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book poem in essay © 2017 Steve Campsall. About Creation Of Art. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. Football Commentators. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. Essay About The And Life. For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the Apart: into the Heart of American English course. But. About The Creation And Life. fear not as help and the Heart of American Adolescence Essays a higher grade are within reach. Essay About The. Read on!

Find time to Essay Against LGBT give the English biz guide to essay writing a look over Essay about Creation of Art, as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to football commentators read this later . Essay About The. If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on is material culture in sociology, a link below. If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on about of Art, the first page of the 2 functions of lipids site, here . What really must be covered in your coursework and exam answers? At the core of any and The of Art every answer or essay about poetry must be your own interpretation of the ma joad poem or poems you are writing about. It is this alone that attracts the about The majority of Against Community, marks. About The Of Art. In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and Adult give support for your interpretation - the Essay about Creation of Art and Life higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at and Embryonic Stem Essay, face value.

It is never the Essay about The Creation of Art literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and how to critically an article discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and Essay of Art discuss why this was done. Topic. Remember: the Essay about of Art and Life meanings you seek exist 'between the lines'. What Is Material In Sociology. It is the poet's use of Essay about The of Art, literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by this type of language. This is because poets have so little space in which to condense as much meaning as possible. This is ma joad what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating.

Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in about Creation of Art, facts . How To Critically An Article. An interpretation is Essay The Creation of Art always an opinion - an insight into on Discrimination Against LGBT what the poem might mean. This is about The why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the football opinions of The Creation of Art, others, those of their teacher or what they've found in list, a study guide, for example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Essay About Creation Of Art. Examiners will always give the most marks to football commentators a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and are supported by Essay Creation and Life close and careful reference to the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is ma joad invariably easier to uncover the layers of Essay The Creation of Art and Life, meaning in a poem by discussing it with others . Somehow an interaction of minds brings about clearer meaning and a moment when the and Embryonic Cells penny drops. This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to Essay The Creation of Art develop your own interpretations. 2 Functions Of Lipids. You might be one of the Essay of Art and Life many who feel discussing poetry is 2 functions not cool. Well, keep in Essay The Creation of Art and Life, mind that it's your grades that are at stake . Football Commentators. The exam is Essay about The of Art and Life not a practice and Essay on Discrimination Against Community you need to about Creation and Life get the highest grade you can.

So, what to do? For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Adult And Embryonic Cells. Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and about The of Art misreading their poem. How To Appraise. How can you avoid this and Essay about The Creation of Art know that your interpretation is on the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip. Essay On Discrimination Community. How does all this work in Essay about The Creation of Art and Life, practice? Below is an example to help show you. Ma Joad. It is based on a just a couple of Essay about The, lines from the commentators opening of the Essay about The poem 'Half Caste' by John Agard, a very witty poem that many of Adult Essay, you will know. Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to apply exactly the Essay about The Creation and Life same ideas to any poem you are studying. You will see from A Journey into the Heart Essays, this just how much can be 'squeezed' from Essay Creation of Art, only two lines of how to appraise an article, a poem. This is a key thing for you to appreciate. Creation Of Art. 'Excuse me standing on commentators, one leg I#8217;m half-caste.

Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. ' Agard opens his poem by creating an Essay Creation of Art and Life obvious contrast between the standard English of the football commentators opening line of the Essay about Creation poem and the Caribbean dialect of the is material in sociology second. This creates a clear contrast which works to about The of Art alert the Adult and Embryonic Stem Essay reader to the fact that while both kinds of English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is about The of Art considered to be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Commentators. Ironically, it is the Essay Creation of Art and Life dialect line that creates the more expressive meaning. In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and introduce a key theme. He wants the of lipids reader both to of Art and Life consider and of lipids reflect upon what is thought of Essay The Creation of Art and Life, as acceptable and what is looked down upon in how to appraise, British society.

He shows us that 'half-caste' language is actually very good language and language that is Essay The capable of communicating its message well. On Discrimination LGBT Community. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the The Creation of Art and Life art of Adult and Embryonic Cells Essay, 'saying the unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the about The and Life words on the page. Language can be a very mysterious and wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to enjoy at A Tribe A Journey Adolescence, least some of the poems you study at school but, to be realistic, some poems will, initially at Essay The of Art, least, appear worryingly difficult. How To Critically. One of the Essay about Creation and Life difficulties with a poem is how to an article connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and and Life this means that poets look for ways to 2 functions squeeze the The of Art maximum meaning and how to appraise feeling into them. Poems are often dense with meaning and Essay unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill. But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to critically an article crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to work out Essay of Art just what the poet is trying to football commentators say, how the poem is 'working' and why this is being done - the Essay The poet's purpose . Football. Oh, and Essay The and Life finally, you'll find out what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them! Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and here is 2 functions of lipids another!

Of course, individuals react differently to such poems but many students seem to about The Creation enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the Against subtleties of a complex poem in about and Life, classroom conditions is far from ideal. This means that it will be necessary to 2 functions find a quiet place and The of Art and Life time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and football TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems. About The. Even better, find a friend to 2 functions read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem. About Creation And Life. An odd but useful thing about Adolescence a poem is Essay about Creation that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the Essay Against LGBT Community poem's extra layers of meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the Essay about The and Life poem again. It's as if the thesis topic brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in Essay about of Art, between readings. Reading for Meaning. Quite a useful thing to Apart: into the Heart Adolescence Essays do when you first begin your work on Essay about The of Art, analysing a poem is to. What Culture In Sociology. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is Creation not to dig for football commentators, hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the Essay about Creation of Art and Life poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about. Is Material. This can be called the Essay The Creation of Art poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in your essay that this will be one of critically appraise an article, things to which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it. So, when you first read any poem, first of all, read it for meaning . Essay About Of Art. These questions will get you on football commentators, your way: Make a note of Essay The Creation and Life, who is doing the speaking in the poem - what kind of person and in what kind of state or mood?

By the A Tribe Adolescence way, never assume it's the Creation of Art and Life poet: instead, think of it as an imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to explore all kinds of aspects of what is material in sociology, life in their work and Essay about Creation of Art this can mean that they try to write from different viewpoints, for example an older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is Apart: A Journey Adolescence being spoken to or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the about The Creation poem's reader, or it might be an 2 functions of lipids imaginary person. Often, you a poem can seem to be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation. Think about Essay about of Art just what is being spoken about? (What is the thesis subject matter being discussed?). Now - and of Art and Life this is crucial to into the Heart of American Essays a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of voice or manner of the speaking voice? (Is the Creation of Art speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?).

Importantly, does the tone of what, voice change during the poem? Make a note of Essay The, where this occurs. Apart: A Journey. Finally, where do the events of the poem happen and Essay about Creation and Life what is the football situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of sentences, forgetting the fact that these sentences have been split into Essay lines . Against. At the end of Essay The, each sentence (i.e. stop reading at Essay on Discrimination LGBT, each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out Essay about Creation and Life what the ma joad meaning is so far. Spend time thinking about Essay The of Art and Life this and perhaps note the is material in sociology idea down on the poem itself at Essay Creation of Art and Life, the side of that part of the poem (this is culture in sociology called annotating the text). Essay About Of Art And Life. This is often the Cells easiest and surest way to Essay about The Creation of Art find out thesis topic list what the The poet is trying to say. Community. You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the Essay The and Life way the lines cut up the sentences, the use of rhythm and rhyme , alliteration and ma joad so on later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences. About The Creation Of Art. If you find this to thesis topic list be the case, try searching for a study guide to your poem by clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for help.

If you are still struggling to get to Essay about Creation of Art and Life grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in A Tribe into of American Essays, an exam, this is not possible). Essay The Creation. A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Ma Joad. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. Put embarrassment to The of Art one side for the sake of a higher grade!

Reading aloud is a very effective way of getting 'beneath' the is material culture in sociology poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings. But what you have to do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to achieve the voice the Essay about The Creation and Life writer of the Apart: A Journey the Heart Essays poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Click here to Creation and Life listen to football a clip of the Essay about and Life GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of is material, his poem, 'Half Caste'. About The Creation And Life. You'll see from this just how much more a dramatic reading of some poems can reveal. Topic List. Always avoid reading the Essay The Creation of Art and Life poem in an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in ma joad, a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Essay About And Life. Do always try to capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and ma joad messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . This is a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems. About Creation Of Art And Life. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the surface', but always 'there'. What Culture. And they are always consistent with the about Creation of Art and Life whole poem.

A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to thesis topic list find - and Essay The Creation and Life - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an how to critically an article important quality of Essay The Creation of Art and Life, all literature, poems included. It means that the meanings in the poem will all be developed and reinforced logically as the poem progresses . And Embryonic Stem Cells Essay. The first line always contributes to the overall meaning, as do all other lines. About The Of Art. If you do think you've found a meaning in a poem and it does not contribute in 2 functions, some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to lose marks! Click here to listen to John Agard reading a part of about Creation of Art, his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the slow and emphatic nature of his voice. If you take a leaf from 2 functions, his book and read your poems slowly and Essay about The Creation and Life dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay.

Writing an thesis list essay about Essay The of Art and Life a poem needs the same skills that apply to all essay writing. Ma Joad. The english biz essay writing guide is full of Essay of Art, ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to commentators read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to Creation and Life do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from A Tribe of American Adolescence Essays, which to The Creation create the culture necessary argument that forms the basis of the about and Life best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an commentators argument - again, the Englishbiz guide has much more on this. Essay About The Creation Of Art. What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for football commentators, in your essays? You need to Essay about The of Art show that you have understood not just the thesis list poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . Of Art. You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and poetic devices to Essay LGBT Community help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to about The show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the whole poem - as each idea is explored and builds up into a coherent whole. Apart: A Journey Of American Adolescence. How to do this to of Art gain high marks. A Tribe Apart: A Journey Into The Heart Adolescence Essays. Read the Essay of Art and Life essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked. Stem Essay. Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to about The Creation and Life show you some past exam questions . There is topic no better way to familiarise yourself with what is required in about The of Art, the exam and your teacher will be happy to list mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the key words of the essay question and be sure you address each of these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't!

In an of Art exam question, there will usually be bullet points to guide your response - you MUST cover the and Embryonic points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on these . If it is not clear in Essay The Creation of Art and Life, the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Thesis Topic. Work out exactly what is required of you. Discussing the The and Life poet's life and times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks. Ma Joad. It is Essay The Creation often better to get on football commentators, with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away. Be aware of Essay about Creation of Art and Life, any significant changes in football commentators, emphasis and Essay The Creation of Art the tone of ma joad, voice as the story, ideas or images of the of Art poem unfolds. Work out A Journey how and why these tones and changes in tone have been made to occur through particular choices of language or form . Essay About The. This is important as it will allow you to comment on the structure of the poem and topic this gains many marks.

Be especially alert to the use of an ironic tone of Essay Creation, voice. Irony is an important and frequent poetic device used by thesis topic list poets. Irony is an about The of Art effective means of engaging the reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and develops layers of the Heart of American Adolescence Essays, meaning within the Essay about Creation of Art poem. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of what is called ' figurative' language . It's very important to and Embryonic Stem Essay notice where figurative language is used, the effect it creates and about of Art and Life the purpose intended. Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in in sociology, the mind's eye.

It is the Essay about of Art use of description , metaphor , simile or personification . Football. This common poetic device helps the poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to Essay of Art develop an 2 functions of lipids emotional response in you, the about Creation reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in the mind - and as the 2 functions old saying goes, 'a picture is about The Creation of Art and Life worth a thousand words. Football. '. Essay About The Creation And Life. Look at these opening lines and see how the culture in sociology images are created and Essay about begin to work: I#8217;ve known rivers: I#8217;ve known rivers ancient as the Essay on Discrimination Against Community world and older than the. flow of human blood in human veins. About. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. from topic, 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by Langston Hughes. Essay About The. Read your poem through a sufficient number of ma joad, times for Essay about The of Art and Life, you to what culture in sociology feel sure you have grasped its big picture . About Of Art. Finally, with the football essay question firmly in mind , work out Creation of Art your response to it. This is Adult and Embryonic Stem Cells Essay your own point of view on which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in Essay The of Art and Life, any text, but especially in a poem, is to look for the effects of how to, binary oppositions . Click on Essay about The of Art, the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at the level of its binary oppositions , you will have at your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the ma joad subtle levels of meaning created in The and Life, poetry - but this method is Apart: A Journey the Heart Adolescence Essays sophisticated and requires very careful thought.

FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Essay Creation. Some more ways to unlock the meaning of a poem. There is a key aspect to every poem you need to consider - the Stem Essay one aspect that separates all poems from any other kind of writing: its form . You need to work out why the poet wrote it in Essay about Creation of Art, lines! Writing in lines means the poem is Essay LGBT composed in verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into shorter lines (and sometimes even across the stanzas of the poem). Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to be placed on about and Life, parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. if it had been written as a piece of critically, continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the poet's use form helps to emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to shape meaning . About. Remember that only poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . On Discrimination. Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of The of Art, poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the ma joad form of language to add to the meaning: Some lines might seem to Essay about The Creation of Art and Life end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop.

This can be used to commentators create subtle effects. For example, an end-stopped line can lead to a useful pause occurring before you read on thus creating emphasis (see the Essay Creation and Life technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into and Embryonic Stem Cells the next line or even the Creation of Art next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the effect of an Essay on Discrimination Against extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to about The and Life achieve this effect. Critically Appraise An Article. This enforced mini-pause is about The Creation of Art and Life called a caesura . This is football commentators a subtle effect that leads to an emphasis or a pause for thought being created.

Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the repeating of about The Creation of Art, initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger! B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the is material culture in sociology use of about The Creation and Life, rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of commentators, voice.

Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to work out the tone of The Creation, voice within your poem and note how and Adult Cells Essay where this changes . About. A ssonance is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of Essay Community, gr ee n w ee d hung down. '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and can add to Essay about Creation the quality of the tone of Apart: A Journey into of American Adolescence Essays, voice within the about The of Art and Life poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of mood or romance . And Embryonic Stem Cells. A combination of Essay The Creation and Life, soft consonants and 2 functions long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone. Rhyme is Essay about The of Art when the final sounds of words are the football commentators same and are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for about The, the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of two lines (this is how to critically an article called end rhyme ). About The Of Art. Work our the effect rhyme creates. Adult And Embryonic. Does it make the about Creation poem more memorable? Does it add to the 'feel', the meaning or the tone in a useful way? Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of of lipids, words help to Essay of Art and Life suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the s oo n the sh ow ers of football commentators, au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is The Creation well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the Apart: into Essays presence of discord . Repetition of important words and Creation and Life phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Topic List. Are the stanzas (i.e. The Creation. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in football, line length, size and shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is typical of about The Creation and Life, older more traditional British poetry and Essay on Discrimination LGBT hints at that sense of 'control' and 'harmony' that seemed to Essay The Creation of Art exist in earlier days before the great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of today. Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and ma joad sound very different from about, traditional poetry. These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and list can be a way of suggesting lack of about, control or lack of harmony . Look at the way the structure or sequence of ideas builds up in the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the effect of this sequencing of ideas or images and in sociology how it adds to the overall effect and meaning of the Essay The Creation poem.

Finally, notice if any particular words and phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way. These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of commentators, meaning or create imagery and ideas. About Creation Of Art And Life. Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example. These effects act to critically draw you deeper into the world of the poem by engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is 'working' on Essay about The, you! In your mind, 'become' the poet and ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. Ma Joad. What is Essay The 'your' poem about ma joad generally (e.g. 'war') and in The Creation and Life, particular (e.g. Apart: A Journey Into The Heart. 'the horror of about Creation and Life, fighting in trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to help your reader to football commentators understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose? 3. What motivated you to write about Creation of Art and Life such a subject?

Were you affected by your circumstances : the commentators beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to compared to the general beliefs, attitudes and values of your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in Essay about The Creation of Art and Life, which you wrote? Why was this? You will frequently be asked to write about topic more than one poem and Essay this does add an extra layer of Adult and Embryonic Cells Essay, difficulty. The Creation And Life. However, if you are writing an argument essay , the difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the is material culture in sociology poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves. Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into of Art and Life your essay as you write in support of the various points you are making to support your argument. Is Material Culture In Sociology. It is, therefore, always best to compare and about The Creation of Art and Life contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and thesis list this is best done as providing support for your own argument. Essay. In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in how to critically an article, your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the Essay about Creation alternative is to write an 2 functions 'exploring essay'. In this kind of essay, you analyse and write about your first poem fully before moving on to your second poem, then, as you write about the about of Art second poem, you must take the chance frequently to refer back to the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast.

N ever forget to compare and contrast! This is ma joad a part of the Creation of Art mark scheme in this type of question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. Commentators. 1. About The Creation. Know your poems well. 2. Analyse closely analysis and of lipids develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the poem will allow you to about The Creation and Life develop subtle insights into commentators the poet's reasons and methods. It is the about and Life consistency, clarity, depth and in sociology subtlety of your analysis and The of Art and Life insights that will gain the highest marks. 3. Ma Joad. Use the P.E.E. method of analysis. Essay Of Art. 4. List. Never look for The, and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to Adult Stem be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. The Creation. help out the on Discrimination Against meaning of. ) the about The Creation of Art and Life whole poem - it will never just apply to of lipids a single line or phrase.

If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in Essay of Art and Life, with what you think the on Discrimination Against LGBT Community poet is of Art trying to say in the whole poem. The Heart. A more obvious meaning is Essay about Creation and Life far more likely than a very obscure meaning. Always make sure that the words of your poem clearly support whatever points you want to ma joad make about The it. Never be afraid to use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to football commentators avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are! Avoid stuffiness and Essay about The Creation over-formality like the what culture plague.

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Meet The Beatles (again) in 8 short essays. !--IPTC: In this late 1960#039;s photo by Richard Avedon released by Christies Auction House in New York, Friday, July 2, 2010, one of nine editions of the Beatles Portfolio by the artist is The Creation shown. The psychedelic photo will be offered at auction by Christie#039;s in Paris in how to critically the Fall of Essay about The Creation of Art and Life, 2010 to raise money for the New York based Avedon Foundation. From top left are John Lennon; Paul McCartney; George Harrison and Ringo Starr. (AP Photo/Christie#039;s, Richard Avedon) NO SALES-- Paul McCartney lets Ed Sullivan check out his Höfner bass as Ringo Starr and John Lennon look on before the Beatles#039; Feb. 9, 1964, performance on The Ed Sullivan Show. The Beatles wait to perform at a TV studio in thesis London in 1966. Muhammad Ali, then know as Cassius Clay, fends off the Fab Four on Feb. 18, 1964 in Miami Beach, Fla. where he was to wrest the Essay about The and Life heavyweight title from Sonny Liston the following week.

The lawsuits are settled, the egos soothed and, finally, the topic list Beatles have come to iTunes. For music fans – of all ages – the long and winding wait for history’s greatest rock band to hook up with the Essay about Creation and Life digital age’s most prominent music distributor ended Tuesday. List. And no doubt millions of ear buds are now channeling contemporary pop’s fab forefathers. Suddenly, the Beatles are new again, revived for loyalists’ playlists, reinvented for the download-only generation. The moment seemed right for some insight, in hindsight, about how the music played, and plays, four-plus decades later. From a quartet of outsiders, relief and about Creation of Art and Life, a richer view of ourselves. By Ray Mark Rinaldi. With all that was going on in this country when the boys from that country arrived, it’s a wonder the Beatles made such a splash. Their big moment, if it can be pinned down to Feb.

7, 1964, when screaming throngs greeted their plane in New York City, took place during the worst days of domestic upheaval. In the 12 months prior, Medgar Evers and JFK were murdered. George Wallace stood firm at that schoolhouse door; Martin Luther King Jr. wrote his letter from topic jail. Of course, it turns out the Beatles were just what we needed. Their pop songs remixed and unified the about of Art segregated beats of American music in a way that only an Essay outside voice, speaking in a common language, could. The kids went crazy. The parents were distracted. About Creation Of Art And Life. This new British music was dangerous, but not dangerous like the what in sociology looming military draft. The Beatles brought us together 73 million TV viewers when they appeared on the “Ed Sullivan Show” two days later. That night turned out to be more than a feel-good moment.

The Beatles’ songs continued to take us forward artistically, while its members, with their Liverpool accents and Euro attitudes, took us back culturally, reconnecting the country to of Art its English past. They were the yin of a long- standing cultural identity balancing the A Tribe Apart: into the Heart of American Adolescence Essays yang of our expanding notion of Essay The Creation and Life, a national self. Their presence reinforced our collective roots while reminding us they spread farther than many had thought. Indulging our British heritage was a relief and we let it wash over us. To call it simply a renewed Anglo-centric pride is to mix it up with the odious menacing of the Ku Klux Klan and others. It was a more generous and embracing thing than that, wordly, diverse, open-minded. It allowed us to be what we were and what we were becoming. Consider: Within the next 12 months we passed the Civil Rights Act and gave Julie Andrews the best-actress Oscar for “Mary Poppins.” No doubt, we went overboard with the Brit fetish. On Discrimination. Well enough for kids in Cleveland to Essay about and Life groove to the Stones and football commentators, dress like Twiggy; over The of Art the top by the time housewives in Houston were copying Lady Diana’s wedding- day haircut.

These days, our infatuations are more global. But the British invasion and the American civil revolution remain linked, even though they are rarely discussed that way. No history happened in a vacuum during the 20th century. Culture. The mass media made all events concurrent, linked in 30-minute newscasts, and speeded them along. Who knows whether the Beatles were an inspiration or a by- product of change, but their timing was excellent.

Ray Mark Rinaldi. As boys good and bad, the band created a new kind of Essay The Creation of Art and Life, pop star. Take a good look at the music charts from the early 1960s, and you’ll find it’s easy to divide the teen idols into two camps: the ones you’d bring home to Thanksgiving dinner (Bobby Darin, the what culture in sociology Everly Brothers) and ones you’d rather sneak out Essay about Creation of Art of the appraise house to about and Life meet (Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis). Sure, the lines were somewhat hazy (not all the Apart: A Journey into the Heart of American Adolescence angels were angels, nor all the devils as bad as their publicists wanted us to believe), but most performers took pop’s “good” road or its “bad” one. The middle road, if it even existed, was indistinct. And then came the Beatles. Suddenly, a rock ‘n’ roll group wasn’t so easily categorized. Essay Creation. Were they sexually threatening like Elvis’ hips? Not quite. Were they as pressed and prom-ready as Bobby Darin?

Hardly. They were something in critically an article between. Of all their accomplishments, the one that sticks: They invented rock ‘n’ roll’s mainstream. On one record they’d warble “I Want to Hold Your Hand,” but on the next, “Please Please Me.” If you wanted to Essay The and Life see sex, you’d see it. Football. And if you didn’t, hey, it was just hand-holding.

And catchy. The deepest controversy surrounding the Beatles in Essay of Art those early years was the length of critically appraise, their hair. Talk about a wholesome hullabaloo: Hair that didn’t even come close to their shoulders. (Face it, Justin Bieber looks like a hippie compared with those Liverpudlian moptops.) Finally, a rumpus everyone in the family could get in on. A debate suitable for the dinner table followed by the whole family singing “I Feel Fine” while doing the dishes. The Beatles may not have been the first group to find the great middle road of popular music, but they were the first to shed light on just how big and The, lucrative this road could be. What Is Material. If you could sell records not just to teenagers, but to their parents, suddenly you’re selling a whole lot more records. Another genius (if accidental) marketing strategy pioneered by the Beatles: a band with four distinct personalities, capable of being separated, analyzed and discussed individually even as they were (at first) indivisible. Were you a Paul fan? A John fan? Ringo?

George? For the first time, groups of girls could have a common obsession (the Beatles) but still stake out and defend individual territory. Pop bands continue to exploit this technique (hello, Jonas brothers), because it works. Musical icons, even for those who never heard the music. By John Hendrickson. Wander into any college dorm room, say, Farrand Hall at Essay The, CU-Boulder, and odds are you’ll find at commentators, least one piece of Beatles memorabilia. Most common is the The Abbey Road posterall grainy and precious and filled with fabled symbolism the perfect fodder for stoned college conversation. Or maybe it’s the “Sgt. Pepper” album cover, or a black-and-white shot of John in his sleeveless “New York City” T-shirt.

Maybe it’s a crumbling album sleeve of “Rubber Soul” tacked to the ceiling, the actual record nowhere in football sight, never to spin on a turntable. (You say you want a revolution? Run your thumb around that iPod clickwheel.) The iconography of the world’s most famous band continues to transcend the generation gap, as it has for half a century. The music, not so much. Most millennials probably don’t actively listen to Essay about The the Beatles, though they like “the Beatles.” For young people, liking the Beatles is akin to topic list liking “Family Guy,” “Catcher in the Rye” and Essay about of Art and Life, vegetarian food. You like it because you’re supposed to like it; because of the cachet that comes with liking something with the slightest hint of football commentators, intellectualism. As an organism, “the Beatles” is a symbol of a free-thinking, politely rebellious era. It’s the Essay about of Art and Life patch on your backpack that your mom was kind enough to sew, the football bumper sticker on your locker, the pilfered street sign on your bedroom door. Essay About The Of Art And Life. Throw a piece of Beatles schwag in a corner of what is material culture, your personal space, and suddenly, being cool isn’t so hard. When you like the Beatles in your youth, you make sure that everyone knows it. More important, liking the Beatles enrolls you in the club that has found its music independent of the about The radio, MTV or YouTube.

Until now. The Fab Four continue to serve us in ways outside of our headphones and Hi-Fis. And now, as they compete with Gaga and Rhianna for iTunes downloads, they’re making it a little easier for all of us to feel, well, young and hip. As a legend in the making, John Lennon meant more than his music. When John Lennon was shot, in commentators 1980, we instinctively turned to about The Creation and Life radio, mourning and celebrating his life in musical tributes throughout the night. Appraise. There were no streaming webcasts or iPods, just vinyl, cassettes, a few early Walkmen and, thankfully, reliable radio stations. Essay The Creation And Life. The FM jocks played the songs, from Beatlemania to critically appraise “Imagine,” memorializing the about of Art and Life man who was not only the musical genius of the Essay on Discrimination LGBT Community group but its political conscience. Lennon’s life as an Essay The Creation and Life artist and poet rock music to commentators line drawings to political theater set him apart. Not just another cute moptop, he could be dangerous. Not as dangerous as Mick Jagger (Lennon’s heart was bigger), but firmly anti- authoritarian.

We used to Essay Creation of Art and Life debate which of the Beatles was the most handsome. Essay On Discrimination Against LGBT Community. But the real question is, which Beatle is the most important? After all these years, it’s clear: It was John. He was more than the Essay music. J. Edgar Hoover considered him an A Journey into the Heart of American Adolescence extremist threat during the about The Creation and Life Nixon years. The State Department wanted him deported on a drug charge although his anti-war activism was at 2 functions of lipids, the heart of the Essay about The of Art and Life matter. He hung out with Abbie Hoffman as much as with the Maharishi, you just don’t hear about it as often. Of all the Beatles, Lennon best understood the Marshall McLuhan dictum of medium as message. He and Yoko Ono were masters at taking their ideas global, going viral ahead of football, their time. The And Life. In an indelible image, we recall John explaining to members of the media why he and Yoko chose to put the word “peace” in front of their staged “Bed-in.” Was it a stunt? a reporter demanded. What was the meaning?

“We just want to give it a chance,” John said. Remember Lennon toying with the thesis topic list press, the messy “bigger than Jesus” misquote, his refusal to play along when reporters wanted something serious or culturally significant from the group. He goofed on them, upending the press conference decorum of the time. He knew his life was part performance art. One imagines that, if he were alive today, John would still be playing those (digital) mind games. On the 30th anniversary of Essay about The Creation, John Lennon’s death, three films two on PBS and one in theaters underscore his genius: “Naked Lennon,” airing tonight from 9 t0 10:30 on KRMA-Channel 6, is a dramatic re-enactment using look-alike actors (Christopher Eccleston is of lipids amazing as Lennon). Essay About Creation Of Art. The theme is John’s difficult relationship with his father, who abandoned him at age 6. In this telling, spanning 1967-71, John was an egomaniacal hedonist, a wounded man-child who ruined all his relationships, except with Yoko Ono.

“LennonNYC,” airing 8-10 p.m. Monday on PBS’s “American Masters,” is an endearing documentary using outtakes and family archives, with the participation of Ono. The focus is on Discrimination Lennon’s arrival at about and Life, happiness as a family man in critically appraise an article New York. About The Of Art. His descent into alcoholism in Los Angeles is of lipids thoroughly chronicled. His radio interview with WNEW, “muckin’ about on a Saturday afternoon,” even reading the weather report, brings him back momentarily, as he proclaims his love for Essay of Art and Life, New York. “Maybe they could just ban me from Ohio or something.” The never-before- released studio talk-back attests to his abundant humor. “Nowhere Boy,” playing through Thursday at Denver FilmCenter/Colfax, recounts Lennon’s childhood in Liverpool 1955, and the two women who clashed over him. Analog superstars for sure, but dubious digital heroes. The Beatles have finally come to iTunes. Hooray and who cares?

John, Paul, George and Ringo are possibly the most exemplary analog musicians of all time, and they’ve never been a good fit for topic, the digital age. Witness their dozens of Essay about, reissues, remasters and remixes that began with the advent of CDs and have continued through the inventive (but relatively low-selling) “The Beatles: Rock Band” game. It’s practically a blueprint for critically, how not to jump into about of Art the digital realm, and it’s created a bewildering number of versions of their music. That, and most Beatles fans long ago ripped the Fab Four’s music to their MP3 players, despite the illegality of it. So what’s the big deal? It comes down to how to appraise an article money. The Beatles have sold more than 30 million albums in the past decade, according to Nielsen SoundScan, and the band was previously operating under the assumption it could make more from physical media sales than digital.

Plus, the Beatles’ management company, Apple Corps Ltd., and their record label, EMI, had been fighting on and off with iTunes parent Apple Inc. for three decades. The 2007 resolution of their trademark spat was more notable for Essay Creation and Life, the evaporation of long-term rancor than any artistic advantages it has created. 2 Functions. Watching the Beatles come to iTunes now is a bit like watching two lawyers embrace each other, exchange money- filled envelopes and call it a triumph for the common man. “The biggest beneficiary here might be EMI,” said Simon Buckingham, CEO of online media retailer The Of Art And Life. “They could certainly do with a little bit of a sales jump, given their debt.” iTunes is already the world’s largest digital music retailer, so folks in far-flung places will certainly benefit from the appraise an article one-stop shopping. In fact, anyone who wants to download the Essay and Life Liverpudlians’ entire catalog 13 studio albums, from 1963’s “Please Please Me” to 1970’s “Let It Be,” plus B-sides, the “Past Masters” album and various making-of materials can do so now for $149. But the Beatles’ music and image are already here, there and everywhere in popular culture, practically negating any new iteration of their creative output. Critically An Article. Despite the Essay Creation of Art and Life media fanfare, the Beatles’ transition to iTunes is more of a marketing gimmick for repackaged oldies than a revelation. Thanks, Apple, but no thanks. Borrowing some of this and that, the Beatles created the modern remix.

By William Porter. The Beatles’ genius was to Essay on Discrimination Against Community take three American musical forms rhythm blues, country, and the earliest incarnations of about The of Art, rock ‘n’ roll blend and morph them, then export this aural alchemy across an utterly reordered cultural landscape. It really was that big a leap, at least for on Discrimination Against Community, listeners. Musically, it was as if the Essay The of Art Beatles had taken the Wright Brothers’ invention and proceeded directly to the lunar lander, bypassing the jet age. That the group would undergo so much sonic expansion in its 10-year existence, drawing on everything from orchestral strings to the British music hall to a new gizmo called a Moog synthesizer, merely emphasizes their protean vision. (Plus the gifts of George Martin, the producer behind the critically appraise an article bulk of their recordings.) Forty years after they disbanded, you still hear the Beatles’ influence in about The Creation of Art and Life today’s music. 2 Functions Of Lipids. From hip-hop to Creation of Art and Life jam bands to DJs, it all about meshing musical styles into Community something new. But what of Essay about Creation of Art, their own influences?

Like seminal creators from Shake- speare to Hank Williams, the Beatles’ had a gift for borrowing material, then transforming it. They covered forebears such as rockabilly titan Carl Perkins (“Honey Don’t”), country singer Buck Owens (“Act Naturally”) and RB shouter Little Richard (“Long Tall Sally”), yet reinvented those songs. Four young men from a British seaport connecting to musicians from, respectively, a sharecropper’s farm in Tennessee, the desert Southwest and is material, Jim Crow-era Georgia. Assimilate, then make it new. Even stardom brought game-changing encounters with other artists. Essay About The Creation. Bob Dylan inspired a growing lyrical sophistication in the “Rubber Soul” and “Revolver” albums. The Beatles never stopped absorbing and evolving.

Witness the quantum leap between the backbeat-driven, Everly Brothers-steeped 1963’s “Please, Please Me” and 1967’s lush, psychedelic “Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band.” Four years chronologically, a century creatively. All this for an American audience that didn’t realize the new sounds from the other side of the Atlantic originated on their own shores, harbored in dusty records that would one day enjoy their own revival. Beyond the lyrics, the Beatles had an A Tribe A Journey into of American inescapable charm. By Elana Ashanti Jefferson. It’s one of those defining music-lover questions, the answer to which is so innate to Essay and Life an individual’s listening tastes that the on Discrimination mouth spits out an Essay about The and Life answer even before the 2 functions of lipids brain has a chance to contemplate the why: What’s your favorite Beatles album? My favorite Beatles album was also my very first favorite album. Flipping through Mom’s record collection in about of Art the ’70s, it was surely the vivid costumes, the football melange of famous faces, and the band name spelled out in Essay The of Art and Life flowers on the cover that caused a 5-year-old to pick up “Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band.” And once I found it, I was hooked.

We’re talking mud-pie and tea-party play-date listening for years. It seems ironic now that a preschooler learned how to use a record player with this album, which came out years before I was born, boasts high-minded engineering that far outpaced the “Sesame Street” and “Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood” songs that at the time rounded out my listening repertoire, and includes lyricism that is appraise far from childlike. Still, in a phenomenon that points to about of Art and Life the Beatles’ one-of-a-kind appeal across humanity, kids have long been drawn to this music. List. Rock historians wager that although there are some Beatles songs that are simply too mature for Essay about The Creation and Life, kiddos, particularly the A Tribe Apart: A Journey the Heart of American Adolescence Essays band’s more psychedelic offerings, there are other Beatles songs that little people seem to inherently love. “I Want to Essay about The of Art and Life Hold Your Hand,” “When I’m Sixty-Four,” “Michelle My Belle” and of course “Yellow Submarine” are among them. Now I’m a mom myself, to is material culture a toddler who chose “dance!” as one of her first words.

It’s thrilling to be able to Essay about Creation include selections from the Beatles in her early-childhood music education, and the availability of the band’s catalog in a digital format makes that even more possible. Whether my daughter will ever learn to of lipids use a record player is a whole other question. Elana Ashanti Jefferson. All they needed was love. Saturday morning in a Dublin suburb, groggy after the red-eye flight, slurping coffee and nibbling eggs. Essay About The. I glance around, and everybody else in the crowded diner is moving their lips, in unison, and rocking back and forth in their seats. I’m startled, confused. Then I hear the what in sociology background music, “All You Need Is Love,” and I understand it’s the song all of Creation, these people are whispering the Essay on Discrimination Against Community words, and swaying to the beat, while they eat and read the about and Life paper. The moment was as unforgettable as the song, and it helps explain why the Beatles endure.

No other band wrote as frequently, and as well, about is material, love. The topic ages well. From their first hit, “Love Me Do” in 1962, to 1970’s “Let It Be,” one of their final singles, The Beatles made love romantic love (“She Loves You”), sentimental love (“Let It Be”), even love of place (“Penny Lane”) and cosmic love (“All You Need Is Love”) a principal topic of exploration. Of course, lucky for us, the band’s near obsession with love coincided with a genius for melody, a savant’s grasp of harmony and a poet’s facility with words. I often wonder about the of Art and Life whole package: Miracle? Some fantastical gift from on high? Even here, 40 years after they broke up, we walk around with their words and tunes in our heads. Sometimes we even sing along in of lipids a diner, en masse. And if we’ve got Beatles on the brain, there’s a good chance we are communing with some aspect of the stuff of the Essay Creation heart. It sure beats having a head full of Bad Company. Sharing a bite of Apple fills iTunes’ barrel.

For years, the Beatles’ record label, Apple Corps, had resisted selling Beatles music on iTunes in LGBT part because of a long-running trademark dispute with Apple Inc., which owns iTunes. The result: The biggest-selling, most influential group in rock history was glaringly absent from iTunes and other legal online music services. The feud was resolved in The 2007 when the companies agreed on Essay LGBT, joint use of the Apple logo and name. It took a few years to work out the details, but starting Tuesday, iTunes began selling 13 remastered studio albums and other products. People can buy individual songs for $1.29 or download albums, at $12.99 for Essay Creation, a single album and $19.99 for a double. So what to download? Here’s a look at critically an article, what others are doing. The Beatles landed 54 songs on iTunes “Top 200” chart just 24 hours after being made available in digital form for the first time. • “Hey Jude” was the most popular single, at No. 28. • “Abbey Road” was the most popular album, at No.

5. • All 17 albums (and reissues) ranked among the The and Life top 55. • Other singles in the top 50: • Other albums in the top 10: “White Album” (8), “Sgt. How To Critically. Pepper’s” (9) and “The Blue Album” (10). Information compiled from The Associated Press and iTunes.

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What is a pilot or feasibility study? A review of current practice and editorial policy. © Arain et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010. In 2004, a review of pilot studies published in seven major medical journals during 2000-01 recommended that the statistical analysis of such studies should be either mainly descriptive or focus on sample size estimation, while results from hypothesis testing must be interpreted with caution. We revisited these journals to see whether the subsequent recommendations have changed the practice of reporting pilot studies. We also conducted a survey to identify the methodological components in registered research studies which are described as 'pilot' or 'feasibility' studies. We extended this survey to grant-awarding bodies and editors of medical journals to discover their policies regarding the function and reporting of Essay The Creation and Life, pilot studies. Papers from 2007-08 in seven medical journals were screened to retrieve published pilot studies. Reports of on Discrimination LGBT, registered and completed studies on the UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN) Portfolio database were retrieved and scrutinized.

Guidance on the conduct and reporting of pilot studies was retrieved from the websites of three grant giving bodies and Creation of Art and Life, seven journal editors were canvassed. 54 pilot or feasibility studies published in critically 2007-8 were found, of which 26 (48%) were pilot studies of interventions and the remainder feasibility studies. Creation Of Art? The majority incorporated hypothesis-testing (81%), a control arm (69%) and a randomization procedure (62%). Most (81%) pointed towards the need for further research. Only 8 out of how to critically appraise, 90 pilot studies identified by the earlier review led to Essay about The Creation of Art and Life subsequent main studies. Twelve studies which were interventional pilot/feasibility studies and which included testing of 2 functions, some component of the research process were identified through the UKCRN Portfolio database. There was no clear distinction in use of the terms 'pilot' and 'feasibility'. Five journal editors replied to our entreaty. In general they were loathe to publish studies described as 'pilot'. Pilot studies are still poorly reported, with inappropriate emphasis on hypothesis-testing.

Authors should be aware of the different requirements of pilot studies, feasibility studies and main studies and report them appropriately. Authors should be explicit as to the purpose of Essay The Creation of Art and Life, a pilot study. The definitions of 2 functions of lipids, feasibility and pilot studies vary and we make proposals here to clarify terminology. A brief definition is that a pilot study is a 'small study for helping to design a further confirmatory study'[ 1 ]. About The Creation? A very useful discussion of exactly what is how to an article a pilot study has been given by The Creation and Life, Thabane et al. [ 2 ] Such kinds of study may have various purposes such as testing study procedures, validity of how to appraise, tools, estimation of the recruitment rate, and estimation of parameters such as the about The Creation of Art and Life variance of the outcome variable to calculate sample size etc. 2 Functions? In pharmacological trials they may be referred to as 'proof of concept' or Phase I or Phase II studies. It has become apparent to us when reviewing research proposals that small studies with all the trappings of a major study, such as randomization and about Creation, hypothesis testing may be labeled a 'pilot' because they do not have the is material power to test clinically meaningful hypotheses.

The authors of about of Art, such studies perhaps hope that reviewers will regard a 'pilot' more favourably than a small clinical trial. This lead us to appraise an article ask when it is legitimate to label a study as a 'pilot' or 'feasibility' study, and what features should be included in these types of studies. Lancaster et al [ 3 ] conducted a review of seven major medical journals in 2000-1 to produce evidence regarding the components of pilot studies for randomized controlled trials. Essay The? Their search included both 'pilot' and of lipids, 'feasibility' studies as keywords. They reported certain recommendations: having clear objectives in a pilot study, inappropriateness of mixing pilot data with main research study, using mainly descriptive statistics obtained and caution regarding the Essay The Creation of Art and Life use of hypothesis testing for conclusions. Arnold et al [ 1 ] recently reviewed pilot studies particularly related to LGBT Community critical care medicine by searching the literature from 1997 to 2007. They provided narrative descriptions of some pilot papers particularly those describing critical care medicine procedures. They pointed out that few pilot trials later evolved into subsequent published major trials. The Creation And Life? They made useful distinctions between: pilot work which is any background research to inform a future study, a pilot study which has specific hypotheses, objectives and methodology and a pilot trial which is a stand-alone pilot study and includes a randomization procedure. They excluded feasibility studies from their consideration.

Thabane et al [ 2 ] gave a checklist of thesis topic list, what they think should be included in a pilot study. They included 'feasibility' or 'vanguard' studies but did not distinguish them from pilot studies. They provided a good discussion on how to interpret a pilot study. They stress that not only the outcome or surrogate outcome for the subsequent main study should be described but also that a pilot study should have feasibility outcomes which should be clearly defined and described. Their article was opinion based and not supported by a review of Essay The Creation of Art, current practice. The objective of this paper is to topic provide writers and reviewers of research proposals with evidence from a variety of sources for which components they should expect, and which are unnecessary or unhelpful, in a study which is labeled as a pilot or feasibility study. To do this we repeated Lancaster et al's [ 3 ] review for current papers see if there has been any change in how pilot studies were reported since their study. As many pilot studies are never published we also identified pilot studies which were registered with the UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN) Portfolio Database. This aims to about of Art and Life be a complete picture of the clinical research which is currently taking place across the UK. All studies included have to have been peer reviewed through a formal independent process.

We examined the websites of some grant giving bodies to find their definition of is material in sociology, a pilot study and their funding policy toward them. Finally we contacted editors of leading medical journals to discover their policy of accepting studies described as 'pilot' or 'feasibility'. Literature search using key words Pilot OR Feasibility Pilot or feasibility study in preparation for a trial. Piloting new technique, combination of Essay about The of Art and Life, treatments. Phase I, II trials. Piloting screening program. Piloting guidelines, educational package, patient care strategy. Laboratory testing of activity of compounds. Total research papers.

Total research papers. 1 excluded Review = 8, Commentaries = 4, News = 3, Indirectly referring to previous pilot = 9. 2 from Lancaster et al [ 1 ] The (UKCRN) Portfolio Database was searched for is material the terms 'feasibility' or 'pilot' in the title or research summary. Duplicate cases and about and Life, studies classified as 'observational' were omitted. From the remaining studies those classified as 'closed' were selected to exclude studies which may not have started or progressed. Data were extracted directly from the 2 functions research summary of the database or where that was insufficient the about Creation principle investigator was contacted for related publications or study protocols. We wrote to list the seven medical journal editors of the Essay Creation same journals used by Lancaster et al. [ 3 ], (BMJ, Lancet, NEJM, JAMA. BJS, BJC and BJOG) and Essay on Discrimination Against LGBT, looked at the policies of three funding agencies (British Medical Research Council, Research for Patient Benefit and The Creation, NETSCC (National Institute for Health Research Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre). We wished to 2 functions of lipids explore whether there was any specified policy of the Essay about The Creation of Art and Life journal for publishing pilot trials and how the editors defined a pilot study. We also wished to see if there was funding for pilot studies.

Initially 77 papers were found in the target journals for appraise an article 2007-8 but 23 were review papers or commentaries or indirectly referred to the word pilot or feasibility and were not actually pilot studies leaving a total of 54 papers. Table 1 shows the results by journal and by type of study and also shows the numbers reported by Essay about Creation, Lancaster et al. [ 3 ] for 2000-01 in A Journey into of American Essays the same medical journals. There was a decrease in the proportion of pilot studies published over the period of time, however the difference was not statistically significant (2.0% vs 1.6%; X 2 = 1.6, P = 0.2). It is noticeable that the Phase I or Phase II studies are largely confined to the cancer journals. Lancaster et al [ 3 ] found that 50% of pilot studies reported the intention of further work yet we identified only 8 (8.8%) which were followed up by a major study. Of these 2 (25%) were published in the same journal as the pilot. Literature survey: Frequency of methodological components appearing in pilot or feasibility studies of Essay The Creation of Art, interventions (n = 26 1 ) in 2007-8. Median number of participants (IQR) 1 Pilot studies = 14 Feasibility studies = 12. Literature survey: Comparison of studies (n = 54) using the key words feasibility or pilot. Feasibility n = 34.

Further study suggested. Number of Essay Against LGBT, participants Median (IQR) [Range] 62.5 (31, 189) [8, 187777] 125.5 (36, 1005) [5, 12774614] 1 1 degree of freedom. * z-statistic (Mann-Whitney test) Portfolio database survey: comparison of components in studies termed pilot or feasibility. Feasibility n = 5. Determining sample size/numbers available. The methodological components tested within these studies were: estimation of sample size; number of subjects eligible; resources (e.g. cost), time scale; population-related (e.g. exclusion criteria), randomisation process/acceptability; data collection systems/forms; outcome measures; follow-up (response rates, adherence); overall design; whole trial feasibility.

In addition to one or more of these, some studies also looked at clinical outcomes including: feasibility/acceptability of intervention; dose, efficacy and safety of intervention. The results are shown in Table 4 . Creation Of Art And Life? Pilot studies alone included estimation of sample size for a future bigger study and tested a greater number of on Discrimination LGBT, components in each study. The majority of the pilots and the feasibility studies ran the whole study 'in miniature' as it would be in about the full study, with or without randomization. As an example of football, a pilot study consider 'CHOICES: A pilot patient preference randomised controlled trial of admission to a Women's Crisis House compared with psychiatric hospital admissions' . This study looked at multiple components of The and Life, a potential bigger study. It aimed to of lipids determine the about of Art and Life proportion of women unwilling to be randomised, the feasibility of a patient preference RCT design, the outcome and cost measures to determine which outcome measures to use, the recruitment and topic list, drop out rates; and to about The of Art and Life estimate the levels of critically an article, outcome variability to calculate sample sizes for the main study. It also intended to Essay about develop a user focused and Community, designed instrument which is the outcome from the study. About The Of Art And Life? The sample size was 70. The editors of five (out of seven) medical journals responded to our request for information regarding publishing policy for appraise an article pilot studies. Four of the journals did not have a specified policy about of Art and Life, publishing pilot studies and mostly reported that pilot trials cannot be published if the standard is lower than a full clinical trial requirement. The Lancet has started creating space for 2 functions of lipids preliminary phase I trials and set a different standard for preliminary studies. Most of the other journals do not encourage the publication of pilot studies because they consider them less rigorous than main studies.

Nevertheless some editors accepted pilot studies for publication by compromising only on the requirement for a pre-study sample size calculation. All other methodological issued were considered as important as for the full trials, such as trial registration, randomization, hypothesis testing, statistical analysis and reporting according to the CONSORT guidelines. All three funding bodies made a point to note that pilot and of Art and Life, feasibility studies would be considered for funding. Thabane et al [ 2 ] provided a list of appraise, websites which define pilot or feasibility studies. Essay Creation And Life? We considered the NETSCC definition to Apart: into of American Adolescence Essays be most helpful and to most closely mirror what investigators are doing and it is given below. Feasibility Studies are pieces of Essay The Creation and Life, research done before a main study. Appraise? They are used to estimate important parameters that are needed to design the main study. For instance: standard deviation of the about Creation of Art outcome measure, which is needed in some cases to estimate sample size, willingness of participants to be randomised, willingness of clinicians to recruit participants,

number of eligible patients, characteristics of the proposed outcome measure and in some cases feasibility studies might involve designing a suitable outcome measure, follow-up rates, response rates to questionnaires, adherence/compliance rates, ICCs in cluster trials, etc. Feasibility studies for randomised controlled trials may not themselves be randomised. Is Material In Sociology? Crucially, feasibility studies do not evaluate the Creation outcome of interest; that is left to the main study. If a feasibility study is a small randomised controlled trial, it need not have a primary outcome and Against Community, the usual sort of power calculation is not normally undertaken. The Creation? Instead the sample size should be adequate to 2 functions estimate the Essay about Creation of Art and Life critical parameters (e.g. A Journey The Heart Adolescence Essays? recruitment rate) to the necessary degree of precision. A Pilot Study is a version of the main study that is run in miniature to test whether the components of the main study can all work together. It is Essay The of Art and Life focused on A Tribe Apart: A Journey into of American Essays, the processes of the main study, for example to about of Art ensure recruitment, randomisation, treatment, and follow-up assessments all run smoothly.

It will therefore resemble the main study in many respects. Essay On Discrimination Against Community? In some cases this will be the first phase of the of Art and Life substantive study and data from the pilot phase may contribute to the final analysis; this can be referred to as an internal pilot. Alternatively at the end of the pilot study the data may be analysed and set aside, a so-called external pilot. In our repeat of Lancaster et al's study [ 3 ] we found that the reporting of of lipids, pilot studies was still poor. The Of Art? It is generally accepted that small, underpowered clinical trials are unethical [ 4 ]. Thus it is not an excuse to label such a study as a pilot and hope to make it ethical. We have shown that pilot studies have different objectives to RCTs and how to appraise an article, these should be clearly described. Participants in such studies should be informed that they are in a pilot study and that there may not be a further larger study. It is helpful to make a more formal distinction between a 'pilot' and a 'feasibility' study. Essay About The Of Art And Life? We found that studies labeled 'feasibility' were conducted with more flexible methodology compared to on Discrimination Against those labeled 'pilot'. For example the term 'feasibility' has been used for large scale studies such as a screening programme applied at a population level to determine the initial feasibility of the Essay about The and Life programme. Football? On the other hand 'pilot' studies were reported with more rigorous methodological components like sample size estimation, randomization and control group selection than studies labeled 'feasibility'.

We found the NETSCC definition to be the most helpful since it distinguishes between these types of study. In addition it was observed that most of the pilot studies report their results as inconclusive, with the Essay Creation intention of conducting a further, larger study. In contrast, several of the feasibility studies did not admit such an how to an article, intention. And Life? On the basis of their intention one would have expected about 45 of the studies identified by Lancaster et al in 2 functions of lipids 2000/1 to have been followed by a bigger study whereas we only found 8. About The Of Art And Life? This would reflect the opinion of most of the journal editors and experts who responded to our survey, who felt that pilot studies rarely act as a precursor for culture in sociology a bigger study. The main reason given was that if the pilot shows significant results then researchers may not find it necessary to conduct the main trial.

In addition if the results are unfavorable or the Essay about The Creation and Life authors find an unfeasible procedure, the in sociology main study is less likely to be considered useful. About The Creation And Life? Our limited review of funding bodies was encouraging. Certainly when reviewing grant applications, we have found it helpful to have the results of a pilot study included in the bid. We think that authors of pilots studies should be explicit as to their purpose, e.g. to test a new procedure in Against LGBT Community preparation for a clinical trial. Essay Of Art? We also think that authors of critically an article, proposals for pilot studies should be more explicit as to the criteria which lead to further studies being abandoned, and that this should be an important part of the about The and Life proposal.

In the Portfolio Database review, only what is material in sociology pilot studies cited an intention to estimate sample size calculations for future studies and the majority of pilot studies were full studies run with smaller sample sizes to test out a number of methodological components and Essay of Art and Life, clinical outcomes simultaneously. On Discrimination Against LGBT? In comparison the Essay of Art feasibility studies tended to Against Community focus on fewer methodological components within individual studies. For example, the 6 pilot studies reported the about The and Life intention to evaluate a total of 17 methodological components whereas in the 5 feasibility studies a total of only 6 methodological components were specifically identified as being under investigation (Table 4 ). However, both pilot and feasibility studies included trials run as complete studies, including randomization, but with sample sizes smaller than would be intended in the full study and the distinction between the Essay on Discrimination LGBT two terms was not clear-cut. Another reason for conducting a pilot study is to provide information to enable a sample size calculation in a subsequent main study. However since pilot studies tend to about The Creation and Life be small, the results should be interpreted with caution [ 5 ]. Only a small proportion of published pilot studies reported pre-study sample size calculations. Essay Against Community? Most journal editors reported that a sample size calculation is not a mandatory criterion for publishing pilot studies and suggested that it should not be done. Some authors suggest that analysis of pilot studies should mainly be descriptive,[ 3 , 6 ] as hypothesis testing requires a powered sample size which is Essay about Creation usually not available in pilot studies. In addition, inferential statistics and testing hypothesis for effectiveness require a control arm which may not be present in all pilot studies. However most of the pilot interventional studies in this review contained a control group and the authors performed and reported hypothesis testing for one or more variables. Some tested the effectiveness of an intervention and others just performed statistical testing to discover any important associations in is material in sociology the study variables.

Observed practice is not necessarily good practice and Creation of Art and Life, we concur with Thabane et al [ 2 ] that any testing of an intervention needs to Essay on Discrimination Against be reported cautiously. The views of the journal editors, albeit from a small sample, were not particularly encouraging and reflected the experience of Lancaster et al [ 3 ]. Pilot studies, by their nature, will not produce 'significant' (i.e P 0.05) results. We believe that publishing the results of well conducted pilot or feasibility studies is Essay about The important for research, irrespective of outcome.. There is an increasing awareness that publishing only 'significant' results can lead to considerably error [ 7 ]. The journals we considered were all established, paper journals and perhaps the football commentators newer electronic journals will be more willing to consider the publication of the results from these types of Essay about of Art and Life, studies. We may expect that trials will increasingly be used to evaluate 'complex interventions'[ 8 , 9 ]. Thesis List? The MRC guidelines [ 8 ] explicitly suggest that preliminary studies, including pilots, be used prior to any major trial which seeks to evaluate a package of Essay about and Life, interventions (such as an educational course), rather than a single intervention (such as a drug). Thus it is likely that reviewers will be increasingly asked to pronounce on commentators, these and Essay about The and Life, will require guidance as to how to review them.

We conclude that pilot studies are still poorly reported, with inappropriate emphasis on appraise, hypothesis-testing. We believe authors should be aware of the different requirements of pilot studies and feasibility studies and report them appropriately. Essay The Of Art And Life? We found that in practice the 2 functions of lipids definitions of feasibility and Essay Creation of Art and Life, pilot studies are not distinct and vary between health research funding bodies and critically an article, we suggest use of the NETSCC definition to clarify terminology. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. MA reviewed the papers of 2000/1 and those of 2007/8 under the supervision of MC and helped to draft the manuscript. MC conceived of the study, and Essay The, participated in its design and coordination and drafted the manuscript. CC conducted the portfolio database study and is material culture, commented on the manuscript. GA conducted the original study, reviewed 20 papers and commented on the manuscript. All authors read and Essay Creation of Art, approved the final manuscript. Arnold DM, Burns KE, Adhikari NK, Kho ME, Meade MO, Cook DJ: McMaster Critical Care Interest Group.

The design and interpretation of pilot trials in clinical research in critical care. Crit Care Med. 2009, 37 (Suppl 1): S69-74. 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181920e33. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Thabane L, Ma J, Chu R, Cheng J, Ismaila A, Rios LP, Robson R, Thabane M, Goldsmith CH: A tutorial on topic list, pilot studies: The what, why and How. BMC Medical Research Methodology.

2010, 10: 1-10.1186/1471-2288-10-1. View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Lancaster GA, Dodd S, Williamson PR: Design and analysis of pilot studies: recommendations for good practice. J Eval Clin Pract. 2004, 10: 307-12. 10.1111/j..2002.384.doc.x. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Halpern SD, Karlawish JH, Berlin JA: The continuing unethical conduct of underpowered clinical trials. JAMA. 2002, 288: 358-62. 10.1001/jama.288.3.358. About Creation? View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Kraemer HC, Mintz J, Noda A, Tinklenberg J, Yesavage JA: Caution regarding the use of pilot studies to guide power calculations for 2 functions study proposals.

Arch Gen Psychiatry. Essay Creation? 2006, 63: 484-9. 10.1001/archpsyc.63.5.484. Is Material Culture In Sociology? View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Grimes DA, Schulz KF: Descriptive studies: what they can and The of Art and Life, cannot do. Lancet. 2002, 359: 145-9. 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07373-7. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Ioannidis JPA: Why Most Published Research Findings Are False. PLoS Med.

2005, 2 (8): e124-10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124. View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Lancaster GA, Campbell MJ, Eldridge S, Farrin A, Marchant M, Muller S, Perera R, Peters TJ, Prevost AT, Rait G: Trials in Primary Care: issues in the design of complex intervention. Statistical Methods in Medical Research. On Discrimination? 2010, to and Life appear Google Scholar Craig P, Dieppe P, Macintyre S, Michie S, Nazareth I, Petticrew M: Developing and evaluating complex interventions: new guidance. 2008, Medical Research Council, [ ] Google Scholar. The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Critically? This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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An Elegy on the Death of a late Famous General--A Biographical Essay on Jonathan Swift. On November 30, 1667, seven months after his father’s death, Jonathan Swift was born in The, Dublin, Ireland. Soon after his birth, his mother left him with his father’s family and moved to Leicester, England. In his early childhood, due to his familial misgivings, Swift began to develop what would later be called, “a general hatred of mankind” (Taralunga 129). During Swift’s childhood, there were many mysteries surrounding his earlier days, most were created as tales by Swift himself. It is hard for scholars to distinguish between truth and fiction.

One such tale tells of into of American Essays, Swift being left with his Uncle Godwin. About a year after his birth, a nurse took him from Dublin and brought him back to her town of Whitehaven, England. Essay About Of Art! There, she cultivated his mind to be great; “by the time Swift was three, he was able to read any book in the Bible” (Glendinning). 2 Functions! Soon, Swift’s mother learned of his predicament and brought him back to Dublin. Such was a tale Swift would tell to entertain guests. It became hard to Essay Creation differentiate between truth and fiction, but it seems that these childhood stories are what inevitably led Swift to his humorous-witty personality and his satirical style of writing. Commentators! Developing Jonathan Swift's Writing Style. Swift’s literary personality first began to surface with his earlier writings.

As a boy, he would write on both sides of the paper, sometimes halfway across the page leaving huge margins, and he quite frequently marked out his works by scribbling all around them until they were indecipherable. “When Swift picked up his pen and wrote on these folded folio sheets of paper, he was neither calm nor happy. He was writing badly, uncertainly” (Glendinning). Essay About The Creation Of Art And Life! However, later in Swift’s writing, he began to football make striking statements in order to show that his opinion could be logically formulated, this became his strong point. Expressing his strong opinions became the true writing style of Jonathan Swift. Jonathan Swift is Essay The of Art and Life described as one of the how to appraise an article, most prominent Anglo-Irish satirists; he was a political pamphleteer, a poet, and Essay about The, a cleric. Living in what, the eighteenth-century, his literary works were affected by the neoclassical movement that was spreading across England.

Because of this, he often times focused on mankind and the nature of Essay about The of Art and Life, mankind, tradition or lack thereof, and the reasoning of his time. In his poem, “Elegy on the Death of a late Famous General,” he used his neoclassical humor, wit, and satire, to influence his audience into thesis, understanding how the general was seen through his eyes. Elegy on the Death of the late Famous General by Essay about The and Life Jonathan Swift. His Grace! impossible! what dead! Of old age too, and in his bed! And could that mighty warrior fall? And so inglorious, after all! Well, since he’s gone, no matter how, The last loud trump must wake him now: And, trust me, as the noise grows stronger, He’d wish to sleep a little longer. And could he be indeed so old. As by the newspapers we’re told?

Threescore, I think, is pretty high; ’Twas time in conscience he should die. This world he cumbered long enough; He burnt his candle to the snuff; And that’s the Apart: into the Heart Adolescence, reason, some folks think, He left behind so great a stink. Essay About Of Art! Behold his funeral appears, Nor widow’s sighs, nor orphan’s tears, Wont at of lipids such times each heart to pierce, Attend the progress of his hearse. But what of that, his friends may say, He had those honours in his day. True to his profit and Essay about The of Art, his pride, He made them weep before he died.

Come hither, all ye empty things, Ye bubbles raised by football breath of kings; Who float upon the tide of state, Come hither, and behold your fate. Let pride be taught by this rebuke, How very mean a thing’s a Duke; From all his ill-got honours flung, Turned to that dirt from whence he sprung. The Satirical Elegy as Commentary. The elegy is about the The, famous “General” John Churchill, the first Duke of Marlborough, who died at the age of topic, seventy-two on June 16, 1722. Swift’s satirical obsession led to Essay about of Art and Life an elegy of LGBT, this distinguished man, even though, in Swift’s eyes, he deserved no such praise. Throughout the rest of this essay, I will further explain how the eighteenth-century’s environment affected Swift’s elegy to the general.

I will show how, through Swift’s personal life, he gained a great disdain for the famous general. Finally, I will show how Swift’s renowned satirical style of writing fully grasps the elegy in every form possible. About The! The time period which a composer grows up in, is extremely valuable when one attempts to understand the style of his or her works. Swift grew up in A Tribe A Journey the Heart of American, the eighteenth-century, a time of of Art and Life, Neoclassicism, and a time where authors used the grotesque satirical remarks to embarrass their audience and the person being written about. During this period of neoclassicism the general public was subjected to foul odors; they had not yet developed sanitation or forms of deodorant. This factor will affect the way a person lives their life and interprets the world around them. Community! As previously stated, Swift developed a general hatred of mankind, so when he desired to convey a sentiment of about The and Life, complete revulsion, the what culture in sociology, olfactory was his likely weapon. “There was something demeaning and embarrassing about bodily odors, a fact eminently suited to a satirist like Swift, who delights in making his readers hang their heads or squirm” (Siebert 25). Creation And Life! This satirical imagery is seen in thesis topic, Swift’s elegy when he describes the end of the general’s life. “This world he cumber’d long enough; / He burnt his candle to the snuff; / And that’s the reason, some folks think, / He left behind so great a s - - - k” (15-18).

Here, it can be seen that Swift alludes the stink of a put out candle as the death of John Churchill. About The! It seems that at this point in time, the football commentators, word stink is so repulsive of a word, which not even the satirical Swift can manage to fully write it out. Throughout the Essay about Creation of Art and Life, Neoclassical period, one of the main themes for 2 functions, authors was “great men.” However, the satirical style of this period tends to flip the Essay of Art, focus of the “great men” by not giving them praise, but instead revealing their downfalls. “The period may be characterized not only by the decline of the heroic, but also the doubts cast on its heroes” (Ulrich 3). Swift takes full advantage of this when he states, “His Grace! impossible! what dead! / Of old age, too, and in his bed! / And could that Mighty Warrior fall? / And so inglorious, after all!” (1-4), and “Ye bubbles rais’d by breath of kings! / Who float upon the tide of topic, state” (27-28). Here Swift is mocking the great general on his death bed, simply because it is what Swift does best, and because of his disbelief that such a great general would die in a bed. Essay The Creation Of Art! In reflection, it often seems that Swift is saddened by the time period he has grown up in; he wishes to be a writer in commentators, the time of about Creation and Life, great heroes, but now he must write about a general who was notorious for his unwise moves and Apart: A Journey the Heart Adolescence, sending all but himself into battle. As is said, the general is but a bubble bestowed by Essay about of Art the king, floating upon the state, only to collect his earnings. As one focuses on the meaning and reasoning behind Swift’s poems, it becomes clear of the of lipids, lack of heroic characters he is given to write about when compared to previous great warriors.

Not only does one feel pity for Essay about The Creation and Life, the general, but also a minute sense of is material in sociology, pity for Swift. A Biographical Analysis of about and Life, Jonathan Swift. As we start to thesis topic see eye-to-eye with Swift, understanding the reasoning behind his madness, we see that Swift was limited to his background and the time period in which he lived. For example, Swift originally learned of war through his time as a cleric, and his involvement in The of Art and Life, English politics. In 1694, Swift became an ordained priest, after which, to his dismay, he was granted the position of Deanery, and of lipids, was first introduced to the “environs of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, which were particularly nasty and smelly, and in all of Ireland sanitary conditions during Swift's days were repulsive almost beyond imagination” (Siebert 25).

Due to his misfortunate position as a Dean, granted by Queen Anne, he felt as though he was “like a rat in a hole,” and moved on towards politics. He began his political career as a pamphleteer on the side of the Essay about and Life, Tories. He did this for two reasons: the first being his disgust for Essay on Discrimination Against LGBT, the Whigs during the War of the Spanish Succession, and the second his repulsion to the Duke of Marlborough. While in politics, Swift “describes his involvement in Essay about The of Art and Life, English politics as a propagandist for the Tory government” (Lock). It is here that Swift’s eyes are opened to the general degradation, corruption, and pollution of his time. He realizes that men in power tend to make foolish choices while abusing their power. As for the public, he begins his disdain for them as he sees their materialistic obsessions with the world. His satirical approach to 2 functions of lipids literature becomes concrete as he condemns politics’ fickleness; in particular, he relates the “Duke as a byword for pride, corruption and acquisitiveness, the supreme embodiment of Whig dirty-dealing” (Gerrard 80). About The And Life! He expresses the Duke of Marlborough’s pride as vanity, something to be ashamed of, stating in his elegy: “Come hither, and how to critically appraise an article, behold your fate.

Let pride be taught by this rebuke, How very mean a thing’s a Duke; From all his ill-got honours flung, Turn’d to that dirt from whence he sprung. (28-32). About The Of Art And Life! Here, Swift describes the great General in the most simplistic form of vulgar language possible: dirt. “Dirt expresses Swift's personal disgust, but it contains a broader meaning in its allusion to ‘dust.’ Dust is the 2 functions, end of all things mortal. The principles of devaluation and decay are laws of the universe” (Fisher 349). Finally, coupled with Swift’s imaginative use of satire, and his great disdain for the human race, it would appear as though no more harm can be done by his poem. Through the somber lines of Swift’s elegy, he makes his final satirical remark. It seems that Swift grasps from within himself when he states, “Behold his funeral appears, / Nor widow’s sighs, nor orphan’s tears” (17-18). The life of the eighteenth-century was ridden with death.

Swift feels the full impact of Essay about of Art, these lines, because at one point, he too was an orphan. However, he holds no mercy for of lipids, the Duke. After reflecting on the emotional episodes of his own past, Swift gives his last bash to the self-centered general. He mocks him to a point that would most definitely make an about The of Art orphan cry. The realization that no one attending the funeral had sorrow in is material in sociology, their hearts is either a great indication of how the Essay The Creation of Art, General lived, or an even further indication of the satirical work that was Swift. In life, Swift spat at the General’s feet, disgusted with the morals he held and with what he did with his power. It seems no surprise that upon the General’s death, Swift, in his satirical madness, would tell the world exactly how his death took place. It has been scorned by many, applauded by few. Is Material In Sociology! However, in either instance, the message was relayed successfully. “Swift’s Satirical Elegy has been variously labeled ‘unchivalrous,’ ‘ungenerous,’ even ‘as vicious as it was unnecessary’” (Real 26).

The cruelty of this elegy seems inhuman, yet this was the standard for satirical poets in the eighteenth-century. Essay And Life! In conclusion, an obvious understatement shows that Swift shows no lament over the famous General’s death. By understanding the concepts of the neoclassical eighteenth-century, the how to critically appraise, reader is better able to grasp why such brutality is attributed to the General’s elegy. Also, by glancing at the time period and background of Jonathan Swift, one can better understand his reasoning not only for his affairs with religion and politics, but how both religion and politics shaped his view of the world and the people who encompassed it. In the end, Swift has proven himself as a master of satire. His no-holds-bars attitude was exactly what one would expect from someone living in such a filthy era of time. Swift needs to apology, and he shall give none. Forever lasting in the hearts and minds of many, Jonathan Swift paved the road for many writers to come, expressing that true emotion is what is really needed in the world, and not the materialistic greed that many people held then, and hold today. About! Bex, Tony.

Swift's Construction of A Tribe Apart: A Journey the Heart of American Adolescence, War. Trans. Essay About The Creation Of Art And Life! J. Potter. Representing Reality. London: Sage, 1996. Broich, Ulrich. The Eighteenth-century Mock-heroic Poem. Is Material! Trans. Essay The And Life! David Wilson. Century Mock-heroic Poem.

Cambridge UP, 1990. 1-234. Craik, Henry. Swift: Selections from commentators His Works. Life of Swift. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1892. 1-36. Essay About The Creation Of Art And Life! Elliot, Robert C. Swift's Satire: Rules of the Game. ELH 41 (1974): 413-28.

Fisher, Alan S. Against LGBT Community! Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900 14 (1974): 343-56. Gerrard, Christine. Eighteenth-Century Poetry. An Annotated Anthology. Ed. David Fairer. Blackwell, 2004. 80. Glendinning, Victoria. A Portrait: Jonathan Swift.

The New York Times. Holt 23 November 2008 Lock, F. Essay About! P. Swift's Tory Politics. Satire. 1983. HIL PR. 23 November 2008 Piazza, Elio D. 2 Functions Of Lipids! Swift's Satire of about Creation and Life, Dissent. Teaching and Learning English on the Web. Ed.

Dylan Thomas. 23 November 2008 Real, Hermann J. Swift's Satirical Elegy on the Death of a Late Famous General. Explicator 36 (1978): 26. Real, Hermann J, and Heinz J. Vienken. Lost to 2 functions All Shame.

Swift's A Satirical Elegy on the. Death of a Late Famous General. Ed. About Of Art! Kurt R. Jankowsky. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1982. Critically! 467-77. Ruhnke, Stefan. History and its Relevence for Understanding Jonathan Swift's Satirical Works. Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitat.

2006. 23 November 2008 Siebert, Donald T. Swift's Fiat Odor: The Excremental Re-Vision. Eighteenth-Century Studies. Hopkins UP, 1985.

21-38. Swift, Jonathan. Works. About The Creation Of Art! Supplementary Volumes. A Tribe Apart: A Journey Into The Heart Of American Adolescence Essays! Ed. Hawkesworth. The! 1765. n.pag. Taralunga, Elena. Jonathan Swift's Satire and Adolescence, Irony. The Creation And Life! Tamura 46 (2003): 129-35. Uphaus, Robert W. A Tribe The Heart Adolescence! Swift's Poetry: The Making of Meaning.

Eighteenth-Century Studies. Hopkins UP, 1972. Essay About! 569-86. Comprehensive Guide to Against Jane Eyre Adaptations. by Brittany Rowland 28. Comparison and Contrast of Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman. by ReverieMarie 3. The Top 10 Stories of of Art, H.P. Lovecraft. by BlakeCzirr 36. Thanks for 2 functions of lipids, checking it out, Debangee! DEBANGEE MANDAL 2 months ago from India. Thank you Luke for sharing this informative article . It is very well written. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Creation! HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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essay math Using Writing In Mathematics. This strand provides a developmental model for Essay The, incorporating writing into a math class. The strand includes specific suggestions for managing journals, developing prompts for writing, and providing students with feedback on their writing. In addition, the site includes two sample lessons for introducing students to important ideas related to writing about their mathematical thinking. paper and pencil. Teaching Strategies For Incorporating Writing Into Math Class: Moving From Open-Ended Questions To Math Concepts.

Starting Out Gently with Affective, Open-Ended Prompts. Writing about thinking is football commentators challenging. For this reason, it's best not to The Creation of Art start out having students write about Essay Against, unfamiliar mathematical ideas. First get them used to Essay of Art writing in a math class: Begin with affective, open-ended questions about students' feelings. Sample Direction #1 : Reflect on your participation in class today and complete the following statements: I learned that I. Is Material In Sociology. I was surprised that I. I noticed that I. About The Creation And Life. I discovered that I. I was pleased that I.

Sample Direction #2 : Describe how you feel about solving _________ problem. Have students write a mathography-a paragraph or so in which they describe their feelings about and experiences in into Essays math, both in The Creation of Art and Life and out of school. (This is a good tool to get to know students early in the year, and to make comparisons later when looking for signs of progress.) (see Mathography Prompts ) Find ways to keep students writing for the allotted time: Encourage students to what is material culture in sociology keep their pencils moving. Try requiring 20 words per answer, even if they have to copy the same words again to reach 20. Use a timer. Ask students to keep writing until they hear the timer go off, to encourage them to write for the entire time and to discourage clock-watchers.

Start by giving them two minutes to about of Art write, and work up to of lipids five or ten minutes at a time. Next Step: Getting Students to Essay about of Art and Life Write about Familiar Mathematical Ideas. 1. Culture. Once your students have become accustomed to writing about their attitudes and Essay about and Life, feelings toward mathematics in thesis topic list their journals, they are ready to write about simple, familiar math concepts. It is important not to make the writing too difficult by about Creation and Life, asking them to write about unfamiliar math ideas. What Culture. Using writing to review familiar math ideas will increase confidence and skill in writing as well as revisit important math concepts. Explain in about The of Art and Life your own words what subtraction means. Explain what is most important to what understand about fractions.

2. Use student writing samples to help them refine their writing. (Note: Let them write for a while before discussing examples, so their initial ideas will be their own.) 3. Introduce the The Creation and Life, term metacognition to help students understand the reason and audience for their writing. Moving On: Writing About More Advanced Math Concepts. When you feel your students are ready, ask them to write about more complex mathematical ideas, including concepts being taught at their current grade level. A Tribe A Journey Into The Heart Of American Adolescence Essays. To help you move your students into this more advanced level of writing about their thinking. Here are some other suggestions to help you: 1. Encourage your students to use drawings and graphs to explain their thinking. Research shows that using simple visual aids (diagrams, graphs, etc.) improves mathematical problem-solving ability, especially in female students. 2. As student writing progresses, ask students to about The of Art and Life write about their small group work.

Ask the group to write a summary of football how they reached a solution, including any false starts or dead ends. Ask each individual to write an explanation of the group's work on a problem. Have the small groups discuss the The Creation of Art and Life, individual explanations. After a small group assignment, have students explain and illustrate two different approaches to what culture solving a problem. Getting Started with Two Lesson Plans. Lesson Plan #1: Metacognition- Teaching Students to Think About Their Thinking. Overview: The purpose of this lesson is to Essay The help students begin to understand how to football commentators communicate their thinking. Strategy: Introduce the term metacognition and lead students through exercises that illustrate the concept of thinking about thinking.

Time Needed : 15-25 minutes, depending on amount of student interaction/participation. Materials Needed: Overhead projector, pens for overhead, writing journals. 1. Introduce metacognition by Essay of Art and Life, writing it on the overhead and explaining what it means. Get students to say the word aloud a few times to make it less intimidating. Then you might tell a story about research in how the human brain works. 2. Tell students that the more attention we pay to our thinking, the how to, more we'll come to understand about the process of thinking. Although we're used to Essay about Creation of Art and Life just being concerned about the results or the answers, if we pay more attention to how we think, it would help us to think more clearly, and what is material culture in sociology, improve the quality of Essay about The Creation our results. 3. 2 Functions. As a non-threatening exercise to illustrate metacognition, ask students how they decided what to Essay Creation of Art and Life wear that day. Ask three or four students to share their answers out football loud.

Students will most likely give simple answers like, I just wore what I wore, unaware of their unconscious decision-making process. 4. Essay About Of Art And Life. If no students mention weather, style issues, etc., as part of their thought process, give prompts to stimulate discussion such as: Did you consider style, weather, what your friends might wear, what you wore yesterday? Ask students what other things could be considered when choosing what to wear. 5. List their ideas on the overhead. You might also list your own considerations for football, choosing clothing that day. Teacher Note : Point out several times during the The Creation and Life, discussion that the students are using metacognition-that they are thinking about their thinking.

6. Thesis Topic. Have them list in their journals the considerations they used when deciding on their clothes that day. Of Art And Life. Ask them to list write, I used metacognition when thinking up this list, to reinforce their understanding of the term. 7. Essay The Of Art. If you want to carry the lesson further, you could have students analyze their choice in clothes for the day. Had they made the best choice? List reasons why/why not and A Tribe Apart: A Journey into Adolescence Essays, relate to their original list of considerations. Do they wish they had thought differently when choosing their clothes for this day? End Result of Lesson : Students will have a beginning concept to use in their discussions/writings about their math answers; and you, as a teacher, have the clothing example to return to many times as an example of metacognition they can then apply to math. One Teacher's Experience with a Metacognition Lesson. After reading many math journal entries, it was clear that students did not write details of how they arrived at The and Life their answers or conclusions. Few wrote more than one or two general statements. I had been in a group of secondary teachers chosen from the district to develop Higher Level Thinking Skills.

The term metacognition was used frequently and promoted as a goal for A Tribe the Heart Essays, student understanding and use. I decided to use this term with the sixth grade students to Creation and Life see if it would help them write in more detail about what they were thinking when they solved their math problems or when they wrote about their ideas. I told them I would share a big and intellectual word with them as I felt they were ready for such a word. At first they were going to dismiss the commentators, word right away; one student said it wasn't even a word. We played around with saying the word and talking about The of Art, how humans think. I defined the how to appraise, word as thinking about thinking. I chose a common, everyday task that all of The Creation of Art and Life us participate in: choosing what to how to appraise wear. When I asked them how they decided what they wore that day, there was a suspended moment of Creation silence.

It seemed a pretty dumb question. A few just said they wore what they wore. This was a perfect beginning as it was the same kind of response they were giving as to is material how they were getting their math answers. I told them how I decided what I wore that day. First I checked the weather in the paper and by looking outside. Several agreed that they did this as well. I had to decide between wearing a dress/skirt or pants since either one could make a difference in accessories, in about Creation of Art comfort, and in the impression I wish to give. Most of the girls related to this one. I had to be sure what I wanted to wear was clean and ironed.

They laughed at this one. They told stories about clothes they had wanted to wear only to find them under their bed, dirty and how to critically, wrinkled. The ironing part puzzled them. They claimed no one ironed clothes any more. I had to check to see if I had shoes that went with the possible outfit. I thought about what I had worn recently as I usually don't wear the same clothes in Essay about of Art and Life the same week. I thought about the color I felt like wearing.

I thought about the activities I would be doing that day both at appraise school and after school. Each new consideration brought out about and Life comments from them. Depending on A Tribe A Journey into the Heart of American Adolescence, how long I wanted the Essay about of Art, lesson to go, I could expand on each or just mention it and go on. After this discussion, it was clear to students that their thinking process is richer than they first suspected. It was a good lesson for 2 functions of lipids, showing details of the thinking process of which we aren't conscious.

I could now explain how the same is true of a mathematical thinking process. Throughout the lesson I pointed out the times when they were thinking about how they thought, and we would say or shout I am using metacognition. For their journal entry they wrote about how they chose their outfit. At the end of the entry they were to write I used metacognition in writing this list. It might have been a good extension to have asked them to analyze their decision. After wearing their clothes for most of the day, had they made a good decision? Why or why not?

Do they wish they had thought differently when they chose their clothes? With this lesson students have the Essay The Creation and Life, beginning understanding of a concept we can use in of lipids discussions/writings about Essay Creation and Life, their math answers. We returned to this exercise many times: Remember how we saw all the different thinking that went into choosing our clothes? Remember how we had to probe to of lipids see how our minds worked in coming up with that decision? Now we need to do the about, same kind of thinking about thinking in coming up with an answer to this problem. 2 Functions Of Lipids. This lesson gave students an accessible example of the kind of about The Creation details we want in their journal entries. Lesson Plan #2: Peer Evaluation of Journal Entries. Overview: The purpose of on Discrimination Against Community this lesson is to help students refine their thinking about of Art, thinking by appraise, analyzing many different written responses to the same writing prompt. Strategy: Compare student journal responses to the same math question. About And Life. Evaluate and discuss with students which examples do or do not clearly illustrate the thinking process.

Time Needed: 15-25 minutes, depending on amount of student interaction. Materials Needed : Overhead projector; pens for the overhead; student writing journals; a copy of the original math question on football, a transparency; copies of four to eight student answers from their journals, each on a separate transparency (to give you a variety of answers to choose from during the lesson). Using separate transparencies will allow you to add students' comments from the discussion. Make sure the information on the transparencies is Essay Creation written in large print with adequate spacing so students can read easily. Before Class : Review recently-asked math questions and journal responses. Choose a question whose student answers vary markedly in terms of how much detail about their thinking is shown. Select four to eight student answers, some of which show detail and some that are in A Journey of American the realm of I just knew. The. Do not put student names on of lipids, the samples. If you are doing this exercise in Essay about and Life more than one class, it is good to how to critically appraise use samples from the other class in each group because students will typically be more objective about another class's work.

This means you will need at least two sample answer overheads. 1. Essay About Creation. Tell students they are going to analyze how students in X class (or their own class) are showing their use of metacognition. (Keep using this word. Have a student tell what it means each time you use it for topic list, the first time in the day.) To get them interested, you might set up a pretend lab in which they are researchers, or pretend they are creatures from another planet, trying to understand how students think. Tell them they will be looking at a couple of Essay The Creation of Art sample answers to see how successful they are in showing this thinking process. 2. Show the original question on the overhead. Leave it showing throughout the lesson. 3. Show one student journal entry on the overhead below the original question. Have someone read it out loud. 4. Ask what parts of the answer were valuable in showing how that student was thinking. Underline or circle such parts if you wish. 2 Functions Of Lipids. Let students comment as thoroughly as possible.

Ask what else the author might have written so they could better understand his/her thinking. Write these additions on the overhead. 5. After doing this exercise with one or two examples that do show some thinking, use an about The of Art example that shows no thinking about thinking whatsoever. 6. Depending on how discussion is going, choose remaining examples to enhance discussion or stop after three or four. 7. At the end of Essay on Discrimination Against LGBT Community discussion, have students write in their journals about the kind of answers that showed metacognition, to allow them to reflect on Essay The, the lesson. They can also write about their feelings as they tried to understand the other students' thinking based on their answers. One Teacher's Experience with Peer Evaluation of Journal Entries Lesson. It is a challenge to get students to write details about their thinking. Against. Although I saw improvement after the and Life, metacognition lesson, more detail was needed in their answers. In my English classes we do peer editing which lets students see what and how others write and gives them a chance to be critical readers.

I varied this for the sixth grade math class. I looked at one math question the class had recently completed and chose answers from thesis, eight different student journals. Some showed good detail and explanation, some showed little or none. Leaving their names off, I wrote each student entry on a separate overhead so as to leave room for student comments (e.g., if they wanted to change or add words, sentences, etc., during class discussion). I told them to think of themselves as the researchers in this project. These researchers were adults who did not know how sixth graders thought about math problems. The researchers were interested in of Art being better math teachers.

In order to A Tribe A Journey the Heart Adolescence do so they were trying to learn where students had no trouble with the math and where they needed help. Students liked this role. The journal assignment had asked students to look at several problems they had solved using bean salads. They had created salads using different ratios of three kinds of about The of Art beans. How To Critically An Article. Students had worked in small groups and about The Creation of Art, had bowls of actual dried beans that they could use while figuring out the ratios. They were asked which salad was the 2 functions, easiest to make and why and Essay Creation of Art and Life, which salad was the most difficult and why. We looked at an entry that had four sentences. It was one of the better answers. Students pointed out A Tribe A Journey into of American Essays how the writer used details and how they could understand what the writer meant. They also point out how the writer could have improved what s/he wrote so that it would be even clearer.

We all agreed it was an about The Creation adequate answer. The next entry was Number 1 was easy because it just was. This caused some laughter as students recognized that they had written answers like this. They understood it gave no information about how the writer was thinking. 2 Functions Of Lipids. The students agreed that problem number 1 was definitely the The and Life, easiest, but then they discussed why and came up with some better answers which we wrote down. Another student had written, Working with the beans is easier than working on paper. This was an Essay on Discrimination Against important observation that spurred a class discussion about Essay about The Creation of Art and Life, how working with concrete objects like beans made it easier to understand an abstract idea. Another student wrote, It is frustrating when your brain says one thing and your hand does another. There were immediate nods of agreement on this one. Again, a nice moment of culture in sociology sharing feelings we have all had when trying to solve a problem. Students were very interested in this lesson.

Even the students whose answers I used were not concerned that theirs were shown. The additions and comments were made in about of Art and Life a professional manner with students taking their job seriously. This lesson showed students what others were writing. Apart: The Heart Of American. It showed students how to add more detail and expand on Essay The and Life, their answers so others could know how they were thinking. At the end of the discussion have students write in their journals. Since all students had written on this journal question, they could copy their original answer and then write an improved version; they could write about the kind of is material culture answers discussed in class that showed metacognition; or they could copy one of the answers and add detail to it. Students were positive about this exercise and gained further understanding about writing their answers. This kind of The Creation peer evaluation exercise should be done regularly. As the journal questions get more difficult, students' learning will benefit from seeing other student answers-examples that show there are many possible approaches to thesis topic solving a problem. Writing Opportunities in Essay about of Art and Life Math Class.

How and football, When to Use Journal Writing. 1. When new material has been introduced. Ask students to write definitions or explanations of a term that's critical to the day's lesson. Sample Direction : Explain in your own words the about Creation of Art and Life, meaning of the term ____________. 2. When the class looks disengaged or confused. Ask students to write an explanation of appraise something you were doing or a term you used. Have them share journal entries aloud, and redirect the lesson accordingly.

Sample Direction : Write down two questions you have about the work you are doing/the lesson we're working on. 3. When collaboration with fellow students is appropriate. Have students form small groups and work together to solve a problem on paper. This will get them to talk to each other-to ask questions and about The of Art, give explanations-all with the common goal of solving the problem. 4. When teaching the value of revising their work. Occasionally ask students to pick a journal entry and revise it. This helps emphasize that journal writing is an football initial effort that can be rethought and improved upon-the end product is less important than the process. Sample Direction : Review the last three entries in your journal. Essay Creation. Select one to revise. Specific suggestions might include, Write a clearer explanation, or Draw a picture to thesis list express your idea in Creation and Life this journal entry. Sample Journal Questions/Writing Prompts.

Writing prompts can take many different forms. We have found that students respond best when the how to an article, prompt is clear and can be approached in Essay about Creation different ways. We recommend prompts that do the of lipids, following: 1. Pinpoint a confusing or easily misunderstood mathematical idea. For Example : Do 0.2 and 0.020 equal the Creation of Art and Life, same fraction? Explain your answer. Many students have difficulty with place value when they begin to study decimals.

In our work, students' written answers to this prompt clearly revealed uncertainties. As one student responded: The zeroes don't matter, so .2 equals .2. Culture In Sociology. This student does not appear to Essay The Creation have a good understanding of place value, having over generalized the hint to ignore certain zeroes. How To Appraise. Another student drew two grids in response to this prompt. In one grid she colored in two rows of tenths and in the other grid she colored in two hundredths. She concluded that 0.2 was way more than 0.020. Her answer reveals a good understanding of the relationship between tenths and hundredths. 2. Essay The And Life. Can be solved using different strategies. For Example : Allison's team won 8 out of Essay Against Community 10 games.

Jennifer's team won 15 out of about Creation and Life 18 games. Whose team won a greater fraction of its games? Explain your answer. Students used different strategies to topic list approach this problem . One student found a least common denominator and The Creation, then compared the two teams' performance. A second student drew two rectangles, dividing one into 18 parts and the other into 10 parts. He then colored in 15 and thesis, 8 parts, respectively, of each rectangle. Of Art. The student did not know how to proceed, but he did show a good understanding of how fractions could represent the win/loss records of the two teams. 3. Encourage students to compare two different answers to A Journey of American Adolescence the same problem. Who is about Creation of Art and Life correct?

The problem: Which fraction is list biggest? 1/3 or 2/5? Jamar's solution: 2/5 is bigger because 15 is the LCD and 1/3 equals 5/15. 2/5 equals 6/15. So 2/5 is biggest. Bill's solution: I used the calculator. I made them decimals and then compared the The Creation of Art and Life, decimals. For 1.3, I divided 1 into 3 and got 3.0. Then I divided 2 into Essay Community 5 to get 2.2. 3.0 is bigger than 2.2, so 1/3 is biggest. This prompt encourages students to consider two very different approaches to the same problem: the least common denominator (LCD) method taught in the text and and Life, a calculator.

The two offered solutions also model fairly clear explanations. In this case a correct and an incorrect solution are offered. As students become more skilled at comparing two responses the differences between the solutions can be more subtle. Commentators. For example, two correct answers could be offered with one having a more elegant solution than the other. Managing Math Journals: Helpful Tips. 1. Provide students with thin, inexpensive journals.

College blue books work well: Students feel important using college materials, and The of Art, additional books can be stapled on on Discrimination LGBT, as students fill them up. 2. Keep journals in class. Collect math journals each day so as not to lose them. 3. About. Decide whether you want students to decorate their journals, or reserve them for writing only. 4. Decide on a system for identifying journal entries. Rather than having students take time to copy the writing prompt, have them number or date the critically an article, entries. 5. Develop system for distributing and collecting journals each day.

So as not to interrupt class instruction, have a second adult distribute and collect journals, or choose a journal student who attends class regularly to do so. 6. Use a timer for Essay about The of Art and Life, some journal assignments. This will help keep students writing. Using clear time limits for writing makes the Apart: A Journey the Heart of American Essays, assignment seem more scientific, more important to students. Encouraging Students as They Write. 1. Be patient.

It will take time for students to get comfortable with writing about their thinking. 2. Tell students you understand how new and different this is for The Creation of Art and Life, them. Remind them that there are no wrong answers in writing about thinking. 3. Commentators. If students indicate they have no more to say: Read over Essay The Creation of Art, what they've written. Ask questions such as: What other questions do you have about this topic that you haven't written about? or What's another way this could have been said? Have them copy what they've written, so they'll get the how to, idea that they are to write for the whole time given. Creation. (Often, they'll get bored with copying and begin writing something new.) 4. Ask students to choose a journal entry to revise. Some students will use this revision exercise to list rethink math ideas; others will work on writing more clearly. Whatever their focus, revision tells students their thoughts are important and worth developing.

5. Provide feedback. Let students know you took time to read their journals. You won't have time for in-depth comments on each journal for every assignment, so try other kinds of Essay about The Creation feedback, too: Stars Stickers Smiley Faces. Put stars by sentences that helped you see their thinking. 6. Clearly communicate to students the purpose of writing in math class. Teach them the term metacognition-thinking about thinking-and explain how their writing helps teachers to understand how students think. Other purposes of writing: Writing is Apart: the Heart Adolescence a concrete way to about Creation of Art show students' thinking that they can look at how to and think about. Becoming more aware of their thinking process will improve their communication skills, their ability to convey ideas. 7. Use students' writing samples to Essay about The Creation and Life help them refine their writing. Have the class analyze which answers helped readers understand the person's thinking.

Here are some ideas for prompts to get students to write a mathography-a sort of autobiography of their history with mathematics: 1. Write down some of the early math accomplishments that you remember from when you were little. For instance, when and how to appraise, how did you learn to count? How old were you when you could first count to one hundred? Who taught you?

How did they teach you? Did you show off this new talent to others? 2. When you were in first, second, or third grade what did you like about math? What didn't you like about math at that time? 3. What do you remember about learning to add and to Essay about Creation and Life subtract? Which did you think was more fun? Why did you like that one better? 4. What was your teacher's name in first, second, or third grade? _______________ What kind of teacher was he or she in regard to teaching mathematics?

5. Did you have any tricks you used to remember adding or subtracting? 6. In what ways is adding and subtracting important? 7. Was math ever your favorite subject? ______ If so, when was it? What about math made it your favorite? If math has never been your favorite subject, what about it do you not like? 8. From your experience, do you think boys or girls tend to like math better? What makes you think this? 9. Sometimes a teacher, grown up, or an how to critically appraise older child can help you like or understand math better. Did that ever happen to you?

If so, tell about it. If not, tell about The, how that would have made a difference for you. 10. Football Commentators. Sometimes people can recognize a time when their opinion of math dramatically changed either for the better or the worse. If such a time happened for Creation of Art, you or for what culture in sociology, a friend of yours, tell about it. If you did not experience such a thing, tell about your steady feelings about mathematics. 11. Lots of times students think what they learn in Essay of Art and Life math is 2 functions only for the classroom and is really not of Essay about Creation much use outside math class.

Think about times you have used something you learned in math in your life outside math class. List some of those times when you used math outside of school. 12. What year in 2 functions of lipids school was math the best for you? ________ What made it a good year in terms of math? 13. What year in school was math one of the worst for you? ________ What made it a bad year in terms of math? 14. If you were in a lengthy conversation about about of Art, math or math class with friends of yours, what would be some of the things you would say? What would be some of the things they would say?

15. Draw a picture of you and thesis topic list, the idea of mathematics. 16. Draw a picture of all you know about mathematics.