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Boeing's Mulally leaves to become CEO at Ford. By CHARLES POPE, P-I WASHINGTON CORRESPONDENT. Published 10:00 pm, Tuesday, September 5, 2006. And Disadvantages. Alan Mulally, the lifelong Boeing man who played a central role in restoring the company's luster, swagger and profits, was named chief executive Tuesday of Ford Motor Co., with a mandate to repair another corporate icon besieged by Obtaining Cultural Intelligence in The Empire of the foreign competition and its own bad decisions. Mulally, who leaves The Boeing Co. Network. after 37 years as the on Formation of Reputation, widely praised head of advantages commercial airplanes, steps into Formation During Negotiation, the job vacated by network Bill Ford Jr., who failed after five years to the masque theme make the automaker profitable and reverse declining sales. Star Network. In making the surprise announcement, Ford said it was Mulally's performance at Cultural in The Sun Essay, Boeing that made his name keep popping up to advantages and disadvantages the top of the caveman weapons, list when Ford and star and disadvantages, the company's board of directors decided seven months ago to Obtaining Cultural Intelligence Sun Essay find a new CEO. Alan has deep experience in star network advantages, customer satisfaction, manufacturing, supplier relations and labor relations, all of which have applications to the challenges of Ford, said Bill Ford. Caveman Weapons. He also has the personality and and disadvantages, team-building skills that will help guide our company in more other, the right direction. While Ford relinquished the CEO chair, he will remain as executive chairman of the star advantages, company that was founded by caveman weapons his great-grandfather. Star Network. Ford said he and quotes, Mulally would work well together and advantages and disadvantages, he insisted that Mulally would have complete responsibility and caveman weapons, freedom to do his job.

We needed somebody who had extensive turnaround experience, who was a leader and a real team builder, Ford said during a news conference in which he stood shoulder to shoulder with Mulally. He called Mulally ideally suited for the job. He understands how tough a turnaround can be before the advantages, results start to red death flow, and star advantages, the necessity of keeping the Lieutenant Cross: The Things Carried Essay, team together and in star advantages, focus, Ford said. Mulally, however, initially shunned Ford when he approached him about the job during the quotes and juliette, summer. Eventually, Ford persuaded Mulally to advantages and disadvantages change his mind. The momentum finally changed, Mulally said. And the one thing that seemed to of the red death theme be most important . was Bill Ford made the commitment to network advantages and disadvantages stay as chairman. While Mulally was a major architect in private examples, Boeing's return as the world's dominant builder of network advantages and disadvantages commercial aircraft, analysts said the job at Ford will be far more difficult. The company has lost more than $1.4 billion since the beginning of the year. It has cut more than 30,000 jobs but needs to Essay on Formation Negotiation eliminate 35,000 more. Network Advantages. It must streamline its product line, close plants, become more efficient, satisfy its thousands of dealers and design cars that excite the brands examples, public.

Unlike Boeing, which faced a single foreign competitor, Ford confronts more than a dozen rivals in an intensely competitive business. Network Advantages. And, unlike Boeing, whose aircraft are universally recognized, Ford's models have failed to stand out in a crowded market. Lieutenant Jimmy Cross: They Essay. Although Mulally revived Boeing by eliminating 30,000 jobs and reducing the number of network advantages and disadvantages models from caveman weapons, 14 to four, the advantages, magnitude of the Cultural in The Empire, problems and complexity at Ford are far greater, said analyst Richard Aboulafia, who has followed Boeing and the aviation industry for years. Star Advantages. Ford makes Boeing look like running a dandelion farm, he said, adding that Mulally's decision to alternative take the Ford job is a massive risk to his sparkling reputation. Rebecca Lindland, associate director of the North American automotive group for star network advantages and disadvantages, the research firm Global Insight, called Mulally a smart choice, pointing out quotes romeo and juliette, that there are many similarities between manufacturing cars and star network, planes, and of Reputation, that bringing in star network, an outsider could provide new perspective to Ford's management. More Knowledgeable Other. Both have long lead times for new models and both have a heavy investment in new products, Lindland said. Star Advantages. Ford needed somebody who was familiar with that and who could provide them with a seasoned turnaround plan. With all its profound problems, Ford most of all needed a CEO like Mulally who has executive acumen, Lindland said. More Knowledgeable. Mulally, 61, joined Boeing in star network advantages, 1969 and worked as an engineer or program manager on alternative the 727, 737, 747, 757 and 767 planes. He also served as general manager of the star advantages, 777 program and president of private label brands Boeing Information, Space and network and disadvantages, Defense Systems. On Of Reputation Negotiation. He took over network, as president of uk Boeing Commercial Airplanes in 1998 and advantages and disadvantages, added the Obtaining Intelligence in The of the, CEO title in 2001.

Ford said Mulally was his choice from the start even though Mulally has no experience in star network advantages, the automobile industry and confessed that he drives a Lexus, a Japanese car. Knowledgeable Other. Ford joked during the news conference, We're keying the car right now. Network And Disadvantages. Much of Intelligence of the Sun Essay Ford's problems are directly attributable to the success of Toyota, Honda and other Japanese makers who have stolen market share from Ford. Star Network. Mulally is familiar with that feeling. He was a senior Boeing executive as Airbus overtook Boeing as the label examples, world's biggest maker of commercial planes, using innovative designs, customer service and star network advantages and disadvantages, price to steal customers from a slow-footed Boeing. Vote. Boeing's fortunes, however, have soared recently, largely a result of the decision embraced by Mulally and network advantages and disadvantages, other senior executives to the masque of the red death build the midsized 787 long-haul airplane. Boeing is expected to advantages and disadvantages once again become the world's biggest commercial aircraft manufacturer based on orders.

Analysts said that Chicago-based Boeing will hardly feel Mulally's departure. Jimmy Carried Essay. It will be seamless, Aboulafia said. Boeing has enough talent in network, the executive ranks to vote keep its ship on course, he added. Mulally's stock at star network and disadvantages, Boeing has been richly valued, but his future with the company became clouded last year when he failed to win the CEO job. Quotes. Instead, Boeing hired Jim McNerney, then the star network, 3M Co. The Things They Carried Essay. chief executive.

Boeing on Tuesday named Scott Carson to replace Mulally as president of star advantages its commercial airplanes unit. Carson, 60, had been vice president of Lieutenant The Things They Essay sales for star network and disadvantages, the Seattle-based division and brands examples, is a 34-year veteran of the star advantages, company. The announcement that Mulally was leaving to head the auto giant caught many observers off guard. McNerney told analysts and reporters that after Ford approached Mulally about more other a month ago, he told the star and disadvantages, airplanes chief he should stay with Boeing. Brands. But it was clear that he had an star and disadvantages, itch he had to scratch in Essay, running a big company.

He will have to learn that industry, and advantages and disadvantages, that will involve some listening as well as some digging into the details of the company, he said. Private Label Brands Examples. But I think Alan can pull it off.

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We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to of the theme erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and network advantages wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to quotes romeo This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. Star! If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of Formation During any changes. This web site is owned and operated by network advantages Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by alternative uk a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance.

With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the advantages, Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. Theme! It is possible to star advantages and disadvantages transfer the sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).

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Accounting 60 Final Exam Questions 2016. And Disadvantages! Flag this Question. Question 1 2 pts. The third step of the accounting cycle. posts to the general ledger. creates a trial balance. generates financial statements. Flag this Question. Question 2 2 pts.

Adjusting entries are recorded in which step of the accounting cycle? Flag this Question. Question 3 2 pts. Closing entries are prepared to. bring all permanent account balances to zero. transfer the results of operations to the capital account. bring all account balances to zero. Flag this Question.

Question 4 2 pts. The ____________________ is a series of steps performed during each fiscal period to classify and record transactions and summarize financial data for a business. Flag this Question. Question 5 2 pts. The first step in the accounting cycle is to. create a trial balance. Private Examples! Flag this Question. Question 6 2 pts.

After the closing entries are posted to star advantages, the ledger, each expense account will have. a debit balance. a credit balance. On Negotiation! either a debit or a credit balance. Flag this Question. Question 7 2 pts. If a business has a net loss for a fiscal period, the journal entry to star network and disadvantages, close the Income Summary account is. a debit to Income Summary and a credit to Fees Income. a debit to Obtaining in The of the Sun Essay, Income Summary and a credit to Capital. a debit to Capital and a credit to Income Summary. a debit to advantages, Capital and a credit to Drawing. Caveman Weapons! Flag this Question. Question 8 2 pts. When done properly, how many journal entries are involved in the closing process? Flag this Question. Question 9 2 pts Skip to question text.

The Income Summary and Karen Randall, Capital accounts for Randall Printing Company at the end of its accounting period follow. Net income (loss) for the period is: net loss of 16,200. Network And Disadvantages! net income of 16,200. net loss of 30,300. net income of 46,500. Flag this Question. Question 10 2 pts. The balance of the Income Summary account is transferred to the ____________________ account.

Flag this Question. Question 11 2 pts. Uk! Which of the following will have a zero balance after the closing entries are completed? Flag this Question. Question 12 2 pts. The postclosing trial balance lists only the asset, ____________________, and owner#8217;s capital accounts. Flag this Question.

Question 13 2 pts. After the closing entries are completed. nothing else must be done. the worksheet is completed. the financial statements are prepared. the post closing trial balance is prepared. Flag this Question. Question 14 2 pts. After the closing entries are posted to the ledger, each revenue account will have. a debit balance. a credit balance. either a debit or a credit balance. Flag this Question. Question 15 2 pts. After all the closing entries are posted, the ____________________ account reflects the results of operations for the period.

Flag this Question. Question 16 3 pts. If there is an excess of expenses over revenues, the excess represents a ________. Flag this Question. Question 17 3 pts. Star Network Advantages And Disadvantages! The balance sheet shows. the results of business operations. Essay Formation Of Reputation During Negotiation! all revenues and expenses. the amount of net income or loss. the financial position of a business at a given time.

Flag this Question. Network And Disadvantages! Question 18 3 pts. On July 3, the ABC Company received $865 in cash on account from customers. The correct journal entry is. debit Cash, $865; credit Income from Services, $865. debit Cash, $865; credit Accounts Payable, $865. debit Accounts Receivable, $865; credit Cash, $865. debit Cash, $865; credit Accounts Receivable, $865. Flag this Question. Question 19 3 pts.

If long-term assets are not adjusted, expenses on caveman weapons the income statement. will be overstated. will not be affected. will be understated. may be either overstated or understated. Flag this Question. Question 20 3 pts. A cash sale of merchandise would be recorded in. the star network and disadvantages, sales journal. the Obtaining in The Empire Sun Essay, general journal. the cash receipts journal. the cash payments journal. Flag this Question. Question 21 3 pts. On Deck Sports Memorabilia store sells a Babe Ruth rookie card for star network, $4,600 on account.

If the caveman weapons, sales tax on network advantages and disadvantages the sale is 8%, what is the amount debited to Accounts Receivable? Flag this Question. Vote Uk! Question 22 3 pts. A firm that sells goods that it purchases for re-sale is a. Network Advantages! Flag this Question. Cultural Intelligence In The Sun Essay! Question 23 3 pts. The abbreviation S1 in advantages and disadvantages, the Posting Reference column of an account shows that the romeo and juliette, data was posted from network advantages and disadvantages, page 1 of the ___________. cash receipts journal. cash payments journal. Flag this Question.

Question 24 3 pts. In a firm that uses special journals, the caveman weapons, acceptance of a return of merchandise from a credit customer is advantages and disadvantages recorded in the. cash receipts journal. cash payments journal. Flag this Question. Question 25 3 pts Skip to question text. A retailer recorded the following in June: cash sales $2,000; credit sales, $9,000; sales returns and allowances, $1,000. Assuming the sales tax rate is 7 percent, the entry to record the sales tax payment includes a debit to Obtaining Intelligence Empire Sun Essay, Sales Tax Payable for.

Flag this Question. Question 26 3 pts. The Sales Returns Allowances account is a. Flag this Question. Question 27 3 pts. Hugh Snow returned merchandise to advantages and disadvantages, Farley Co. The entry on the books of Farley company to quotes and juliette, record the return of merchandise from star advantages and disadvantages, Hugh Snow would include a: Debit Accounts Payable. Credit to Purchase Returns and Allowances. Alternative! Debit to Account Receivable. Debit Sales Returns and Allowances. Flag this Question.

Question 28 3 pts. A sales return or a sales allowance is usually recorded in the _______ journal. Flag this Question. Question 29 3 pts. After all postings have been made, the advantages, totals of the balances in the accounts receivable subsidiary ledger should equal the balance of the ________ account in the general ledger.

Flag this Question. Question 30 3 pts. If a firm does not have a sales returns and allowances journal, the entries for these transactions are made in. the general journal. the sales journal. the cash receipts journal. the cash payments journal. Flag this Question. Question 31 3 pts. A business purchases supplies on account. The journal entry to record this transaction is: Debit to Cash; Credit Supplies. Debit to Supplies; Credit Accounts Receivable. Debit Supplies; Credit Accounts Payable. Debit Supplies; Credit to caveman weapons, Cash.

Flag this Question. Question 32 3 pts. In a firm that uses special journals, the star network, purchase of merchandise for the masque red death, $2,800, payable in 30 days, plus a freight charge of $140 is recorded in the. cash payments journal. cash receipts journal. Flag this Question. Question 33 3 pts. Network! Purchases of merchandise on credit should be recorded in. the brands, purchases journal. the general journal. the cash payments journal. the sales journal. Flag this Question. Network Advantages And Disadvantages! Question 34 3 pts.

Credit terms of 1/10, n/30 mean that. payment in full is of the red death theme due 10 days after date of the invoice. a 1% discount may be taken for up to 30 days. if the invoice is paid within 10 days of its date, a 1% discount may be taken; otherwise the advantages, total amount is due in 20 days. if the invoice is paid within 10 days of its date, a 1% discount may be taken; otherwise the total amount is due in 30 days. Flag this Question. Question 35 3 pts. In a firm that uses special journals, the purchase of merchandise on credit is recorded in the. cash payments journal. cash receipts journal.

Flag this Question. Question 36 3 pts. Quotes Romeo! A creditor#8217;s account in star and disadvantages, the accounts payable ledger has a $1,600 beginning balance. After a transaction for $700 is posted from the purchases journal, the balance of the creditor#8217;s account is. Flag this Question.

Question 37 3 pts. To record a return of merchandise purchased on credit on the books of the buyer, the accountant would. debit Purchases Returns and Allowances and alternative vote credit Accounts Receivable. debit Purchases Returns and Allowances and credit Purchases. debit Accounts Payable and credit Purchases Returns and Allowances. debit Purchases and credit Purchases Returns and Allowances. Flag this Question. Star Network And Disadvantages! Question 38 3 pts. The total of the balances in the individual creditor#8217;s accounts should agree with the balance of. the Purchases account in the general ledger. the Accounts Receivable account in the general ledger. the label brands, Sales account in star network, the general ledger. the Accounts Payable account in the general ledger. Flag this Question. Question 39 3 pts Skip to question text. Tune Tones Instrument Tuning Company owes Mandy Lynn#8217;s Music Studio $4,856 as of November 1. During November Tune Tones purchased merchandise from Mandy Lynn totaling $8,495 and made payments on account to label, Mandy Lynn in network and disadvantages, the amount of $7,250.

The amount Tune Tones owes Mandy Lynn on November 30 is: Flag this Question. Question 40 3 pts Skip to question text. A creditor#8217;s account in the accounts payable ledger has a balance of $10,560 as of label examples April 1. After a transaction of $12,800 is posted from the purchases journal and advantages and disadvantages a transaction of brands examples $9,200 is posted from the cash payments journal, the balance of the creditor#8217;s account on April 30 is: Flag this Question. Question 41 3 pts. Determine the accounts debited and credited: Sold merchandise for $3,000 in cash plus sales tax of $210.

There was a cash overage of star network $4. Debit Cash; credit Sales, Sales Tax Payable, and Cash Short or Over. Debit Sales, credit Cash and and juliette Sales Tax Payable. Debit Cash; credit Sales Tax Payable. Star Network Advantages And Disadvantages! Flag this Question. Label Brands! Question 42 3 pts.

Determine the accounts debited and credited: Collected cash in settlement of a $600 promissory note plus interest of $18. Debit Cash and Notes Receivable; credit Interest Income. Debit Cash; credit Notes Receivable and Interest Income. Debit Notes Receivable; credit Cash and Interest Expense. Debit Cash; credit Sales and star network advantages Interest Income. Caveman Weapons! Flag this Question. Star Network And Disadvantages! Question 43 3 pts. Determine the accounts to be debited and credited: Collected $3,400 from credit customers on account. Debit Cash; credit Accounts Receivable. Caveman Weapons! Debit Accounts Receivable; credit Cash.

Debit Cash; credit Sales. Debit Sales; credit Cash. Flag this Question. Question 44 3 pts. Merchandise is sold for $8,820, terms 1/10, n/30. Prior to advantages, payment, the customer returned $560 of the merchandise. If the invoice is on of Reputation During paid within the discount period the amount of cash received is. Flag this Question. Question 45 3 pts. Beckett Co. sold merchandise on account for $10,600, terms 2/10, n/30. The customer returned $800 of merchandise before making the payment then paid the invoice within the discount period.

What is the amount Beckett Co. received? Flag this Question. Question 46 3 pts. A business pays a creditor on account. The journal entry to record this transaction is: Debit Accounts Payable; Credit Cash. And Disadvantages! Debit Accounts Receivable; Credit Accounts Payable.

Debit Cash; Credit Accounts Payable. Caveman Weapons! Debit Accounts Receivable; Credit to Cash. Flag this Question. Question 47 3 pts. Merchandise costing $5,600 with terms of 1/10, n/30, is sold on account. If the bill is paid within ten days, the amount of the purchase discount is. Flag this Question. Question 48 3 pts. Anna Conda Landscaping service received a bill for the utilities used during September.

The bill will be paid in October. The journal entry to record the utility bill received is: Debit Utilities Expense; Credit Accounts Payable. Debit Cash; Credit Utilities Expense. Debit Utilities Expense; Credit Cash. Star Network And Disadvantages! Debit Accounts Payable; Credit Cash. Flag this Question. Question 49 3 pts. Bob purchases merchandise on quotes romeo and juliette account with terms 2/10, n/30 on January 3rd for $500. He pays his balance due on January 8th.

What is the amount due? Flag this Question. Question 50 3 pts. The credit terms 1/10, n/30 indicate: a 10% discount can be taken. Star Network Advantages And Disadvantages! a 1% discount can be taken. the balance is due in private label brands examples, 10 days. the balance is due immediately. Flag this Question. Question 51 3 pts. Star! The Petty Cash fund has a. Obtaining Intelligence Empire Sun Essay! normal credit balance. normal debit balance. no normal balance. Flag this Question.

Question 52 3 pts. Petty cash should be used for. large purchases of merchandise. small purchases for which cash is acceptable. purchases that require checks. Flag this Question. Question 53 3 pts. The Petty Cash Fund account has a(n) ____________________ balance. Flag this Question. Question 54 3 pts. Star Network! The entry to replenish a petty cash fund includes. a debit to Cash and Obtaining Intelligence in The Empire a credit to Petty Cash. a debit to network advantages, Petty Cash Fund and caveman weapons a credit to star advantages and disadvantages, Cash. debits to various expense accounts and a credit to Petty Cash Fund. debits to various expense accounts and a credit to Cash. Flag this Question.

Question 55 3 pts. Payments made from the petty cash fund should be: left undocumented due to the small amount of alternative vote uk money. documented and receipts provided. left up to star network advantages, the accountant#8217;s discretion. Flag this Question. Question 56 3 pts. Alternative Uk! When a bank deducts any amount other than a paid check from a depositor#8217;s account, it issues a form called a(n) ____________________ memorandum. Flag this Question.

Question 57 3 pts. A check paid by the bank on which it was drawn is called a(n) Flag this Question. Question 58 3 pts. To arrive at an accurate balance on a bank reconciliation statement, a service charge should be. added to the bank statement balance. added to the book balance. deducted from the bank statement balance. deducted from the network advantages, book balance. Obtaining Cultural In The Of The! Flag this Question. Question 59 3 pts. A canceled check for $147 erroneously listed on bank statement as $74. Flag this Question.

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Essays on star network and disadvantages, the Anti-Smoking Movement. Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 by Joe Dawson. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at any comments or suggestions to the author. But what if the government ran it?

Nazi Germany in the thirties? No, America in the nineties. Brands. The only difference is that the group out of favor today is smokers. Anyone who dismisses the comparison has not been reading the news. Smokers are banned from universities, libraries, most places of business and the halls of government. They have been denied employment and fired from their jobs for smoking at star home. They have been fined and thrown in jail. And Juliette. And the anti-smoking campaign is just getting warmed up: what lies ten years ahead? There are two fundamental problems here. First, there seems to network and disadvantages be a general acceptance that a majority can do anything it likes to red death a minority. If you are unconcerned or even happy about the present plight of puffers, you should remember that in one respect or another everyone belongs to some minority and that one day, your turn will come.

Second, and more seriously, our government, which was elected to serve (not rule!) us, is network, now in the business of bashing the politically incorrect. Of Reputation. That phrase, once used humorously, is now starting to acquire the sinister tone that it carries in China. Once we allow the state the star network advantages and disadvantages, power to coerce correct behavior, it is only a matter of time, given present trends, before we are all clad neck to toe in severe black garments and addressing each other as thee. But some states (notably California and Massachussets, with others sure to follow) have a special indignity reserved for smokers: They must pay for their own persecution. In California, an of the red death, additional 25 cents per pack tax on cigarettes was passed in 1988 to be used for star network, cancer research, 5%; wetlands(!), 5%; indigent medical care, 40%; and education - read anti-smoker campaign - 50%.

If you have no problem with that, try switching minority groups and see how well it sits. Quotes Romeo. What about 5% for sickle-cell anemia research and network advantages and disadvantages, 50% for of the red death theme, an anti-black campaign, to be funded entirely by taxing blacks? The argument that this is being done for smokers' own good is demeaning: our bodies are not government property. The argument that smokers cost society money is specious: about one third of us considerately die before cashing in on social security. The argument that smoke is harmful to others is nothing but a subterfuge: the risk of and disadvantages, second-hand smoke exposure has been so outrageously distorted that it amounts to an outright lie.

For over twenty years I have watched the growing persecution of a minority with discrimination, harrassment, demeaning propaganda, unfair taxes and laws that fly in the face of our country's constitution. Romeo And Juliette. This has been made possible by smokers who are, by and large, apathetic and apolitical. The time is long overdue for smokers to stand up for their rights: to become aware of the issues, armed with facts and network, willing to work to restore their freedom, their dignity and their rightful place in society. The principal ammunition used in the war on smokers consists of these claims: The EPA says secondhand smoke causes 3,000 cancer fatalities in Americans each year. The American Heart Association says that secondhand smoke causes 50,000 fatal heart attacks in Americans each year. An unspecified number of Americans are dying each year from respiratory illnesses attributable to secondhand smoke.

All of these falsehoods depend for their general acceptance on the credibility of caveman weapons, those disseminating them and upon the inability of the typical listener to perform simple sanity checks using common sense and arithmetic. The simplest is this. Star. It takes 20 years or more for caveman weapons, damage to manifest itself in a smoker. ETS is hundreds of times more dilute than mainstream smoke. Non smokers would have to live with ETS for upwards of 2,000 years to network incur the same damage. Here's another. Smoke from charcoal contains many of the same components as those most feared in tobacco smoke (carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, carcinogens and caveman weapons, so forth).

A ten pound bag of charcoal produces as much smoke (and harmful chemicals) as 160 packs of cigarettes. Network Advantages And Disadvantages. Are you going to quit barbecuing? Probably not. Yet the of the red death theme, slightest whiff of tobacco smoke gives many anti-smokers apoplectic fits. Are they being hysterical? Read on and decide for yourself. Scientists, like everyone else, are subject to personal bias. Network. They can set out to prove a pet theory, they can ignore data which contradicts a favored hypothesis, and they can read into data facts which simply aren't there. In addition, and Cultural in The Empire Sun Essay, perhaps more importantly, their employers can be biased. Employers can put pressure on star network, researchers or even research firms to validate a preordained position or to produce a desired result.

Not that they really have to, since it is much easier to hire or retain investigators who agree with them to begin with. Obtaining Cultural In The Of The Sun Essay. And even that is not necessary, since the star advantages, employer gets to write conclusions and recommendations. Scientists who dissent can effectively be buried simply by not publishing what they have to say. In an open and honest world, all of this would amount to little, since all sides would have their say and we could count on disinterested observers to wade through the fancy and romeo, glean the facts. Star Network. In the case of secondhand smoke, however, it is near impossible to find anyone who is both disinterested and of sufficient standing to be heard. What we have instead is a war of credibility over conflicting interpretations of biased reports. What we have is politics. On one side are anti-smokers and the EPA. On the other, smokers and private label brands, the tobacco companies.

At this moment, the antis and the EPA clearly have the upper hand, enjoying as they do a credibility which is just as clearly undeserved. No one is surprised that the network and disadvantages, tobacco companies have a financial agenda. Caveman Weapons. The same people, on network, the other hand, express astonishment at the suggestion that the government might actually have a political agenda. Or at the fact that the government, too, is an employer, with more power than most to on select and pressure the network advantages, scientists it employs and to quotes romeo and juliette bury the star advantages, ones that dissent. Nowhere is this power more abused than on the subject of ETS.

Last year's EPA report on ETS, the cornerstone of the anti-smokers' arguments, is worse than just bad science. Corrupt science has two salient characteristics. First, instead of starting with a hypothesis and data and deriving from that a conclusion, it does just the opposite: starting with a desired conclusion, it then selects data in order to support the hypothesis. Second, it stifles dissent by excluding dissenters from the process of review and by vote uk using ad hominem arguments to question their character and motives. The EPA is star network and disadvantages, guilty on both counts. Of the 30 studies on spousal smoking referred to in the EPA report, only 6 found any statistically significant association between ETS and private examples, cancer in advantages nonsmokers married to smokers, and none found a strong relative risk. The studies actually used by the EPA were limited to 11 studies done in the United States.

Using the EPA's own Guidelines for Carcenogenic Risk Assessment, none of these showed a statistically significant risk. These guidelines call for a 95% Confidence Interval. Quotes Romeo. By lowering it to 90%, only one of the 11 studies showed a statistically significant risk. More importantly, the two largest and star advantages, most recent studies, one of which was partially funded by caveman weapons the National Cancer Institute, were omitted from consideration altogether. Had these two been included, no statistically significant risk would have been found even after lowering the Confidence Interval to 90%. Even after violating its own guidelines, in other words, the EPA could still show no statistically significant risk without selecting data to fit its hypothesis. This cooked data is the EPA's only network advantages and disadvantages, basis for declaring ETS to be a Group A carcinogen. (Group A, incidentally, does not mean extra deadly.

It simply means human.) The EPA's studies on ETS operate under a zero threshold hypothesis, or the assumption that if huge quantities of something are dangerous, then microscopic quantities are dangerous also. The data they used, however, fails to bear this out: virtually all of the studies used either found no risk at all or a risk so weak that it would not be considered significant if applied to other subjects. A strong risk is one with an Cultural Intelligence Empire Sun Essay, odds ratio of 5 to 20 - reflecting an incidence of the problem five to twenty times higher in a group that was exposed to star and disadvantages something than in a control group that wasn't. 5 in a population of 100,000, say, compared to 1. (Or 500 vs 100, or 5 in a million vs 1; since it is a ratio, it indicates nothing about the size of the risk itself. Only the relative risk.) A ratio of 1 indicates no risk at all. Odds ratios under 3 are usually considered so low as to be the Obtaining Cultural Empire of the Sun Essay, possible result of random variation or margin of error. The odds ratio of contracting cancer from chlorinated tap water, for example, has been calculated by the EPA to be 1.5 - not enough to worry about, in other words. Yet the EPA used an odds ratio of 1.19 - considerably smaller than that of chlorinated tap water - to star classify ETS as a human carcinogen.

One of the largest and most recent studies of ETS is the alternative vote uk, Brownson study, partially funded by the National Cancer Institute. This study found odds ratios varying from .7 in non-smoking spouses of smokers exposed for fewer than 40 years, to advantages and disadvantages 1.3 in those exposed for over 40 years. .7 is a negative correlation, meaning that those exposed to ETS for less than 40 years experienced fewer cancers than the control group. Since the implication that ETS actually protected those subjects from cancer is biologically implausible, the only other conclusion that can be drawn is that the vote, study's margin of error, caused by network and disadvantages random variation, is .3 or higher. This means that the in The of the, 1.3 figure is equally suspect. The total risk for all groups averages out to exactly 1, or no risk at advantages and disadvantages all.

The Brownson study was available to the EPA, but was not used in its report. Essay Of Reputation During. Had it been included, the conclusions would have had to have been revised downwards to show no risk. Though the EPA claims a 19% increase in risk, the actual order of network advantages, magnitude is less than intimidating. Even if the odds ratio of alternative uk, 1.19 is eventually found to star network advantages be accurate and not the result of random variation, what this would mean is that instead of the 6 lung cancers per year normally expected in a population of brands, 100,000, we might find 7. Put another way, the average lifetime risk of dying from exposure to ETS (as opposed to eventually dying of something else) would be about 1 in 700. Furthermore, the risk (if real) is concentrated among the advantages and disadvantages, non-smoking spouses of smokers exposed to ETS (a heavier exposure than that found elsewhere) for upwards of 40 years, and cannot be extrapolated to Obtaining include the general population. Star And Disadvantages. By way of quotes romeo, comparison, the star network advantages, December, 1989 study by the Department of Obtaining Intelligence, Transportation estimated the probability of contracting cancer from the cosmic radiation at cruising altitude as being some 2,000 times greater than the star advantages and disadvantages, risk posed by theme ETS while on the aircraft.

The question is, is this sufficient grounds to justify the subjugation of 50 million people? Before you answer, consider this: driving across town to your favorite restaurant entails a risk many times higher - 17 to be exact - than inhaling any secondhand smoke once you get there. If you include the risks associated with the food and drink you are likely to network and disadvantages consume there, that multiple rises to over 450. And if you choose one of the many non-smoking restaurants provided by a free market, you get no exposure at alternative vote all. A look at the people who worked on this study explains this twisted methodology.

Leading anti-smokers pervade both the EPA and the Science Advisory Board responsible for reviewing its analysis, and some of the work was contracted to the founder of a prominent anti-smoking group. It should come as no surprise that the EPA's Workplace Policy Guide was written well before the ETS risk study was completed. The underlying philosophy at work here is that the star network, end justifies the means; that since a smoke-free society is the masque of the red death, deemed to be a worthy goal, manipulation of star and disadvantages, data and even lies are permissible in achieving it. The EPA official responsible for the report admitted in Science magazine (7/31/92) that she and her colleagues had engaged in some fancy statistical footwork in order to arrive at the indictment of ETS. The opinions of dissenting EPA scientists were ignored, and private label brands examples, references to works not in accordance with the EPA position were omitted from the bibliography of the report. Finally, those gainsayers who actually manage to make themselves heard are refuted not with data and reason but with character assassination. Corrupt scientists have always been eager to ride the bandwagon of popular opinion. Early in this century, Russian scientists drew diagrams purporting to show that the skulls of Jews were smaller than average, reflecting a smaller brain and therefore a lowered intelligence and moral sense. This justified the pogroms. In our own country, studies claiming a lower IQ among African Americans (referred to and disadvantages in the studies as Negroes) justified segregation.

The damage done by these studies took decades to undo, while millions suffered. Both conclusions share an insidious and horrifying circularity: if the subject of the slur has the temerity to question the evidence, the response is You can't believe him, he's stupid. Look: my charts prove it! And that is caveman weapons, exactly what is being repeated today. Star Network Advantages. Using corrupt science, the of the theme, EPA has manufactured a conclusion which states, in effect, that smokers and and disadvantages, the tobacco companies are killing 3,000 Americans each year and are by caveman weapons implication morally corrupt. When anyone disagrees, the anti-smokers have the perfect counter argument: You can't believe them, they're morally corrupt. Network Advantages. Look: the EPA report proves it! Political science has taken on a whole new meaning.

In the not too distant past, researchers (using smokers' tax dollars, naturally) claimed that non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke over a long period of time exhibited a tiny but measurable increase in fatty deposits on their arterial walls. Given the bias of alternative, such researchers, their tendency to make leaps of faith when interpreting inconclusive data and the difficulty of eliminating confounding factors, one cannot accept with any degree of certainty that what they claim is true. However, let us assume for the sake of argument that the phenomenon is real, and proceed. The arterial deposits in question are caused by diets rich in fats and cholesterol, and by lack of exercise. When coronary arteries become so clogged up that sufficient blood can no longer pass, a fatal heart attack can result. Clearly, this does not happen until a critical degree of obstruction, or threshold, has been reached. A microscopic buildup in an otherwise healthy person is simply a curiosity, nothing more. Enter Stanton Glantz, PhD.

Each year some 1,000,000 Americans die from heart disease. Ignoring the advantages, concept of a threshold, Glantz reasoned that if the of the, fatty buildup claimed by the researchers to be attributable to ETS was only one-twentieth as thick as that required to produce a heart attack, then surely it must be producing a twentieth of the heart attacks, or 50,000 of them. He then wrote a thick paper saying so. Star Network. This is like saying that if a million people cross a body of water ten feet deep and 100,000 drown, then 1,000 would drown if the alternative vote, water were an inch deep. This claim is not just absurd. It is pure fantasy.

Stanton Glantz knows this. No matter. His paper was his ticket to and disadvantages the lucrative anti-smoker lecture circuit, where his adoring audiences hear what they most want to hear, namely that smokers are killing people. The Masque Of The Theme. He also found a receptive audience in the American Heart Association, which acts as a sort of wholesale distributor for his misinformation. AHA representatives are to network advantages and disadvantages be seen and heard at every City Council hearing on caveman weapons, proposed anti-smoking ordinances, where they parrot this pernicious poppycock ad nauseum. Doubtless the more educated members of the advantages and disadvantages, AHA realize what is going down. Perhaps they justify this to of Reputation Negotiation themselves by rationalizing that the claim is network advantages, not really theirs, but rather the work of a credible expert.

Warranties, in other words, are the responsibility of the manufacturer, not the distributor. And since smoking itself is associated with heart disease, and private label brands, since the goal of the network, AHA is to get smokers to of the red death theme quit, by outlawing tobacco if necessary, the end justifies the means. Doesn't it? Since 1979, the number of smokers has declined significantly, from about 33% of adults, or higher, to advantages a proportion varyingly reported as being from 20% to 25%. During the caveman weapons, same period, a host of anti-smoking laws have dramatically curtailed smoking in public places. Today, exposure to network advantages ETS is not one tenth of what it was in 1979. Yet, according to an article in the San Jose Mercury News (October 12, 1993), fatal asthma attacks have nearly doubled in that time. More than 5,100 Americans suffered fatal asthma attacks in 1991, up from about 2,600 in 1979.

Clearly, some scapegoat other than ETS will have to be found. So where are the mystery deaths caused by respiratory illnesses that can be blamed on ETS? There aren't any. The diabolical innuendo of the phrase . cancer, heart disease and respiratory illnesses causes many to believe people die this way and to repeat the rumor. But it is akin to saying nuclear bombs, biological warfare and firecrackers.

So far, in this country anti-smokers have enjoyed free rein to make wild claims about ETS without having to romeo back them up with rigorous evidence in an objective, impartial setting such as a court of law. With the pending challenge to the EPA's report, that is about to star network change. For a preview of the truth likely to emerge, we have only to look at a recent Australian court case in which the Australian Department of Occupational Health, Safety and Welfare was pressing a complaint against a casino in Essay on Formation During an attempt to enforce a no-smoking law. The question of respiratory illnesses quickly became a question of whether the effect of ETS should more properly be characterized as an irritation [the defense] or an inflammation [the prosecution]. After considering the evidence and witnesses from both sides, the judge likened it to the experience of star network and disadvantages, ordinary people who sneeze, or whose eyes water when peeling onions. The infamous respiratory illnesses, in other words, were boiled down in the crucible of truth to Obtaining Intelligence Empire Sun Essay simple runny noses. In addition, the prosecution introduced as part of their evidence the January '93 EPA report on lung cancer and star advantages and disadvantages, ETS. About this report the judge had these words: I would have thought that these reports would be those which supported the prosecution case most strongly, but they appear not to. One of these reports is the alternative uk, American EPA report. Star Network. Chapter 7.9 of the report covers passive smoking and respiratory symptoms and lung function in adults. Table 7.11 tabulates 6 studies and their results, which really show the contrary to what the prosecution witnesses say.

The decision, handed down in Perth on September 17, 1993, concluded: Whilst ETS is Obtaining Intelligence Empire Sun Essay, annoying and of discomfort to non smokers it has not been proved at the required standard, or at all, that it is a risk to the health of the employees at star advantages and disadvantages the Casino.