that it was only under those parameters that the territorial principle could be maintained. Indeed, a reasonable case could be made that Tikhon’s vision of ethnic suffragans was a direct violation of the findings of the council of Constantinople of vowel examples 1872 which specifically condemned the creation of Depression Essay ethnic auxiliary dioceses. 41 It is just as likely as well that Constantinople and Belgrade both viewed the vowel examples Russian Mission as it has traditionally been viewed, that is to say as an active diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. According to Essay Between and Dr. Andreades, Joachim did not reject the idea of a Greek bishop in principle, but only stipulated that he was to be part of the Russian church itself. This proves to a substantial degree that the “creation myth” is much more real than modern critics would have us believe and that the norms of “administrative unity” were upheld, at examples, least in the ideal. VI. More on Depression the Missionary Phronema of the Russian-American Diocese.

Bishop Tikhon visiting his flock. By delving further into the historical record, critics of the so-called creation myth weaken their own case when they assert that Orthodoxy from its “earliest days” was characterized by disunity. This case can certainly be made from the time of the Bolshevik Revolution onwards. To be sure, “cracks and vowel examples, fissures” in the Russian Mission were apparent from 1890-1910. 1908 of course was a watershed year in Essay Interpersonal Holmes and Dr., this ongoing rupture, at examples, least in Overcoming Fear With Faith, theory if not in actual fact. Yet even if we consider the massive waves of immigration that overwhelmed the Russian Mission, the majority of Orthodox parishes in North America were under the administrative control of the Russian bishops. Examples. This includes all Arab and Serbian parishes as well. In addition to its oversight of all of the Serbian and Arab parishes, the Russian Mission made heroic efforts to answers pastor and found Greek parishes. Patriarch Joachim III himself lauded the examples efforts of the Russian Mission for is britain a christian country, its “zealous missionary work among the Greek people.” 42 Namee writes that there were three Greek priests (out of a total of 103) that were “known to have acknowledged the authority of the Russian hierarchy.” 43 Admittedly, this is a small fraction, yet this fact likewise begs an important question: Why did they do so? Conversely, we could ask: Why did none of the Russian Mission priests recognize the sovereignty of the vowel Ecumenical Patriarchate? Especially in light of the red death present universalist claims made by the Phanar, which we are now led to believe was the norm for evangelism and vowel examples, church formation since at least the fifth century?

As to country the governance of the various ethnic groups under the auspices of the Russian-American diocese, much can be said, both positive and negative. All of vowel examples which indicates that the Russian hierarchy viewed itself as the authentic local church. Did “estrangement” and “resentment” settle in, especially among the Serbs? Yes. Red Death. Did the vowel Syro-Lebanese recognize the sovereignty of the a christian Russian hierarchy without misgivings?

No. Yet in both instances as well as in the case of some Greek parishes the reality of the vowel primatial claims of the Russian-American diocese was accepted. Bishop Raphael Hawaweeny (last photo ever taken) As is well known by now, St Tikhon actively recruited a Syrian priest (Raphael Hawaweeny) whom he consecrated as a suffragan in the Russian Mission for the specific purpose of creating a Syro-Lebanese diocese. He also looked to the formation of a Serbian diocese and had groomed a Serbian-American (Sebastian Dabovich) to be his protege in this regard. Both priests interestingly enough were already employed by the Russian missionary diocese and preceded Tikhon’s arrival in America by Fear Faith Essays several years. Vowel Examples. (Dabovich incidentally was an American native.) It also appears that he looked to the creation of a Greek diocese as well.

He even had diocesan seats planned for this multi-ethnic Russian-American exarchate: the primate would be archbishop of New York City; the Arab bishop would be situated in Brooklyn, and Overcoming Fear Faith Essays, the Serbian in vowel, Chicago. (It is believed that the Greek bishop would serve in San Francisco.) All this indicates the reality of the on The Interpersonal Between Sherlock Holmes and Dr. primacy and permanence of the Russian Mission in examples, North America. As for the Serbian parishes, they did engage in schism from the Russian Mission for a brief period, hence a case for disunity can be advanced. However they were brought back into the fold, therefore the original assertion remains: Unity was restored. The “fold” to which they returned was by definition the primatial one. As to the “relative independence” of is britain country Bishop Raphael Hawaweeny of Brooklyn, I have indicated in examples, two previous responses that the reality was more complicated. 44 At base, it could not be said that he had no loyalty to the church that consecrated him. Containment. Yes, he was of two minds as to examples his role within the Russian Mission. Certainly he was intensely proud of his Arab ethnicity. Depression Essay. He was loyal after a fashion to examples the see of Antioch and on The Between, consistently apprised Damascus of examples his actions. Depression. Yet none of the critics can bring forth evidence that the see of Antioch provided him with material support and the resources necessary to undertake his pastoral journeys throughout North America, much less set up a fully independent exarchate.

Nor is any evidence brought forth that he did not view himself as a suffragan of the Russian Orthodox Church. Admittedly, the situation in North America was novel, never in the history of Orthodoxy had so many different Orthodox migrations settled onto one continent in so short a time. St Tikhon was painfully aware of this and vowel, his own compromises in this regard must be viewed in a forgiving light. Certainly, he never considered the random Greek, Serbian, or Arab immigrant to somehow not be “Orthodox” simply because he wanted to celebrate the services of the Depression Church with others of examples his own kind. As noted time and again, Tikhon very much wanted to facilitate such gatherings.

Nevertheless, no critic can bring forth evidence that Tikhon would have been sympathetic to the formation of ethnic jurisdictions independent of and parallel to the Russian Mission. Nor can it justify the phyletistic and heretical multiple jurisdictionalism that resulted, to say nothing of the uncanonical anarchy that attended the rise of containment 1950s those parishes independent of the Russian missionary diocese. After all, this model often resulted in vowel examples, the breaking of communion for the masque red death, various and sundry reasons. Although many ruptures were healed, newer ones have arisen to take their place. In retrospect, the examples case for administrative unity looks in fact to be stronger upon the masque of the, further reflection.

There was indeed if not a “golden age” of administrative unity then a “silver age” which up until 1917 encompassed approximately three hundred fifty parishes in examples, North America. The overwhelming majority of these parishes were of country Russian, Carpatho-Russian, Galician, Ukrainian, and Alaskan origin. This missionary diocese also included all Serbian and vowel examples, Lebanese parishes in North America, and a miniscule number of Greek ones as well. To be sure, there was a growing number of independent parishes that were Greek for the most part which chose to ignore the primacy of the Russian Mission and on one occasion, even evicted St Tikhon from containment 1950s one of its parishes but this is not a point of pride to any reasonable man. Canonical irregularities and scandal abounded in these churches, as contemporaneous accounts indicate and the “creation-myth” critics themselves acknowledge. At the risk of belaboring the point, one could reasonably ask, how desirable was the ecclesiological chaos that ensued in those parishes? These are not rhetorical questions but have tremendous bearing on the present reality of jurisdictional disunity and vowel, what it means for the masque answers, mission formation. Chaos and disunity will likely remain so if we cling to the counter-myth as presented by these critics. Indeed, it is hard how it could not be otherwise. Four Premises Inform the Counter-Myth. Despite the tremendous and vowel examples, admirable research he has conducted, the entire case against the so-called myth of unity rests on four premises:

That the first hundred years of the Russian Mission and Overcoming Fear Faith, its administrative and canonical integrity must be resolutely ignored; If the first century is vowel examples, acknowledged, the at jamestown and plymouth sponsored by the enormity of the Alaskan and Carpatho-Russian missionary endeavors must be marginalized; Examples of vowel non-ethnic Russian cooperation and obeisance to the established ecclesiastic protocols of the Interpersonal and Dr. Watson Russian Mission must pass without comment; and vowel, Irregular, uncanonical, and even schismatic ecclesiological practices must be trumpeted as somehow authentic or exceedingly trivial. In addition, one would have to overlook hostile Turkish control over Old World patriarchates and through these churches, its nefarious incision into the workings of ethnic exarchates in the Western Hemisphere (a circumstance that continues to this day.) In the Overcoming With Faith final analysis, none of the critics of the “creation myth” can bring forth evidence that the Russian Mission was not the “permanent, established” Orthodox presence on the North American continent as Kallistos Ware wrote. It is only by special pleading, ignoring uncomfortable facts, and (recent) novel claims of Constantinopolitan primacy that are evident only in a posterior fashionthat the facts can be interpreted otherwise. On at least three different occasions, Namee has chosen to pass over facts that are detrimental to his argument. To his credit, Namee upholds an optimistic view of inter-Orthodox relations. On the other hand, I have proffered facts that unfortunately paint a less pleasant picture. When we look at the present acrimony, the first hundred years of American Orthodoxy look much better in retrospect.

Indeed, they represent a model of unity and ethnic outreach, pastoral oversight, and an astounding (considering its resources) evangelistic effort. The historical record notes that not only vowel, was the Russian Mission the first Orthodox presence in the Western Hemisphere, it maintained an internal and Essay Interpersonal Between, canonical integrity. Moreover, it was a true missionary diocese. Its social and philanthropic efforts in Alaska were nothing less than heroic and far more substantive than those of the American government, and far more respectful of the indigenous peoples. 45 As for the lower 48 states, its concern for non-Russian immigrants was likewise nothing less than admirable. Vowel Examples. This was noted by no less an authority than Patriarch Joachim III himself. According to Namee’s own research, by red death 1916 Greeks comprised 48 percent of the Orthodox population in America, a fact which is neither here nor there in terms of Orthodox ecclesiology. On the other hand, the total number of Greek parishes was eighty-seven. Despite the tomos of vowel examples transfer of 1908, they were evenly divided in allegiance between Greece and Constantinople. During this time however, the Russian-American diocese had grown to 350 parishes; therefore the total number of these independent Greek parishes was barely one-quarter of this amount. To be sure, there was no administrative unity between the of the majority of these independent Greek parishes and the Russian Mission, but that does not mean that the history of American Orthodoxy should be rewritten in order to take advantage of facts that appeared at a much latter stage in the history of American Orthodoxy (and not from its “earliest days”).

The facts as presented by Namee and other critics paint a dismal picture of examples church formation in those parishes that chose to Essay on The Between and Dr. Watson remain independent of the Russian hierarchy. The effects of this stubbornness included ignorance of established protocols, disdain for canonical order, congregationalism, lawsuits, and even outright schism. Critics of the Russian Mission should likewise be held to account for their view that disunity, phyletism, and a decided ignorance of canonical norms are immaterial when it comes to the founding of new parishes and the inevitable parallel jurisdictions. Vowel. It is very possible that for these critics, there is no other way to justify their championship of the present anarchy than to try and normalize it by stating that it was always thus, when a clear presentation of the Depression Essay facts proves otherwise. Despite all the tumult of immigration and the growing pains of the American Orthodox presence, an established, legitimately founded Orthodox Church existed in North America which adhered to vowel most ecclesial norms. This stands in the masque of the red death answers, sharp contrast to the hodge-podge of independent parishes that had no hierarchical oversight and which were often at odds with the established protocols, and often with each other. It is one thing to catalogue the defects of these parishes and then note in a passive way the formation of the exarchates that grew out of them, but it is highly questionable to maintain that this was the total picture of American Orthodoxy and that there was not a unified and established Orthodox presence on the North American continent. That its administrative unity was disrupted and/or ignored is indisputable, but that is not the vowel same thing as saying it never existed, or that the later ethnic jurisdictions which were formed from the remains of at jamestown were schismatic parishesare somehow as legitimate as the Russian Mission. VIII. Postscript: Implications for the Future. This Response was started in 2009, shortly after Namee's lecture at St Vladimir's Seminary.

Since that time, more historical information has come forth, almost all of vowel examples it from Namee and his historical research society. The volume of information produced from that quarter is were by the, truly astounding. The Society for Orthodox History in America is a non-pareil resource for long-forgotten documents and photographs that reveal a richness to the little known history of vowel Orthodox origins in North America. That being said, the The New Depression dominant narrative of an established Russian Mission remains intact, a fact that even Namee increasingly appears to vowel examples concede. 46 Perhaps the Overcoming Fear With Faith rich history of inter-Orthodox cooperation between bishops of the vowel Russian Mission, and specifically bishops and priests from the Church of Greece or the Ecumenical Patriarchate, can best be understood by understanding that history itself is the colonies at jamestown and plymouth sponsored by the, never cut and examples, dried. Is Britain Country. Incidents that are taken for granted are usually far more nuanced when looked at more closely. Hidden agendas are often revealed which may shed new light on the actors involved. By way of example, consider the so-called Great Schism that cleaved the Christian Church into Roman Catholicism in the West and Orthodoxy in the East. All agree that the act of disunion was the bull of excommunication that was placed on the altar at the church of the Holy Wisdom in examples, 1054.

Yet almost all historians agree that the Essay on The truth is more complex. Examples. At most, this act of disunion was between the Pope and the Church of Constantinople, not the entire East. Most Christians were simply unaware of this brazen act and continued to the masque of the view themselves as part of a united Church. Vowel Examples. The final cleavage did not happen until the the colonies at jamestown and plymouth by the sack of Constantinople in 1204 by the Fourth Crusade. On the other hand, estrangement between East and West started happening in the ninth century; the crowning of Charlemagne as Roman Emperor by the pope in 800 was viewed by many as a precipitating factor. Other schisms had come and vowel, gone the 1950s Acacian and vowel examples, the Photian schism are two prominent examples. At Jamestown Sponsored By The. Regardless, the vowel fact remains that even though 1054 was viewed by contemporaries as a relatively trivial event, the fact remains that the at jamestown were sponsored by the bull was a real document with real grievances and since it had been issued by examples a canonical bishop, had binding authority. It therefore had historical consequences that became apparent if only over time. History very often is a messy business, and the founding of the Orthodoxy in the masque, North America is no exception.

Nevertheless, the narrative of the Russian Mission has tremendous explanatory power, and try as others might, neither its history nor primacy can be denied. Namee to his credit attempts no such thing. Vowel Examples. The question that must be asked is why have others primarily Constantinople and its partisans taken such a ham-fisted approach in denying the legitimacy of the Russian Mission? It is my belief that intentions can be gleaned from what at times amounts to the masque of the no more than propaganda I am sad to say. Though ill conceived and ultimately doomed to examples fail, these efforts have consequences, almost all uniformly negative.

The last word has not been written, no doubt other documents will come forth; decaying photographs will be found in some musty attic, of this we can be sure. That being said, even with the tremendous research being done by SOCHA, the tenacity of the Russian Mission, the original creation myth of American Orthodoxy remains; indeed, it grows stronger. This is not merely because the question of origins and primacy can be resolutely affirmed. It is also true because in some ways the Fear With original story of Orthodox in America is congruent with the examples American narrative: A foreign enterprise implanted itself on a new continent, was faithful to its foundational principles, attained a life of its own, and eventually became independent. For better or worse none of the other Orthodox jurisdictions can claim such a patrimony.

Matthew Namee, “The Myth of Unity and the Origins of Jurisdictional Pluralism in American Orthodoxy,” originally given at the 2008 conference of the Orthodox Theological Society of America, Chicago, June 13, 2008. In the interest of brevity, all references to Namee or ones that he cites will be annotated simply as “Namee, Ibid,” or “Namee, Op cit.” George C Michalopulos and Fear Faith, Herb Ham, American Orthodox Church: A History of Its Beginnings (Salisbury: Regina Orthodox Press, 2003). Mark Stokoe, Orthodox Christians in North America: 1794-1994 (with Leonid Kishkovsky, OCPC: 1995). “By 1917 the vowel Orthodox mission in is britain a christian country, North America would include more than 350 parishes and vowel examples, chapels, its own seminary, bank, women's coleg, monasteries, orgphanages, schools, publications, and fraternal societies, with an annual central administrative budget of $500,000.” p 19. Is Britain. George C Michalopulos, “The New 'Vicariate’; Unnecessary Provocation or Regrettable Inevitability?” Rev Dr Elpidaphoros Lambrianides, “The Challenges of Orthodoxy in America and the Role of the Ecumenical Patriarchate,” delivered at Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology, Brookline, Mass., March 3, 2009. (

Unsigned, “The Leadership of the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Significance of Canon 28,” Brookline, Mass, April 30, 2009. Fr Mark Arey,”Archdiocese Welcomes New Vicariate,” The Orthodox Observer , vol 3, no 1242, pp 1,8. John Couretas, “Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew sums up visit with Greek ‘Diaspora’ in America,” Nov 16, 2009, ( Related to me personally by individuals within FOCUS. Vowel. According to one individual in by the, the leadership, a bishop in the GOA forbade priests in examples, his diocese from attending the The New Depression inaugural meeting of FOCUS even though all Orthodox parishes were invited. Namee, Op cit. The official in question is Charles Ajalat, who until 2009 was one of the two chancellors of the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America. Vowel. Metropolitan Isaiah Chronopoulos of Denver, “The Dangers of Depression Essay Multiple Jurisdictions in America,” 2001. Mark Stokoe, “News from around Orthodox America,” May 20, 2009 ( Having grown up in a Greek Orthodox parish, I was struck several years ago by our church’s epitaphion (the ornate cloth that is placed on examples the bier on Good Friday services).

The writing on it was all in Slavonic. As far as is known, it had been in our parish (which was founded in 1928). Nobody knew where we had gotten it and we were absolutely sure that nobody from our parish had ever visited Russia. Nor was there any memory of the masque of the red death answers a Russian bishop visiting our parish. (The closest Russian church to vowel us was in The New Depression Essay, a coal-mining community some 100 miles to vowel examples the south.) At any rate, we had all grown up with the knowledge that “oi Rossoi” had brought Orthodoxy to North America some time in answers, the distant past and that perhaps this somehow explained its mysterious appearance. As for the epitaphion itself, it is still in use. Arey, Op cit. Vowel. Tomos of Alexis , issued by the Russian Orthodox Church on April 10, 1970 to the so-called Metropolia, its former diocese of North America in 1970. This act was not met with approval by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and has proved to be a bone of contention between Moscow and Constantinople in the intervening years. At issue is how autocephaly is granted.

According to 1950s Moscow, any mother church can grant autocephaly to its constituent dioceses. Constantinople on the other hand maintains that only ecumenical councils can do so. Vowel Examples. Patriarch Pimen of the colonies sponsored by the Russia, as cited by Namee (Op cit). Patriarch Athenagoras’ response to Pimen (Ibid). Michalopulos, “Canon 28 and Eastern Papalism: Cause or Effect?” Sept 11, 2009, For more information on the noxious effects of vowel examples Canon 28 supremacy, please go to

In addition to my own writings on the subject, essays by Fear Essays St John Maximovitch, Metropolitan Philip Saliba, and the late Patriarch Aleksei II of Russia are provided there. The inception of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (ROCOR) has proved to be a complex issue which is beyond the scope of this paper. One of the issues confounding the origins of the OCA was whether it was a constituent part of the Karlovtsy synod, an exilic council of examples Russian bishops inaugurated in Karlovtsy, Serbia in 1922. Episcopal synods independent of Moscow were authorized by Patriarch Tikhon by Essay Interpersonal Relationship Between Sherlock Holmes and Dr. his ukase of 1920, primarily because the Moscow patriarchate was not free of Soviet interference. Vowel Examples. One of its founding members, Metropolitan Platon Rozhdestvensky had previously served as the archbishop of North America (1907-1914).

During his second tenure in America [1921-1934], he was asked by the bishops of the Karlovtsy synod to renounce his claim as “Metropolitan of All-America and Canada.” Platon refused and all his successors have since used that title. Incidentally, because he was by then a metropolitan, the Russian Mission became informally known as “the Metropolia” and on The Relationship Between Sherlock Holmes and Dr., functioned effectively as an autonomous church from that time until 1970 when it was given autocephaly by vowel examples the Moscow patriarchate. (During his first tenure in America as head of the Russian Mission, he was simply an archbishop.) Canon 13, Council of Carthage: “If a bishop takes no pains to win over to Overcoming With Catholic unity those places which belong to his jurisdiction, he shall be exhorted to do so by examples the neighboring bishops. If he does not do so within six months from this warning, they shall belong to the bishop who wins them to the Church. Of The Answers. In disputed cases, arbiters shall be chosen by the primate or by the parties themselves.” FitzGerald, as quoted by Namee (Op cit). Ibid. Vowel Examples. Ibid. IV Pre-conciliar Pan-Orthodox Confedrence, Chambesy, Switzerland, June 6-12, 2009.

Chronopoulos, Op cit. Namee, Op cit. In April and May of 2009, Fr Oliver Herbel and I engaged in an online debate, which was prompted by his essay “Jurisdictional Disunity and the Russian Mission.” My responses were “A Response to Fr Oliver Herbel,” (April 27), and “A Letter to Fr Oliver Herbel,” (May 28). All can be accessed at One of my concerns was the exceedingly generous manner which Herbel used to describe the is britain a christian formation of the parishes founded outside the Russian Mission and specifically, the credentials of the priests who served them. One of my points was how did we know that the priests in question were canonical, or that they even were priests for that matter? Much comment was made on the fact that these priests had antiminsia (altar cloths given to them by their bishops), to which I replied: has anybody seen the examples cloths in containment 1950s, question?

Was there correspondence from the bishop who supposedly sent these priests? The phrase I used was that many of these priests operated under a “canonical cloud” and unless these questions could answered one way or the examples other, their ministry must remain suspect. Stokoe, Op cit, p 32. It is clear from this work that Greeks were an active part of the Russian Mission and that much outreach had been made to them by it. Containment 1950s. One of their number, Fr Michael Andreades served as the vowel dean for the western parishes of the Russian Mission. With Faith. Fr Michael Oleksa, as cited by Matthew Namee (Op cit.).

The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America was unilaterally broken up into four archdioceses in 1996 by the Patriarchate of Constantinople. They are Canada, the United States, Central America and examples, the Caribbean, and the masque of the, South America. This action resulted in acrimony and vowel examples, lawsuits initiated by the Orthodox Christian Laity (OCL). At issue was whether this action violated the and plymouth were by the Charter of the former archdiocese. Sympathy for the Confederacy in Europe was widespread. Among the major powers only Russia was predisposed to Lincoln. The actions of Russia in vowel, this regard were decisive in that it prevented England and France from actively aiding the Confederacy. The Colonies At Jamestown And Plymouth Were Sponsored By The. Alexander II guaranteed their neutrality by examples stationing ships from the 1950s Russian Navy in San Francisco and New York City for the duration of the war. Vowel. For purposes of this essay, it is only necessary to point out that in Essay Holmes and Dr. Watson, the immediate aftermath of the War Between the States, the issue of citizenship for the inhabitants of the vowel examples Confederacy was an open question. (Other questions remained, including the issue of the freedmen and whether they should be enfranchised en masse . Even Lincoln was unsure as to how to proceed.

At any rate, the question became moot after his assassination and the Radical Republicans pushed through the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and 1950s, Fifteenth Amendments to examples the Constitution.) Namee, Op cit. 1950s. Herbel/Michalopulos exchange, Op cit. Particularly troublesome to me was the assertion that these immigrant priests looked to their arrival in America in a “missionary” manner. Vowel. From my own discussions with the descendants of many of these priests, I can safely assert that the overwhelming majority were desperately poor and came to Depression America to examples better their lives. Essay Interpersonal Relationship Between Holmes And Dr.. Others left their homelands under a taint of vowel examples scandal and were simply looking for a new start. Essay Interpersonal Relationship Holmes Watson. As stated above, none of them had any intention of examples bringing non-Orthodox into the faith. Just as troubling to me was the remarkable short-shrift that was given to the astounding missionary outreach undertaken by St Alexis Toth to the former Uniates in America. As I wrote to Fr Herbel, it appeared to Essays me that only by ignoring this massive outreach by the Russian Mission that one could minimize the importance of its primacy or equate the activities of foreign priests outside of vowel it as being “missionary” themselves. At the risk of belaboring the point, it was only the Russian Mission that looked upon non-Orthodox peoples of whatever ethnicityas being worthy of evangelism, the curious career of Raphael Morgan notwithstanding (cf footnote no. 39 below). Namee, Op cit.

Fr John Erickson, as quoted by Namee (Op cit). Overcoming Faith Essays. Ibid. Ibid. Herbel/Michalopulos exchange, Op cit. The curious and fascinating career of Fr Raphael Morgan, a divorced, African-American Episcopalian priest who converted to Orthodoxy deserves more study.

My contention was simply that it would be naive to describe his ministry as a missionary one, at least in terms that one normally associates with this word. Among the questions I asked was whether he was given a stipend, whether his journeys on behalf of the Orthodox Church were advertised in the local African-America newspapers, and if he was authorized to liturgize in English. If so, which translation (if any) was made available to him? (The translation by Isabelle Hapgood was available by then and vowel examples, widely used in the churches of the Metropolia.) At any rate, Fr Morgan’s career failed and after 1916 he seems to have disappeared from the historical record. It is widely rumoured that he left the Orthodox Church (this, however, cannot be verified). Stokoe, Op cit.

32. According to is britain country Stokoe, Patriarch Joachim III was forced to turn down Fr Michael Andreades’ request for vowel, a Greek bishop because of fear of angering his “Turkish oppressors.” While not probative of the idea that he necessarily accepted the primacy of the Russian Mission, this oppression does speak volumes as to whether the Ecumenical Patriarchate is Fear With Faith, free to act on anything regarding ecclesiastical matters. In any event, by refusing to send a bishop, he implicitly accepted the canonicity and primacy of the Russian Mission. Council of Constantinople, 1872. Stokoe, Op cit., p 42. Namee, Op cit. Herbel /Michalopulos exchange, Op cit. My concerns with the characterization of St Raphael as somehow being equally beholden to the ancient see of Antioch as well as the Russian Mission are catalogued in more detail in the debate between myself and vowel examples, Fr Herbel. Besides the impossibility of belonging to two different patriarchates, Herbel provided no information from primary sources that Hawaweeny hoped to cleave off his Syro-Lebanese exarchate from the Russian Mission. Indeed, his gratitude to the Russian Mission is apparent.

Stokoe, Op cit., p 16. Timothy Ware, The Orthodox Church (London: Penguin, 1993 ed,): Up to the end of the Fear Faith Essays First World War, the vowel Russian archdiocese was the only organized Orthodox presence in Fear With, North America, and most Orthodox parishes, whatever their ethnic character, looked to the Russian archbishop and his suffragans for pastoral care. Although this arrangement was never formally accepted by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Church of Greece, canonical and organizational united existed de facto. p. 182. Namee, “Russian Archbishop welcomes the Greek Archdiocese, 1921 [sic],” SOCHA, May 24, 2010. Vowel. ( 1950s. Namee appears to equivocate by conflating “Greek archbishop” with “Greek archdiocese.” This assertion cannot be justified by the actual letter of welcome issued by Archbishop Alexander Nemolovsky to his Greek colleague. To his credit, Namee avoids making a categorical statement one way or the other and is open to examples the fact that more than one interpretation is possible. In addition, he aptly points out how chaotic the containment time in question was, when the Metropolia was under assault from the Soviet government. In addition, he acknowledges canonical questions as to the propriety of establishing another jurisdiction are relevant.

George C Michalopulos, is a layman in the Orthodox Church in America. He was born in Tulsa, OK where he resides and works. George is active in vowel examples, Church affairs, having served as parish council president at Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church and as Senior Warden at Holy Apostles Orthodox Christian Church. Together with Deacon Ezra Ham, he wrote 'American Orthodox Church: A History of Its Beginnings' (Regina Orthodox Press: 2003). He is married to Margaret and has two sons, Constantine and Michael.

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Analysis of Breakfast club Essay Sample. The movie #8220;The Breakfast Club#8221; is one of the best movies for vowel examples, teenagers and misunderstood students. It clearly depicts the feeling, emotions and way of thinking of most of the teenagers. By watching this movie, you can relate well with the Fear With, characters they portray and with the vowel examples, kind of communication they use. This paper is aimed at analyzing whether interpersonal communication exists in the masque of the red death answers, the movie. By analyzing every part the movie has shown, we can see clear evidence whether the said kind of vowel examples communication existed or not. The movie #8220;The Breakfast Club#8221; has a very simple assertion. It#8217;s foundation and highlights were focused on five students, having entirely different personalities, philosophies, idealisms and country even backgrounds who were punished with detention and confinement to Shermer High school#8217;s library for eight long hours on a Saturday (, 2003).

Interweaving of character relationships is very eminent in the movie. Vowel Examples! From Molly Ringwald, who played as Claire, portraying a rich-cum-princess girl, to Anthony Michael Hall as Brian who acted as the brain, to Emilio Estevez and Ally Sheedy as, the Overcoming Fear Faith, jock and Goth basket case, respectively, and lastly to Judd Nelson as Bender the loud, prissy, metal head punk. Examples! Other characters in the movie that are worth noting were the Watson, #8220;sadistic principal, Paul Gleason, who taunted his students with his loud, bullying yet seemingly tired voice, and the other kids who were always willing to buckle down and dozed on their free day and vowel time in the school library (Barsanti, 1999). The whole scenario in this #8220;The Breakfast Club#8221; could easily fall into complete chaos, especially when compared to how usually a normal groups of Overcoming With people did. But because this movie talked bout teenagers, who were considered #8220;odd#8221; extremely different horde of students, it is examples, quite unusual (that is, for the #8220;normal#8221; people) to see that they have got along with easily, sharing stories and experiences reiterating the fact that their parents just don#8217;t understand how different they are. The idea of this movie is quite impressive. Red Death! All the kids represent different epitomes, yet, by the end of the day, they all have exposed their inner self thus enabling them to realize that despite all their supposed differences, there is this big thick and examples strong line that invisibly connect all of them.

And that where interpersonal communication lies. Yes, interpersonal communication is very evident in 1950s, almost every scene of the movie. Before I can pinpoint the parts and/or scenes where there is interpersonal communication, let us first define this concept, which will definitely help us understand more how it existed in examples, the story. Of The Red Death Answers! Interpersonal communication is vowel examples, a special form of the masque human communication involving simultaneous interaction between individuals and at the same time, mutual influence between individuals. It is a fundamental means of managing human relationships. Interpersonal communication is important in our everyday lives because it not only improves relationships with our family, but also our relationship with friends, colleagues, and it even improve our physical and emotional health (, 2004).

Hence, there is no need to pinpoint here the exact areas in the movie where we could find interpersonal communication between the casts of characters because the whole story itself is clearly all about interpersonal communication. It is through this kind of communication why the major casts, were able to bond and tell tales about their families. It is vowel examples, through interpersonal communication how the casts were able to Essay on The Interpersonal Relationship Between Holmes and Dr., rationalize things and figure out they all have something in vowel examples, common#8230; that they have the common denominator why they gotten to be in that detention room and that is they are all just being misunderstood, by their parents and by red death the people around them. Interpersonal communication was gradually established in the movie. It was shown by the scenes where the punished students were starting to look at each other, followed by examples the part where they are kind of thinking what other were thinking and then eventually by the session where the students started to share stories of their lives. Fear! What is examples, good in containment, this manner is that the students have all realized the idea that they are not different at all#8230; that they are not merely deviating from the norms. The Breakfast Club has kept everything under a tight lid, taking these five kids and letting the vowel, outside world recede until all that matters is only each other. These punished kids left the school at the end with sincere claims that they will start to be different in the outside world, no one knows they really will, but in a sense it doesn#8217;t matter, because at least for one day they connected with somebody outside of their own tiny worlds. In that sense, it#8217;s the the colonies at jamestown were by the, best After-School Special ever, with better music and no lecture about their language and all that pot they smoked. (Bersanti, 1999).

And that precisely is what interpersonal communication is all about. Barsanti, Chris. The Breakfast Club. February 17, 2004. Is this the vowel, perfect essay for is britain a christian, you?

Save time and order Analysis of Breakfast club. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for examples, Analysis of Breakfast club. The Breakfast Club was released in February 1985. There is a least six main characters in this film they are known as the brat pack we have Molly Ringwald as#8230; ?The Breakfast Club Analysis Paper Outline. Abstract The character of Andrew is used to explore moral reasoning, identity statuses, and the effect of Essay Interpersonal Relationship Between Sherlock and Dr. peer pressure on vowel an adolescent development.

Andrews character was analyzed to see how#8230; Not eating breakfast. A lot of people go through the day without having breakfast. Many people believe that it#8217;s not necessary, or they say that they dont have time for that, and begin#8230; Skinny Healthy Breakfast. Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about several unexpected benefits that we can get from eating breakfast. Central Idea: People who normally consume breakfast will get several benefits not only#8230; Why is the masque of the red death, Breakfast Important.

A very good morning to all on the floor today My heartful well wishes to vowel examples, the Headmistress Ms.Abhinaya,fellow teachers present here,the parents of all this proud students here and my#8230; ?Club Med Case Analysis. The Club Med is a successful all-inclusive French organization of vacation resort found in a various sites of the world, mostly in Relationship Holmes and Dr., exotic areas. Besides obvious financial success, the Club#8230;

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Essay On Pollution In Our Cities Essays and examples Research Papers. ?Environment Pollution in Dhaka City Dhaka City : Dhaka is the capital and largest city of . Bangladesh. With its colorful history and rich cultural traditions, Dhaka is known the world over as the at jamestown sponsored city of served as the Mega capital of Bengal from 1608 to 1704. Before coming under British rule in vowel, 1765, it was a trading center for British, French, and at jamestown were sponsored Dutch colonialism. Vowel Examples? In 1905 it was again named the capital of Bengal. And in With Faith Essays, 1956 it became the capital of East Pakistan.

During the examples liberation war. Government , Megacity , New York City 1745 Words | 6 Pages. Bolden 3/4/10 Why is our Pollution Bad? When we watched An Inconvenient Truth several weeks ago there was a . lot of pinpointing factors that came to answers mind that I didnt truly understand. When I saw all of the charts of how high global warming is increasing, it really took a second for me to vowel examples realize how much damage were causing to this environment. One point Al Gore made was the amount of travel tourists do in a single year, and how it is effecting our global warming.

He put into Overcoming Fear his. Al Gore , An Inconvenient Truth , Carbon dioxide 1887 Words | 6 Pages. ? pollution /noise- pollution /sources-of-noise-pollution.html Environmental pollution is vowel one . The New Depression? of the biggest problems the world faces today. Vowel Examples? It is an the masque of the red death answers, issue that troubles us economically, physically and everyday of vowel examples our lives. The contamination of the environment is also being linked to some of the diseases that are around currently. Yet, most people do not know about containment, this problem. This shows that environmental pollution is becoming an increasingly worse problem that needs to be. Oxygen , Pollution 1836 Words | 5 Pages.

AIR POLLUTION AND OUR ATMOSPHERE Driving down the examples 101 Freeway on at jamestown were sponsored, my way to visit some friends in examples, Los Angeles, I suddenly came up . with an idea for a paper. The idea was Air Pollution , and the idea was triggered by the masque of the answers, the enormous amounts of debris, smog, and atmospheric contents that distinctly hovered over examples, the city before my eyes. Is Britain Country? My question was how does all this pollution form and why is it so thick over here? It all began with defining Air Pollution , which is the examples addition of harmful substances. Air pollution , Atmosphere , Earth 1814 Words | 5 Pages. like burning a Renaissance painting to cook a meal. ? Edward O. Wilson There's so much pollution in the air now that if it weren't for . our lungs there'd be no place to put it all.

Robert Orben Don't blow it - good planets are hard to containment find. Quoted in Time We never know the worth of water till the well is dry. Thomas Fuller, Gnomologia, 1732 We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors, we borrow it from vowel our children. Native American Proverb They kill good trees to put out bad newspapers. . Air pollution , Light pollution , Marine pollution 1666 Words | 7 Pages. Air and Water Pollution in Three Cities. Air and water pollution in three cities Single Zheng Modern lifestyle and technological development are increasingly . 1950s? giving rise to problems of pollution , especially in the developing world.

Groundwater contamination, artisanal gold mining, urban air pollution , radioactive waste and uranium mining and vowel other six environmental problems have been considered as the Top 10 Pollution Problems in year 2009. Containment? (Blacksmith Institute Green Cross Switzerland WWPP Report, 2009) In this essay , the writer. Air pollution , Chernobyl disaster , Gasoline 1095 Words | 4 Pages. The problem of air pollution in vowel examples, our society is best understood within the context of Sean Lynn-Jones' and the colonies at jamestown and plymouth were sponsored by the Steven Miller's book . Global Dangers: Changing Dimensions of International Security. (Lynn-Jones and Miller) In this collection of essays , it becomes clear that the threat to vowel examples the environment poses the greatest danger to Fear Faith the international community today. This is precisely why environmental security must now become the most important objective of all nations. Global Dangers reveals that, with the. Air pollution , Environment , Environmental science 1443 Words | 4 Pages. Ecology Air Pollution The use of automobiles in vowel, our society today is The New Essay as normal as waking up every morning and taking a shower. . Vowel? We are so dependent on Overcoming Fear With Essays, the use of automobiles that we could not see ourselves without them, but we might have to start to consider one day not using them.

Driving a car is the single most polluting thing that most of us does today or may be this might not be so true anymore. Now this is not a new problem, we have been discussing automobiles causing air pollution for decades. Air pollution , Automobile , Carbon monoxide 1781 Words | 5 Pages. Plastic pollution Plastics are very convenient products that we use in our every day life and for most people it would be . difficult to imagine a plastic free world. It is everywhere: used for examples water bottling purposes, food covering, parts that make up our daily items such as cell phones, clothes, and hospital equipments. With so many convenient methods for Overcoming With the use of plastics, many of vowel us fail to recognize the dangers of plastic pollution which starts with industrial pollution , continues with its. Bottle , Bottles , Environment 811 Words | 3 Pages. The haze is at constant phenomenon faced by Malaysia. Containment? The haze is basically pollution of vowel examples atmosphere, which is containment clogged with pollutants and other . substances from forest fires.

The haze is direct effect of forest fire in Kalimantan due to slash and burn method of farming. The Indonesian authorities appear to have no power to control farmers from practicing by most Malaysian. Open-field burning of vowel examples rice straw by the rice planters and open burning of dried leaves and garbage done by the public are a few. Air pollution , Bibliography , Citation 537 Words | 3 Pages. Our Changing American Cities Urban reform movements find their origins in the aforementioned period of Overcoming Fear With industrialization . directly following the Civil War they were mainly confined to the northern half of the United States, seeing as it had more auspicious conditions and examples precedents for industrialization. With the rapid influx of urban denizens, problems of urban life intensified as well.

Trash clogged the The New streets and transmitted disease more effectively than any vector could ever hope to vowel do, slums. Charles Dana Gibson , Chicago , City 1189 Words | 4 Pages. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to theecosystem i.e. . physical systems or living organisms.[1] Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the Essay on The Interpersonal Relationship Between Watson elements of pollution , can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Indoor amp; Outdoor Air Pollution . Acid rain , Air pollution , Air Quality Index 2147 Words | 6 Pages. to face numerous serious problems associated with pollution . Pollution including air and water pollution may be . defined as the result of human activities and natural factors has impacted on human health as well as environments (Wikipedia, 2010). Vowel Examples? This essay will discuss the rapid increasing pollution levels in containment, the three cities of Bangkok, Bangladesh and Melbourne and analyze the vowel approaches related to the strategies of government to alleviate pollution . It will then present the actions and cooperation. Air pollution , Automobile , Developed country 817 Words | 3 Pages.

Air Pollution Earth is the only place in the universe that can support human life. It is very important that we realize this fact . and take very good care of it. Various human activities cause the destruction of earth. Human beings can live a few days without food and water however humans can last only a few seconds without oxygen. Various human activities lead to the aggravation of the quality of air. At Jamestown Sponsored By The? . Air pollution , Carbon dioxide , Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 1775 Words | 6 Pages. Environmental pollution in Dhaka city INTRODUCTION: Pollution is an undesirable change in vowel examples, the physical, . chemical or biological characteristics of containment 1950s air, water, soil or food that can adversely affect the health, survival or activities of human or other living organisms.

The effects of water pollution are far-reaching and affect not only the environment, but human beings and animals as well. Vowel? The pollution in Dhaka has reached alarming levels, threatening public health, ecosystems and economic. Acid rain , Groundwater , Pollution 738 Words | 3 Pages. CASE STUDY ON POLLUTION IN VELLORE: SOURCES AND MEASURES TO CHECK IT. The Masque Red Death? SOURCES AND METHODS TO REDUCE . POLLUTION IN VELLORE Shraddha Sahu and Akshay Ahuja Electronics and vowel communication Engg., SENSE, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632014 Email id- ABSTRACT: Vellore, also known as fort city and a historical destination in sponsored, southernmost India , is one of the. Environmentalism , Pollution , Recycling 1487 Words | 5 Pages. Environmental Pollutions in Dhaka City, 2010.

Environmental Pollution In Dhaka City Environmental pollution is as old as the civilization itself. It has . become a major concern in the last few decades. It is the vowel byproduct of the The New development of civilization and in fact a price for examples the progress. The present environmental condition of Bangladesh is containment 1950s not at examples all equilibrium. Severe air, water and noise pollution are threatening human health, ecosystems and economic growth of a christian Bangladesh. Air pollution caused due to increasing population, burning. Air pollution , Environmentalism , Light pollution 1933 Words | 4 Pages. Natural Gas, Pollution, and Our Environment. Natural Gas, Pollution , and Our Environment In today's society there is examples a great need for environmental protection. Things . At Jamestown? that happened during our parents and grandparents age have caused a great concern for our ozone, our air, and our environment. Vowel? You constantly hear about the many sources of pollution , but we hardly ever hear about the solutions.

In this paper I will present one possible solution to the air pollution problem that has been caused by too many automobile emissions being released. Air pollution , Automobile , Carbon dioxide 1399 Words | 4 Pages. ? Essay 1 Air Pollution : Causes and Fear With Faith Essays Effects It keeps us alive but at the same time, it can also be harmful. We breathe air . Examples? everyday. Air provides us with oxygen that is essential for living. Nitrogen, water vapor, and inert gases comprise air along with oxygen. Emission of substances that contaminate air results to a christian pollution . Causes Air pollution is both natural and human-based. Examples? Natural air pollution is caused by phenomenon such as volcanic eruption, wind erosion, decomposition and The New radioactive.

Air pollution , Air Quality Index , Atmosphere 1188 Words | 4 Pages. Pollution Human beings have always caused some environmental pollution . Since prehistoric times, people have created waste. Like . garbage today, this waste was either burned, tossed into waterways, buried, or dumped aboveground. Vowel Examples? However, the waste of early peoples was mostly food scraps and Essay Interpersonal Relationship Between other substances that broke down easily by natural decay processes. Vowel Examples? Prehistoric populations were also much smaller and Essay on The Interpersonal Between and Dr. Watson were spread out over large areas. As a result, pollution was less concentrated and examples caused. Acid rain , Carbon dioxide , Genetically modified food 1406 Words | 4 Pages.

Introduction When people think about air pollution , they usually think about smog, acid rain, CFC's, and other forms of outdoor air . pollution . The health of many people is affected by chemical substances present in the air within buildings. We chose this topic to Fear Faith be more aware about air pollution these days because it is more harmful to vowel examples our health. Relationship Between And Dr. Watson? To know some idea on how to handle air pollution and the importance of protecting the vowel environment. An expression implying that we live because we. Acid rain , Air pollution , Air Quality Index 1331 Words | 5 Pages. Environmental Pollution There are three main branches how we are destroying our environment the air . pollution , water pollution and soil contamination. The New Essay? I chose this topic because I find it very important because it affects our environment, and not only that, indeed, we affect it and the consequences that could arise destroy our home planet. In this essay I will talk about environmental pollution , the reason for environmental pollution , its consequences and possible solutions. Trying. Environmentalism , Groundwater , Pesticide 898 Words | 3 Pages. Dumping in our Waters.

This essay explains the vowel vast water pollution we have in our waters. Dumping in our Waters Water is a christian probably one of the most important resources we have. People can survive without food for several weeks but . without water we couldn't live for vowel examples more than a week. Millions of liters of The New water are needed every day worldwide for examples washing, irrigating crops, and cooling industrial processes, not to mention leisure industries such as swimming pools and water sports centers. (Internet Source) Despite our dependence on containment, water, we use it as dumping ground for all sorts of vowel examples waste. Desalination , Ocean , Oil spill 1303 Words | 4 Pages.

12/20/12 462 words free sample essay on pollution About Site Content Quality Guidelines Terms of Service Privacy Policy . Disclaimer Copyright Recent Articles 462 words free sample essay on pollution KAVITA Preserve Articles is home of by the thousands of vowel examples articles published and preserved by users like you. Here you can publish your research papers, essays , letters, stories, poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and allied information with a single vision to at jamestown were liberate knowledge. Vowel? Before. Copyright , Noise pollution , People's Republic of Fear China 754 Words | 3 Pages. We keep our houses clean. We take utmost care of our bedroom, making sure no dust rests on our polished furniture. . From walls to carpets, everything in vowel, our house is neat and clean and the masque of the perfectly maintained. Then why do we fail to keep our environment clean; maintenance of vowel which is far more vital as compared to our home? The term pollution means addition of Essay on The Between Sherlock Holmes any substance which alters the quality of the environment.

Substances which cause pollution or alter the natural quality of the air, water and. Acid rain , Air pollution , Marine pollution 1523 Words | 5 Pages. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into vowel the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form . of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution , can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution . There are 6 (six) types of pollution that are going to be discussed in this site, namely air, water, noise, land. Environmental science , Marine pollution , Nuclear power 1330 Words | 5 Pages. Light Pollution: Our Vanishing Night. Light Pollution : Our Vanishing Night Thanks to novel inventions and advanced technology, human being, a diurnal species, . now can enjoy a nocturnal life as we do under the Sun. Is Britain A Christian? Nowadays, we have engineered the examples night to receive us by filling it with light.

Nevertheless, this engineering comes with serious consequence, that is, light pollution , also known as photopollution or luminous pollution . This is a form of Overcoming Fear environmental degradation, which results from the excessive artificial lightings. Energy conservation , Light , Light pollution 1063 Words | 3 Pages. Air Pollution and Its Health Impacts on vowel examples, Three Cities. Air pollution and country its health impacts on three cities Air pollution has a significant impact on human health. Vowel Examples? It . can cause death by 1950s, compromising the respiratory and cardiorascular system, or by its toxic carcinogenic effects. Vowel? Transport is the greatest source of air pollutions , owing to on The Interpersonal Relationship Holmes and Dr. increased numbers of cars in the city . Moreover, manufacturing and factories are another reason for air pollution . Results from the government not having suitable policy on examples, air pollution are becoming more and more. Air pollution , Air Quality Index , Environmentalism 1297 Words | 5 Pages. Effects And Causes Of Sound Pollution. ?atmosphere caused by audio entertainment systems like loudspeakers, automobiles, and machinery of factories is just a nuisance. They create a lot of noise. . Noise can be defined as an Essay Relationship Holmes, undesirable or annoying sound. Vowel? Noise pollution can be referred to the masque red death as an examples, annoying, irritating, distracting environmental noise level.

The loudspeakers are usually used in is britain a christian country, marriages, jagrans, All advancements become useless, if a man doesnt get a peaceful and quite atmosphere. The social and religious functions. Vowel Examples? But. Acoustics , Causality , Hearing impairment 1393 Words | 8 Pages. Pollution Pollution is the addition to the ecosystem of someting which has a detrimental effect on it. One of the most important . causes of Relationship Between Holmes and Dr. Watson pollution is the high rate of vowel energy usage by modern, growing populations. Different kinds of the masque red death pollution are found. In this section we will discuss: 1. Air Pollution . 2. Water Pollution . 3. Land Pollution . Air Pollution Air pollution is the accumulation in the atmosphere of examples substances that, in sufficient concentrations, endanger human health or. Acid rain , Air pollution , Oxygen 798 Words | 3 Pages. ?Marine Pollution Marine pollution has become a major global issue. 1950s? It is now becoming a serious concern that the ocean will no . longer be a safe place for marine life and humans.

There is a growing concern that pollution causes serious problems nowadays particularly health problems. This essay will argue that marine pollution should be addressed immediately. Firstly, the causes and vowel examples the effects will be discussed, and Essay some solutions to hoe marine pollution can be reduced. To begin with, marine pollution. Aquatic ecosystem , Arctic Ocean , Marine biology 922 Words | 3 Pages. ?Traffic in the cities . Evaluation Argument Essay A paper submitted to vowel Webber International University In partial . The Masque Of The Answers? fulfillment for the Bachelor of Science degree in Management. By: Miguel Zapatero Date: March 20, 2013 Course: ENG1113 Semester: Spring 2013 Instructor: Dr. Pat Nickell Paper: 4 During these holidays we have in the spring, spring break, I made a road trip with my friends through several cities and states of the U.S. coast.

Automobile , Congestion pricing , Intelligent transportation system 798 Words | 3 Pages. ?WHAT IS ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION ? The most appropriate definition of environmental pollution would be the introduction of . different harmful pollutants into vowel examples certain environment that make this environment unhealthy to live in. The most common pollutants are usually chemicals, garbage, and waste water. Environmental pollution is happening in many parts of the world, especially in form of Fear With air and water pollution . The best example for air pollution are some of vowel examples China's cities , including capital Beijing. Air pollution , Environmentalism , Hazardous waste 1738 Words | 6 Pages.

?Dylan Popp Joe Bolinger SPEA V161 29 April 2014 Public Policy Solutions for Air Pollution in Select U.S. Cities According to . the Oxford Dictionary, air pollution is defined as, the presence in, or introduction into, the air of The New Depression a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects. When an individual thinks of air pollution , chances are they typically imagine a dark smog hanging over an urban area, causing problems such as asthma and other respiratory problems for those who have no choice but to. Air pollution , Air Quality Index , Clean Air Act 1738 Words | 7 Pages. Air pollution has become a major problem in the United States. The agricultural industry must help maintain air quality. By doing that the vowel examples . United States has started trying to make machines that will help reduce the pollution in the air which will help the environment. One way the United States has tried stopping air pollution and that is to create a solar powered machine which decreases air pollution . But also there are some ways that the people of the Essay Interpersonal United States can help stop air pollution . . Air pollution , Carbon dioxide , Environmentalism 900 Words | 3 Pages. Illiteracy in vowel, Our Society It was one of the Depression days I will never forget in my life time.

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Americans only make up 5% of the world populations, but they accumulate over 30% of the worlds waste. This essay will inform you on the epidemic that is pollution . And provide examples of vowel every type and how they are affecting your. Air pollution , Drinking water , Light pollution 1223 Words | 6 Pages. directly attributable to air pollution , with 1.5 million of these deaths attributable to indoor air pollution . Is Britain A Christian Country? Epidemiological . Vowel Examples? studies suggest that more than 500,000 Americans die each year from cardiopulmonary disease linked to Overcoming Fear With Faith Essays breathing fine particle air pollution . A study by the University of Birmingham has shown a strong correlation between pneumonia related deaths and air pollution from motor vehicles. Worldwide more deaths per vowel, year are linked to air pollution than to automobile accidents. Air pollution , Carbon dioxide , Greenhouse gas 972 Words | 3 Pages. ?Water Pollution : Causes, Effects, and Prevention What would you say the most valuable thing on country, earth is? Many people would quickly answer . that something with monetary value, like oil or gold, would be the most valuable thing on earth. Examples? However, humans are able to is britain a christian country live, and have lived, without utilizing these things for many years.

There is vowel examples a thing that every living being, creature, and 1950s plant on earth could not survive without. It is one of our most basic needs, and yet we take it for granted. Eutrophication , Marine pollution , Nonpoint source pollution 1567 Words | 7 Pages. imbalance and leads to vowel examples pollution . This imbalance has not only led to deterioration in the quality of our lives but has also . threatened the very survival of all life. Essay On The Interpersonal Between Sherlock Watson? If this imbalance grows beyond a certain limit, it may prove fatal. The ever and rapidly increasing pollution is examples a matter of Depression Essay global concern, because it is not confined to a particular country, region or land. It is a threat to the whole world and must be fought united. The problem of pollution is all the more acute in our overcrowded towns. Pollution , Soil contamination 1127 Words | 4 Pages.

intro Air pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems in urban areas around the world. The rapid process of urbanization . and vowel extensive energy utilization mostly due to rapid economic expansion and population growth over the past few decades has made urban air pollution a growing problem. The air contains varying levels of pollutants originating from motor vehicles, industry, housing, and commercial sources. In most megacities, such as Mexico City and is britain a christian country Los Angeles, cars. Air pollution , Air Quality Index , Carbon dioxide 1398 Words | 5 Pages. How does pollution in large cities affect human health? does pollution in large cities affect human health? Pollution , a worldwide problem which has been concerned with . since 1972 (Seitz 2008:156), has significant effects on human health in vowel, large cities . Depression? It may be defined as several different types of pollutant in environment mainly caused by industry and agriculture, having a harmful impact on public health. Vowel Examples? It is because cities , most of which, have depended on Fear Faith, the two types of industry to develop the vowel economy that the Depression Essay problems of urban pollution are. Acid rain , Air pollution , Cruise ship pollution 991 Words | 3 Pages.

Sources of vowel air pollution refer to the various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for the releasing of containment pollutants in the . atmosphere. These sources can be classified into two major categories which are: Anthropogenic sources (human activity) mostly related to burning different kinds of fuel Stationary Sources as smoke stacks of power plants, manufacturing facilities, municipal waste incinerators. Power plant is also used to refer to the engine in ships, aircraft and other. Air pollution , Carbon , Carbon dioxide 925 Words | 3 Pages. What are the effects and sources of air pollution Assignment III Rachita Mittal Western International University SCI 270 Mrs. . Saudamani Sharma Introduction Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the vowel examples natural environment, into the atmosphere.

The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic natural gaseous system that is the colonies at jamestown and plymouth were by the essential to support life. Acid rain , Air pollution , Oxygen 1079 Words | 5 Pages. Impact of Pollution The environment is vowel examples a part of our daily lives yet most people do not consider the impact that their actions . have on the environment. People interact with and depend on different aspects of the environment from the air to water and land. There are relationships between actions that we make and the environment, the is britain a christian most obvious one being pollution . Examples? The lasting influence we have on our surroundings may not be immediately apparent but future generations will have to containment 1950s live with. Air pollution , Environmentalism , Organic farming 1390 Words | 4 Pages. Manila Solar City: What Our Country Needs. ?Manila Solar City : What Our Country Needs Manila, the capital city of the Philippines and one of the countrys . most populous cities , is vowel examples situated between Manila Bay and The New Essay Laguna Bay that is why it is one of the main harbors of the country and the center of examples all the countrys commercial, economical, cultural and political activities.

In 2006, Manila landed in Forbes magazine as the densest city in the world with a population of 1,581,000 and a density of The New Essay 41,014 persons per square kilometer (Malone. City , Laguna , Luzon 1205 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Essay We, the students of BSBA went on a tour during March 5th to 7th. Vowel Examples? We visited the Banko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the Coca-cola . plant, the containment 1950s Gardenia factory and stayed at Caliraya resort. We got onto the bus early to find our seats and to organize our things. Many of vowel examples us were pumped with energy and Essay on The Sherlock Holmes and Dr. were excited for the tour. At around 3:45AM, everything was good to vowel go and we departed for Manila- many of my classmates were restless and too agitated to go to sleep.

We arrived at our first. Dinner , Lunch , Race 1504 Words | 4 Pages. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Environmental pollution is one of the biggest problems the world faces today. It is an issue that . troubles us economically, physically and everyday in country, our lives. Pollution is the introduction of vowel contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse change. Pollutants, the is britain a christian components of pollution , can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants We all live on earth which, is but a planet, and examples the only planet known to have an environment. Biodiversity , Environmentalism , Human 967 Words | 3 Pages. Air Pollution and Influence Beijing.

Problem-Solution Essay Little while ago, I saw a travel websites that didnt recommend several tourist places. Ukraine is on the list because . Interpersonal And Dr. Watson? of the ethnic conflicts, but Beijing was because of air pollution . Vowel Examples? I was extremely shocked at the time because I think that was a form of discrimination. I know Beijing s air is not good, but is not so bad. However two days later, my friend who lives in Beijing called me, and she said she was sick with high fever. The hospital said it was poisoning because. Air pollution , Automobile , Dust 877 Words | 3 Pages. ?Ways To Reduce The Effects of Pollution Nowadays, pollution has become a major issue that concerns all countries . worldwide.

Majority of the pollution are results of the selfish behaviour of humans. There are many types of pollutions , examples are water pollution and air pollution . Each of this pollution can be dealt with different methods depending on the source of the error. In general, both air and water pollution can be reduced by utilizing the modern technology that humans have developed. Air pollution , Catalytic converter , Environmentalism 732 Words | 3 Pages.

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