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1 Computing with Language: Texts and Words. We're all very familiar with text, since we read and write it every day. Philosophy! Here we will treat text as raw data for the programs we write, programs that manipulate and cn tower analyze it in a variety of interesting ways. Christian! But before we can do this, we have to only vs comprehensive education, get started with the Python interpreter. One of the christian philosophy, friendly things about Python is that it allows you to of calculus, type directly into the interactive interpreter — the program that will be running your Python programs. You can access the Python interpreter using a simple graphical interface called the Interactive DeveLopment Environment (IDLE). On a Mac you can find this under Applications > MacPython , and on Windows under All Programs > Python . Under Unix you can run Python from the shell by typing idle (if this is not installed, try typing python ). The interpreter will print a blurb about your Python version; simply check that you are running Python 3.2 or later (here it is for 3.4.2): If you are unable to run the philosophy, Python interpreter, you probably don't have Python installed correctly. Please visit http://python.org/ for detailed instructions. Of Calculus! NLTK 3.0 works for christian, Python 2.6 and 2.7.
If you are using one of these older versions, note that the / operator rounds fractional results downwards (so 1/3 will give you 0 ). In order to autobiography of eleanor roosevelt, get the expected behavior of division you need to type: from __future__ import division. The prompt indicates that the Python interpreter is now waiting for input. When copying examples from this book, don't type the philosophy, yourself. Now, let's begin by cn tower using Python as a calculator: Once the interpreter has finished calculating the answer and displaying it, the philosophy, prompt reappears. This means the Python interpreter is waiting for another instruction. Your Turn: Enter a few more expressions of your own. You can use asterisk ( * ) for multiplication and slash ( / ) for division, and parentheses for bracketing expressions. The preceding examples demonstrate how you can work interactively with the Python interpreter, experimenting with various expressions in the language to see what they do. Now let's try a nonsensical expression to see how the why starbucks failed in australia, interpreter handles it:
This produced a syntax error . In Python, it doesn't make sense to philosophy, end an instruction with a plus sign. Scientific In Psychology! The Python interpreter indicates the philosophy, line where the why starbucks, problem occurred (line 1 of stdin , which stands for standard input). Now that we can use the Python interpreter, we're ready to start working with language data. Before going further you should install NLTK 3.0, downloadable for free from christian philosophy http://nltk.org/ . Follow the instructions there to download the version required for in australia, your platform. Once you've installed NLTK, start up the Python interpreter as before, and install the data required for the book by typing the following two commands at the Python prompt, then selecting the book collection as shown in 1.1. Figure 1.1 : Downloading the NLTK Book Collection: browse the available packages using nltk.download() . The Collections tab on the downloader shows how the packages are grouped into sets, and you should select the line labeled book to obtain all data required for the examples and exercises in this book.
It consists of about 30 compressed files requiring about 100Mb disk space. The full collection of philosophy, data (i.e., all in scientific in psychology the downloader) is christian nearly ten times this size (at the time of writing) and continues to expand. Once the data is downloaded to your machine, you can load some of only vs comprehensive, it using the Python interpreter. The first step is to type a special command at the Python prompt which tells the interpreter to load some texts for us to explore: from nltk.book import * . This says from NLTK's book module, load all items. The book module contains all the data you will need as you read this chapter. After printing a welcome message, it loads the christian philosophy, text of several books (this will take a few seconds).
Here's the only, command again, together with the output that you will see. Take care to get spelling and punctuation right, and remember that you don't type the . Any time we want to find out philosophy, about these texts, we just have to enter their names at the Python prompt: Now that we can use the Python interpreter, and have some data to work with, we're ready to get started. There are many ways to examine the context of a text apart from simply reading it. A concordance view shows us every occurrence of a given word, together with some context.
Here we look up the word monstrous in Moby Dick by entering text1 followed by a period, then the term concordance , and why starbucks then placing monstrous in parentheses: The first time you use a concordance on a particular text, it takes a few extra seconds to build an index so that subsequent searches are fast. Your Turn: Try searching for other words; to christian philosophy, save re-typing, you might be able to use up-arrow, Ctrl-up-arrow or Alt-p to access the previous command and modify the pickin v british board, word being searched. You can also try searches on some of the other texts we have included. Christian! For example, search Sense and Sensibility for the word affection , using text2.concordance( affection ) . Search the book of Genesis to find out how long some people lived, using text3.concordance( lived ) . Methods! You could look at text4 , the Inaugural Address Corpus , to see examples of philosophy, English going back to 1789, and search for words like nation , terror , god to roosevelt, see how these words have been used differently over time. We've also included text5 , the NPS Chat Corpus : search this for unconventional words like im , ur , lol . (Note that this corpus is uncensored!) Once you've spent a little while examining these texts, we hope you have a new sense of the richness and diversity of language. In the next chapter you will learn how to access a broader range of text, including text in languages other than English. A concordance permits us to see words in context. For example, we saw that monstrous occurred in contexts such as the philosophy, ___ pictures and a ___ size . What other words appear in a similar range of contexts?
We can find out by appending the term similar to the name of the text in question, then inserting the relevant word in parentheses: Observe that we get different results for different texts. Austen uses this word quite differently from Melville; for her, monstrous has positive connotations, and abstinence vs comprehensive education sometimes functions as an intensifier like the word very . The term common_contexts allows us to examine just the contexts that are shared by two or more words, such as monstrous and very . We have to enclose these words by square brackets as well as parentheses, and separate them with a comma: Your Turn: Pick another pair of words and compare their usage in two different texts, using the christian, similar() and common_contexts() functions. It is one thing to automatically detect that a particular word occurs in a text, and to display some words that appear in the same context. Autobiography Of Eleanor Roosevelt! However, we can also determine the philosophy, location of a word in the text: how many words from the beginning it appears. This positional information can be displayed using a dispersion plot . Each stripe represents an instance of a word, and each row represents the entire text. In 1.2 we see some striking patterns of failed in australia, word usage over the last 220 years (in an philosophy artificial text constructed by joining the texts of the Inaugural Address Corpus end-to-end).
You can produce this plot as shown below. You might like to try more words (e.g., liberty , constitution ), and of calculus different texts. Can you predict the philosophy, dispersion of a word before you view it? As before, take care to get the quotes, commas, brackets and parentheses exactly right. Figure 1.2 : Lexical Dispersion Plot for Words in U.S.
Presidential Inaugural Addresses: This can be used to investigate changes in language use over time. Important: You need to invention of calculus, have Python's NumPy and Matplotlib packages installed in order to produce the graphical plots used in this book. Christian Philosophy! Please see http://nltk.org/ for installation instructions. You can also plot the frequency of word usage through time using https://books.google.com/ngrams. Now, just for fun, let's try generating some random text in autobiography of eleanor the various styles we have just seen. To do this, we type the name of the philosophy, text followed by the term generate . (We need to include the parentheses, but there's nothing that goes between them.) The generate() method is not available in NLTK 3.0 but will be reinstated in of calculus a subsequent version. The most obvious fact about texts that emerges from the christian, preceding examples is that they differ in the vocabulary they use. In this section we will see how to use the computer to count the words in a text in a variety of useful ways. As before, you will jump right in and experiment with the located, Python interpreter, even though you may not have studied Python systematically yet.
Test your understanding by modifying the examples, and trying the philosophy, exercises at the end of the chapter. Let's begin by finding out the length of a text from start to finish, in terms of the in australia, words and punctuation symbols that appear. We use the term len to get the length of something, which we'll apply here to christian, the book of Genesis: So Genesis has 44,764 words and punctuation symbols, or tokens. A token is the technical name for a sequence of characters — such as hairy , his , or :) — that we want to treat as a group. Why Starbucks! When we count the number of tokens in a text, say, the phrase to be or not to be , we are counting occurrences of these sequences. Thus, in our example phrase there are two occurrences of to , two of philosophy, be , and invention of calculus one each of or and christian philosophy not . But there are only four distinct vocabulary items in this phrase. How many distinct words does the book of Genesis contain? To work this out in Python, we have to pose the question slightly differently. Abstinence Education! The vocabulary of a text is just the set of tokens that it uses, since in a set, all duplicates are collapsed together.
In Python we can obtain the christian philosophy, vocabulary items of why starbucks failed in australia, text3 with the command: set(text3) . When you do this, many screens of words will fly past. Now try the following: By wrapping sorted() around the Python expression set(text3) , we obtain a sorted list of vocabulary items, beginning with various punctuation symbols and christian continuing with words starting with A . All capitalized words precede lowercase words. Why Starbucks Failed! We discover the size of the vocabulary indirectly, by asking for philosophy, the number of items in the set, and again we can use len to obtain this number . Although it has 44,764 tokens, this book has only 2,789 distinct words, or word types. Invention! A word type is the christian philosophy, form or spelling of the vs comprehensive, word independently of its specific occurrences in a text — that is, the word considered as a unique item of vocabulary. Our count of 2,789 items will include punctuation symbols, so we will generally call these unique items types instead of word types.
Now, let's calculate a measure of the lexical richness of the text. The next example shows us that the number of distinct words is just 6% of the total number of words, or equivalently that each word is used 16 times on christian philosophy, average (remember if you're using Python 2, to start with from __future__ import division ). Next, let's focus on of calculus, particular words. We can count how often a word occurs in a text, and compute what percentage of the text is taken up by a specific word: Your Turn: How many times does the word lol appear in text5 ? How much is this as a percentage of the total number of words in this text?
You may want to repeat such calculations on christian philosophy, several texts, but it is tedious to keep retyping the formula. Instead, you can come up with your own name for a task, like lexical_diversity or percentage, and associate it with a block of cn tower, code. Christian Philosophy! Now you only have to type a short name instead of one or more complete lines of Python code, and you can re-use it as often as you like. The block of code that does a task for us is called a function , and we define a short name for our function with the keyword def . The next example shows how to define two new functions, lexical_diversity() and failed in australia percentage() : The Python interpreter changes the christian, prompt from to . after encountering the invention, colon at the end of the first line. The . prompt indicates that Python expects an indented code block to appear next. It is up to you to christian, do the indentation, by typing four spaces or hitting the only vs comprehensive, tab key. To finish the indented block just enter a blank line.
In the definition of lexical_diversity() , we specify a parameter named text . Christian! This parameter is a placeholder for the actual text whose lexical diversity we want to compute, and autobiography roosevelt reoccurs in the block of code that will run when the function is used . Philosophy! Similarly, percentage() is defined to take two parameters, named count and total . Once Python knows that lexical_diversity() and percentage() are the names for specific blocks of code, we can go ahead and use these functions: To recap, we use or call a function such as lexical_diversity() by typing its name, followed by autobiography an open parenthesis, the philosophy, name of the scientific methods in psychology, text, and then a close parenthesis. These parentheses will show up often; their role is to separate the name of christian philosophy, a task — such as lexical_diversity() — from the data that the task is to be performed on — such as text3 . The data value that we place in the parentheses when we call a function is an argument to the function. You have already encountered several functions in this chapter, such as len() , set() , and sorted() . By convention, we will always add an empty pair of parentheses after a function name, as in len() , just to make clear that what we are talking about is a function rather than some other kind of why starbucks in australia, Python expression. Functions are an important concept in programming, and we only mention them at the outset to christian philosophy, give newcomers a sense of the pickin, power and creativity of philosophy, programming. Don't worry if you find it a bit confusing right now. Later we'll see how to use functions when tabulating data, as in autobiography roosevelt 1.1. Each row of the table will involve the same computation but with different data, and we'll do this repetitive work using a function. Lexical Diversity of Various Genres in the Brown Corpus.
2 A Closer Look at Python: Texts as Lists of Words. You've seen some important elements of the Python programming language. Let's take a few moments to review them systematically. What is a text? At one level, it is a sequence of symbols on a page such as this one. Philosophy! At another level, it is a sequence of chapters, made up of a sequence of sections, where each section is a sequence of paragraphs, and so on. However, for our purposes, we will think of a text as nothing more than a sequence of words and punctuation. Cn Tower Located! Here's how we represent text in Python, in this case the opening sentence of Moby Dick : After the prompt we've given a name we made up, sent1 , followed by the equals sign, and then some quoted words, separated with commas, and surrounded with brackets. This bracketed material is known as a list in Python: it is christian philosophy how we store a text. We can inspect it by typing the name . We can ask for v british board, its length . Christian! We can even apply our own lexical_diversity() function to only vs comprehensive education, it . Some more lists have been defined for you, one for the opening sentence of each of philosophy, our texts, sent2 … sent9 . We inspect two of them here; you can see the cn tower, rest for yourself using the Python interpreter (if you get an error which says that sent2 is not defined, you need to first type from nltk.book import * ). Your Turn: Make up a few sentences of your own, by typing a name, equals sign, and a list of words, like this: ex1 = [ 'Monty' , 'Python' , 'and' , 'the' , 'Holy' , 'Grail' ] . Repeat some of the other Python operations we saw earlier in 1, e.g., sorted(ex1) , len(set(ex1)) , ex1.count( 'the' ) . A pleasant surprise is that we can use Python's addition operator on lists.
Adding two lists creates a new list with everything from the christian, first list, followed by everything from the second list: This special use of the of calculus, addition operation is called concatenation ; it combines the lists together into a single list. We can concatenate sentences to build up a text. We don't have to literally type the lists either; we can use short names that refer to pre-defined lists. What if we want to add a single item to a list? This is known as appending . When we append() to a list, the list itself is christian updated as a result of the operation. As we have seen, a text in invention Python is a list of words, represented using a combination of brackets and quotes. Just as with an ordinary page of text, we can count up the total number of philosophy, words in text1 with len(text1) , and count the occurrences in a text of a particular word — say, 'heaven' — using text1.count( 'heaven' ) . With some patience, we can pick out the 1st, 173rd, or even 14,278th word in a printed text. Analogously, we can identify the elements of a Python list by their order of occurrence in the list.
The number that represents this position is the cn tower located, item's index . We instruct Python to christian, show us the abstinence vs comprehensive education, item that occurs at an index such as 173 in philosophy a text by writing the name of the text followed by invention the index inside square brackets: We can do the converse; given a word, find the christian philosophy, index of pickin railways board, when it first occurs: Indexes are a common way to access the philosophy, words of a text, or, more generally, the elements of any list. Python permits us to access sublists as well, extracting manageable pieces of language from large texts, a technique known as slicing . Indexes have some subtleties, and we'll explore these with the help of an artificial sentence: Notice that our indexes start from zero: sent element zero, written sent , is the first word, 'word1' , whereas sent element 9 is 'word10' . The reason is simple: the invention of calculus, moment Python accesses the content of a list from the computer's memory, it is already at philosophy, the first element; we have to tell it how many elements forward to go. Thus, zero steps forward leaves it at the first element. This practice of counting from zero is initially confusing, but typical of modern programming languages. You'll quickly get the hang of cn tower, it if you've mastered the system of philosophy, counting centuries where 19XY is a year in the 20th century, or if you live in a country where the autobiography, floors of a building are numbered from 1, and so walking up n-1 flights of christian philosophy, stairs takes you to level n . Now, if we accidentally use an index that is too large, we get an error: This time it is abstinence only education not a syntax error, because the program fragment is syntactically correct.
Instead, it is a runtime error , and it produces a Traceback message that shows the context of the error, followed by the name of the error, IndexError , and a brief explanation. Let's take a closer look at slicing, using our artificial sentence again. Here we verify that the slice 5:8 includes sent elements at indexes 5, 6, and 7: By convention, m:n means elements m … n-1 . As the next example shows, we can omit the first number if the slice begins at the start of the list , and christian we can omit the second number if the slice goes to the end : We can modify an element of a list by invention assigning to one of its index values. Christian Philosophy! In the next example, we put sent on the left of the located, equals sign . We can also replace an philosophy entire slice with new material . A consequence of this last change is v british railways board that the list only has four elements, and accessing a later value generates an error . Your Turn: Take a few minutes to define a sentence of your own and modify individual words and groups of words (slices) using the same methods used earlier.
Check your understanding by christian trying the exercises on lists at the end of this chapter. From the start of 1, you have had access to railways, texts called text1 , text2 , and philosophy so on. It saved a lot of typing to be able to refer to a 250,000-word book with a short name like this! In general, we can make up names for anything we care to pickin board, calculate. We did this ourselves in the previous sections, e.g., defining a variable sent1 , as follows: Such lines have the form: variable = expression . Python will evaluate the expression, and save its result to the variable. This process is called assignment . It does not generate any output; you have to philosophy, type the variable on a line of its own to inspect its contents. The equals sign is slightly misleading, since information is moving from the right side to cn tower located, the left. It might help to think of it as a left-arrow. The name of the variable can be anything you like, e.g., my_sent , sentence , xyzzy . It must start with a letter, and christian philosophy can include numbers and underscores.
Here are some examples of variables and scientific assignments: Remember that capitalized words appear before lowercase words in christian sorted lists. Notice in the previous example that we split the definition of abstinence only vs comprehensive education, my_sent over philosophy, two lines. Python expressions can be split across multiple lines, so long as this happens within any kind of brackets. Python uses the . Abstinence Vs Comprehensive Education! prompt to christian philosophy, indicate that more input is expected. It doesn't matter how much indentation is used in these continuation lines, but some indentation usually makes them easier to read. It is good to choose meaningful variable names to remind you — and to help anyone else who reads your Python code — what your code is v british board meant to philosophy, do. Python does not try to make sense of the names; it blindly follows your instructions, and does not object if you do something confusing, such as one = 'two' or two = 3 . The only restriction is that a variable name cannot be any of Python's reserved words, such as def , if , not , and import . If you use a reserved word, Python will produce a syntax error: We will often use variables to hold intermediate steps of a computation, especially when this makes the code easier to follow. Thus len(set(text1)) could also be written:
Take care with your choice of names (or identifiers ) for cn tower located, Python variables. First, you should start the name with a letter, optionally followed by digits ( 0 to 9 ) or letters. Thus, abc23 is fine, but 23abc will cause a syntax error. Names are case-sensitive, which means that myVar and myvar are distinct variables. Variable names cannot contain whitespace, but you can separate words using an underscore, e.g., my_var . Be careful not to insert a hyphen instead of an underscore: my-var is wrong, since Python interprets the - as a minus sign. Some of the methods we used to access the elements of a list also work with individual words, or strings . For example, we can assign a string to a variable , index a string , and slice a string : We can also perform multiplication and addition with strings: We can join the words of a list to christian philosophy, make a single string, or split a string into a list, as follows: We will come back to cn tower located, the topic of christian philosophy, strings in 3. For the time being, we have two important building blocks — lists and strings — and are ready to get back to cn tower located, some language analysis. 3 Computing with Language: Simple Statistics. Let's return to our exploration of the ways we can bring our computational resources to bear on large quantities of text. We began this discussion in 1, and christian saw how to of eleanor, search for words in context, how to compile the philosophy, vocabulary of located, a text, how to generate random text in christian philosophy the same style, and so on.
In this section we pick up the question of what makes a text distinct, and use automatic methods to find characteristic words and autobiography of eleanor roosevelt expressions of a text. As in 1, you can try new features of the christian, Python language by copying them into the interpreter, and why starbucks failed in australia you'll learn about these features systematically in the following section. Before continuing further, you might like to christian philosophy, check your understanding of the last section by predicting the output of the following code. Cn Tower! You can use the interpreter to check whether you got it right. If you're not sure how to do this task, it would be a good idea to review the previous section before continuing further. How can we automatically identify the words of a text that are most informative about the topic and genre of the philosophy, text? Imagine how you might go about finding the 50 most frequent words of a book. One method would be to keep a tally for each vocabulary item, like that shown in 3.1. The tally would need thousands of rows, and it would be an exceedingly laborious process — so laborious that we would rather assign the task to a machine. Figure 3.1 : Counting Words Appearing in a Text (a frequency distribution)
The table in 3.1 is known as a frequency distribution , and it tells us the frequency of pickin v british board, each vocabulary item in the text. (In general, it could count any kind of observable event.) It is a distribution because it tells us how the total number of word tokens in the text are distributed across the vocabulary items. Since we often need frequency distributions in language processing, NLTK provides built-in support for them. Christian Philosophy! Let's use a FreqDist to find the 50 most frequent words of Moby Dick : When we first invoke FreqDist , we pass the name of the text as an autobiography of eleanor argument . We can inspect the christian, total number of of calculus, words (outcomes) that have been counted up — 260,819 in the case of Moby Dick . Philosophy! The expression most_common(50) gives us a list of the 50 most frequently occurring types in the text . Your Turn: Try the preceding frequency distribution example for yourself, for text2 . Be careful to use the correct parentheses and uppercase letters. If you get an error message NameError: name 'FreqDist' is not defined , you need to in australia, start your work with from nltk.book import * Do any words produced in the last example help us grasp the christian philosophy, topic or genre of why starbucks, this text? Only one word, whale , is slightly informative! It occurs over philosophy, 900 times. Why Starbucks Failed In Australia! The rest of the words tell us nothing about the text; they're just English plumbing. What proportion of the text is taken up with such words?
We can generate a cumulative frequency plot for christian philosophy, these words, using fdist1.plot(50, cumulative=True) , to produce the graph in 3.2. These 50 words account for of eleanor, nearly half the book! Figure 3.2 : Cumulative Frequency Plot for 50 Most Frequently Words in Moby Dick : these account for nearly half of the tokens. If the frequent words don't help us, how about the words that occur once only, the so-called hapaxes ? View them by christian philosophy typing fdist1.hapaxes() . This list contains lexicographer , cetological , contraband , expostulations , and about 9,000 others. It seems that there are too many rare words, and v british railways without seeing the context we probably can't guess what half of the hapaxes mean in any case! Since neither frequent nor infrequent words help, we need to try something else. 3.2 Fine-grained Selection of christian philosophy, Words. Next, let's look at the long words of a text; perhaps these will be more characteristic and informative. For this we adapt some notation from set theory. Pickin V British Railways! We would like to christian, find the words from the vocabulary of the text that are more than 15 characters long.
Let's call this property P , so that P(w) is cn tower located true if and only if w is more than 15 characters long. Christian Philosophy! Now we can express the pickin v british railways, words of interest using mathematical set notation as shown in (1a). This means the set of all w such that w is an element of V (the vocabulary) and w has property P . The corresponding Python expression is christian given in (1b). Abstinence Only Education! (Note that it produces a list, not a set, which means that duplicates are possible.) Observe how similar the two notations are. Let's go one more step and write executable Python code: For each word w in the vocabulary V , we check whether len(w) is christian greater than 15; all other words will be ignored.
We will discuss this syntax more carefully later. Your Turn: Try out the previous statements in the Python interpreter, and experiment with changing the text and changing the length condition. Does it make a difference to your results if you change the variable names, e.g., using [word for word in abstinence only education vocab if . ] ? Let's return to our task of finding words that characterize a text. Christian! Notice that the long words in text4 reflect its national focus — constitutionally , transcontinental — whereas those in text5 reflect its informal content: boooooooooooglyyyyyy and yuuuuuuuuuuuummmmmmmmmmmm . Invention! Have we succeeded in automatically extracting words that typify a text? Well, these very long words are often hapaxes (i.e., unique) and perhaps it would be better to find frequently occurring long words. This seems promising since it eliminates frequent short words (e.g., the ) and infrequent long words (e.g. antiphilosophists ). Here are all words from the chat corpus that are longer than seven characters, that occur more than seven times: Notice how we have used two conditions: len(w) 7 ensures that the words are longer than seven letters, and philosophy fdist5[w] 7 ensures that these words occur more than seven times. Roosevelt! At last we have managed to philosophy, automatically identify the frequently-occurring content-bearing words of the text.
It is a modest but important milestone: a tiny piece of code, processing tens of thousands of words, produces some informative output. A collocation is a sequence of scientific, words that occur together unusually often. Thus red wine is christian a collocation, whereas the wine is not. A characteristic of collocations is that they are resistant to substitution with words that have similar senses; for autobiography of eleanor roosevelt, example, maroon wine sounds definitely odd. To get a handle on collocations, we start off by extracting from christian philosophy a text a list of word pairs, also known as bigrams . This is easily accomplished with the function bigrams() : If you omitted list() above, and just typed bigrams([ 'more' , . ]) , you would have seen output of the form generator object bigrams at 0x10fb8b3a8 . This is Python's way of saying that it is ready to compute a sequence of items, in this case, bigrams. For now, you just need to know to tell Python to convert it into a list, using list() . Here we see that the pair of words than-done is scientific methods in psychology a bigram, and we write it in Python as ( 'than' , 'done' ) . Now, collocations are essentially just frequent bigrams, except that we want to philosophy, pay more attention to autobiography of eleanor roosevelt, the cases that involve rare words. In particular, we want to christian philosophy, find bigrams that occur more often than we would expect based on cn tower located, the frequency of the individual words. The collocations() function does this for us.
We will see how it works later. The collocations that emerge are very specific to christian, the genre of the texts. In order to find red wine as a collocation, we would need to process a much larger body of text. Counting words is useful, but we can count other things too. For example, we can look at the distribution of word lengths in invention of calculus a text, by creating a FreqDist out of a long list of numbers, where each number is the length of the corresponding word in the text: We start by deriving a list of the lengths of words in text1 , and the FreqDist then counts the christian, number of v british board, times each of these occurs . The result is a distribution containing a quarter of a million items, each of which is christian philosophy a number corresponding to a word token in abstinence the text. But there are at most only 20 distinct items being counted, the numbers 1 through 20, because there are only 20 different word lengths. I.e., there are words consisting of just one character, two characters, . twenty characters, but none with twenty one or more characters.
One might wonder how frequent the different lengths of christian philosophy, word are (e.g., how many words of length four appear in the text, are there more words of length five than length four, etc). We can do this as follows: From this we see that the most frequent word length is 3, and that words of length 3 account for roughly 50,000 (or 20%) of the words making up the book. Although we will not pursue it here, further analysis of word length might help us understand differences between authors, genres, or languages. 3.1 summarizes the functions defined in frequency distributions. Functions Defined for NLTK's Frequency Distributions. Our discussion of frequency distributions has introduced some important Python concepts, and we will look at them systematically in 4. 4 Back to Python: Making Decisions and Taking Control. So far, our little programs have had some interesting qualities: the ability to work with language, and vs comprehensive the potential to philosophy, save human effort through automation.
A key feature of of eleanor roosevelt, programming is the christian, ability of machines to pickin, make decisions on our behalf, executing instructions when certain conditions are met, or repeatedly looping through text data until some condition is christian philosophy satisfied. This feature is known as control , and is the focus of this section. Python supports a wide range of operators, such as and = , for testing the only vs comprehensive, relationship between values. The full set of these relational operators is shown in 4.1. Numerical Comparison Operators. We can use these to select different words from a sentence of christian, news text.
Here are some examples — only the operator is changed from one line to the next. They all use sent7 , the first sentence from text7 ( Wall Street Journal ). As before, if you get an error saying that sent7 is undefined, you need to first type: from nltk.book import * There is a common pattern to all of these examples: [w for w in text if condition ] , where condition is roosevelt a Python test that yields either true or false. In the cases shown in the previous code example, the condition is christian philosophy always a numerical comparison. However, we can also test various properties of words, using the functions listed in 4.2. Some Word Comparison Operators. Here are some examples of these operators being used to select words from invention our texts: words ending with -ableness ; words containing gnt ; words having an initial capital; and words consisting entirely of digits. We can also create more complex conditions. If c is philosophy a condition, then not c is also a condition. If we have two conditions c 1 and c 2 , then we can combine them to in australia, form a new condition using conjunction and disjunction: c 1 and christian c 2 , c 1 or c 2 . Your Turn: Run the following examples and autobiography try to explain what is philosophy going on in each one.
Next, try to make up some conditions of your own. In 3, we saw some examples of counting items other than words. Roosevelt! Let's take a closer look at the notation we used: These expressions have the form [f(w) for . ] or [w.f() for . ] , where f is a function that operates on a word to compute its length, or to convert it to uppercase. For now, you don't need to understand the difference between the notations f(w) and w.f() . Instead, simply learn this Python idiom which performs the same operation on every element of a list.
In the preceding examples, it goes through each word in text1 , assigning each one in turn to the variable w and performing the christian, specified operation on board, the variable. The notation just described is called a list comprehension. This is our first example of a Python idiom, a fixed notation that we use habitually without bothering to analyze each time. Mastering such idioms is an important part of becoming a fluent Python programmer. Let's return to the question of vocabulary size, and apply the same idiom here: Now that we are not double-counting words like This and this , which differ only in capitalization, we've wiped 2,000 off the vocabulary count! We can go a step further and eliminate numbers and punctuation from the vocabulary count by filtering out any non-alphabetic items: This example is slightly complicated: it lowercases all the purely alphabetic items. Perhaps it would have been simpler just to count the lowercase-only items, but this gives the christian philosophy, wrong answer (why?). Don't worry if you don't feel confident with list comprehensions yet, since you'll see many more examples along with explanations in the following chapters. Most programming languages permit us to execute a block of code when a conditional expression , or if statement, is satisfied.
We already saw examples of conditional tests in code like [w for abstinence only, w in sent7 if len(w) 4] . Christian! In the following program, we have created a variable called word containing the string value 'cat' . The if statement checks whether the test len(word) 5 is true. It is, so the body of the if statement is invoked and the print statement is executed, displaying a message to the user. Remember to indent the print statement by autobiography of eleanor roosevelt typing four spaces. When we use the Python interpreter we have to add an extra blank line in order for it to detect that the nested block is complete. If you are using Python 2.6 or 2.7, you need to include the following line in order for the above print function to be recognized: If we change the conditional test to philosophy, len(word) = 5 , to check that the length of word is greater than or equal to 5 , then the pickin v british railways board, test will no longer be true. Christian Philosophy! This time, the body of the if statement will not be executed, and no message is located shown to the user: An if statement is known as a control structure because it controls whether the code in the indented block will be run.
Another control structure is the for loop. Try the following, and philosophy remember to methods, include the colon and the four spaces: This is called a loop because Python executes the code in circular fashion. It starts by philosophy performing the assignment word = 'Call' , effectively using the word variable to name the first item of the list. Abstinence Vs Comprehensive! Then, it displays the value of christian, word to the user. Invention Of Calculus! Next, it goes back to the for statement, and performs the assignment word = 'me' , before displaying this new value to the user, and so on. Philosophy! It continues in this fashion until every item of the list has been processed. Now we can combine the scientific, if and for statements. We will loop over every item of the philosophy, list, and print the item only if it ends with the letter l . Located! We'll pick another name for the variable to philosophy, demonstrate that Python doesn't try to make sense of variable names. You will notice that if and for statements have a colon at v british railways, the end of the line, before the indentation begins.
In fact, all Python control structures end with a colon. Christian Philosophy! The colon indicates that the current statement relates to the indented block that follows. We can also specify an action to be taken if the only vs comprehensive education, condition of the if statement is not met. Here we see the elif (else if) statement, and the else statement. Notice that these also have colons before the indented code. As you can see, even with this small amount of Python knowledge, you can start to build multiline Python programs. It's important to develop such programs in pieces, testing that each piece does what you expect before combining them into a program. Philosophy! This is why the Python interactive interpreter is so invaluable, and why you should get comfortable using it.
Finally, let's combine the idioms we've been exploring. First, we create a list of cie and abstinence only education cei words, then we loop over christian, each item and pickin print it. Notice the extra information given in christian the print statement: end=' ' . This tells Python to print a space (not the default newline) after each word. 5 Automatic Natural Language Understanding. We have been exploring language bottom-up, with the help of texts and the Python programming language. However, we're also interested in exploiting our knowledge of language and abstinence education computation by building useful language technologies. We'll take the opportunity now to philosophy, step back from the nitty-gritty of code in order to paint a bigger picture of natural language processing. At a purely practical level, we all need help to abstinence vs comprehensive education, navigate the universe of christian philosophy, information locked up in text on the Web. Search engines have been crucial to cn tower, the growth and popularity of the christian, Web, but have some shortcomings. It takes skill, knowledge, and some luck, to extract answers to such questions as: What tourist sites can I visit between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh on autobiography of eleanor roosevelt, a limited budget? What do experts say about christian philosophy digital SLR cameras?
What predictions about the located, steel market were made by credible commentators in the past week? Getting a computer to answer them automatically involves a range of language processing tasks, including information extraction, inference, and summarization, and would need to be carried out on a scale and with a level of robustness that is still beyond our current capabilities. On a more philosophical level, a long-standing challenge within artificial intelligence has been to build intelligent machines, and a major part of intelligent behaviour is understanding language. For many years this goal has been seen as too difficult. However, as NLP technologies become more mature, and philosophy robust methods for analyzing unrestricted text become more widespread, the prospect of natural language understanding has re-emerged as a plausible goal. In this section we describe some language understanding technologies, to give you a sense of the why starbucks failed in australia, interesting challenges that are waiting for you. In word sense disambiguation we want to work out which sense of a word was intended in a given context. Consider the ambiguous words serve and dish : In a sentence containing the phrase: he served the dish , you can detect that both serve and philosophy dish are being used with their food meanings. It's unlikely that the topic of discussion shifted from sports to crockery in the space of three words.
This would force you to invent bizarre images, like a tennis pro taking out his or her frustrations on a china tea-set laid out beside the court. In other words, we automatically disambiguate words using context, exploiting the simple fact that nearby words have closely related meanings. As another example of this contextual effect, consider the word by , which has several meanings, e.g.: the why starbucks failed, book by Chesterton (agentive — Chesterton was the christian philosophy, author of the book); the cup by the stove (locative — the stove is where the v british, cup is); and christian philosophy submit by Friday (temporal — Friday is the time of the invention, submitting). Observe in (3c) that the meaning of the italicized word helps us interpret the meaning of by . A deeper kind of language understanding is to work out who did what to whom — i.e., to christian philosophy, detect the subjects and objects of verbs. You learnt to do this in elementary school, but it's harder than you might think. In the sentence the thieves stole the pickin railways, paintings it is easy to tell who performed the stealing action. Consider three possible following sentences in christian (4c), and try to scientific methods in psychology, determine what was sold, caught, and found (one case is ambiguous). Answering this question involves finding the antecedent of the pronoun they , either thieves or paintings. Christian Philosophy! Computational techniques for tackling this problem include anaphora resolution — identifying what a pronoun or noun phrase refers to autobiography, — and semantic role labeling — identifying how a noun phrase relates to the verb (as agent, patient, instrument, and philosophy so on). If we can automatically solve such problems of language understanding, we will be able to move on board, to tasks that involve generating language output, such as question answering and machine translation . In the first case, a machine should be able to philosophy, answer a user's questions relating to collection of located, texts:
The machine's answer demonstrates that it has correctly worked out that they refers to paintings and not to thieves. In the second case, the christian philosophy, machine should be able to translate the text into another language, accurately conveying the methods in psychology, meaning of the original text. In translating the example text into philosophy French, we are forced to vs comprehensive education, choose the gender of the pronoun in the second sentence: ils (masculine) if the christian philosophy, thieves are found, and elles (feminine) if the abstinence vs comprehensive education, paintings are found. Correct translation actually depends on correct understanding of the pronoun. In all of these examples, working out the sense of a word, the subject of a verb, and christian the antecedent of a pronoun are steps in establishing the meaning of in psychology, a sentence, things we would expect a language understanding system to be able to do. For a long time now, machine translation (MT) has been the holy grail of language understanding, ultimately seeking to provide high-quality, idiomatic translation between any pair of languages. Its roots go back to the early days of the christian philosophy, Cold War, when the promise of automatic translation led to railways, substantial government sponsorship, and with it, the philosophy, genesis of NLP itself. Today, practical translation systems exist for particular pairs of languages, and some are integrated into web search engines. However, these systems have some serious shortcomings, which are starkly revealed by translating a sentence back and in psychology forth between a pair of languages until equilibrium is reached, e.g.:
Observe that the system correctly translates Alice Springs from English to German (in the line starting 1 ), but on christian philosophy, the way back to English, this ends up as Alice jump (line 2 ). The preposition before is initially translated into the corresponding German preposition vor , but later into the conjunction bevor (line 5). After line 5 the pickin v british board, sentences become nonsensical (but notice the various phrasings indicated by philosophy the commas, and scientific in psychology the change from jump to leap ). The translation system did not recognize when a word was part of a proper name, and it misinterpreted the grammatical structure. Your Turn: Try this yourself using http://translationparty.com/ Machine translation is difficult because a given word could have several possible translations (depending on its meaning), and because word order must be changed in keeping with the grammatical structure of the target language. Today these difficulties are being faced by collecting massive quantities of parallel texts from philosophy news and government websites that publish documents in two or more languages. Given a document in vs comprehensive education German and christian philosophy English, and possibly a bilingual dictionary, we can automatically pair up the sentences, a process called text alignment . Once we have a million or more sentence pairs, we can detect corresponding words and phrases, and build a model that can be used for translating new text.
In the why starbucks failed, history of artificial intelligence, the christian, chief measure of intelligence has been a linguistic one, namely the Turing Test : can a dialogue system, responding to a user's text input, perform so naturally that we cannot distinguish it from a human-generated response? In contrast, today's commercial dialogue systems are very limited, but still perform useful functions in narrowly-defined domains, as we see here: You could not ask this system to invention, provide driving instructions or details of christian philosophy, nearby restaurants unless the required information had already been stored and failed suitable question-answer pairs had been incorporated into the language processing system. Observe that this system seems to philosophy, understand the user's goals: the user asks when a movie is showing and the system correctly determines from this that the user wants to see the movie. This inference seems so obvious that you probably didn't notice it was made, yet a natural language system needs to be endowed with this capability in order to interact naturally. Without it, when asked Do you know when Saving Private Ryan is why starbucks failed playing? , a system might unhelpfully respond with a cold Yes . However, the developers of commercial dialogue systems use contextual assumptions and business logic to ensure that the different ways in which a user might express requests or provide information are handled in a way that makes sense for the particular application. So, if you type When is . , or I want to know when . , or Can you tell me when . , simple rules will always yield screening times. This is enough for the system to provide a useful service. Figure 5.1 : Simple Pipeline Architecture for a Spoken Dialogue System: Spoken input (top left) is analyzed, words are recognized, sentences are parsed and christian interpreted in context, application-specific actions take place (top right); a response is planned, realized as a syntactic structure, then to suitably inflected words, and finally to spoken output; different types of linguistic knowledge inform each stage of the invention, process.
Dialogue systems give us an christian philosophy opportunity to mention the commonly assumed pipeline for NLP. 5.1 shows the architecture of a simple dialogue system. Along the top of the diagram, moving from left to right, is a pipeline of invention of calculus, some language understanding components . These map from speech input via syntactic parsing to christian, some kind of meaning representation. Along the middle, moving from right to left, is the reverse pipeline of components for converting concepts to speech. These components make up the in psychology, dynamic aspects of the system.
At the bottom of the diagram are some representative bodies of static information: the repositories of philosophy, language-related data that the processing components draw on to do their work. Your Turn: For an railways example of a primitive dialogue system, try having a conversation with an NLTK chatbot. To see the available chatbots, run nltk.chat.chatbots() . (Remember to import nltk first.) The challenge of language understanding has been brought into christian focus in recent years by a public shared task called Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). The basic scenario is simple.
Suppose you want to find evidence to support the hypothesis: Sandra Goudie was defeated by Max Purnell , and located that you have another short text that seems to be relevant, for christian, example, Sandra Goudie was first elected to cn tower, Parliament in christian the 2002 elections, narrowly winning the seat of Coromandel by defeating Labour candidate Max Purnell and pushing incumbent Green MP Jeanette Fitzsimons into cn tower located third place . Does the text provide enough evidence for you to accept the hypothesis? In this particular case, the answer will be No. You can draw this conclusion easily, but it is very hard to come up with automated methods for making the right decision. The RTE Challenges provide data that allow competitors to develop their systems, but not enough data for brute force machine learning techniques (a topic we will cover in chap-data-intensive). Christian! Consequently, some linguistic analysis is crucial. In the previous example, it is important for the system to note that Sandra Goudie names the only, person being defeated in philosophy the hypothesis, not the person doing the located, defeating in the text. As another illustration of the difficulty of the task, consider the following text-hypothesis pair: In order to determine whether the hypothesis is supported by the text, the christian, system needs the following background knowledge: (i) if someone is an author of a book, then he/she has written that book; (ii) if someone is an methods editor of a book, then he/she has not written (all of) that book; (iii) if someone is editor or author of eighteen books, then one cannot conclude that he/she is christian philosophy author of eighteen books. Despite the why starbucks, research-led advances in tasks like RTE, natural language systems that have been deployed for real-world applications still cannot perform common-sense reasoning or draw on world knowledge in a general and robust manner. We can wait for these difficult artificial intelligence problems to be solved, but in the meantime it is necessary to live with some severe limitations on the reasoning and knowledge capabilities of natural language systems. Accordingly, right from the beginning, an important goal of philosophy, NLP research has been to make progress on the difficult task of building technologies that understand language, using superficial yet powerful techniques instead of unrestricted knowledge and invention reasoning capabilities.
Indeed, this is one of the goals of this book, and we hope to equip you with the knowledge and christian philosophy skills to build useful NLP systems, and to contribute to the long-term aspiration of building intelligent machines. Texts are represented in Python using lists: [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] . We can use indexing, slicing, and the len() function on lists. A word token is a particular appearance of a given word in invention a text; a word type is the unique form of the word as a particular sequence of letters. We count word tokens using len(text) and word types using len(set(text)) . We obtain the vocabulary of a text t using sorted(set(t)) . Christian! We operate on each item of a text using [f(x) for x in text] . Of Calculus! To derive the philosophy, vocabulary, collapsing case distinctions and ignoring punctuation, we can write set(w.lower() for w in text if w.isalpha()) . We process each word in a text using a for statement, such as for w in t: or for word in text: . This must be followed by the colon character and failed in australia an indented block of code, to be executed each time through the loop. We test a condition using an if statement: if len(word) 5: . Christian Philosophy! This must be followed by the colon character and an indented block of code, to be executed only if the condition is true. A frequency distribution is a collection of items along with their frequency counts (e.g., the pickin v british, words of a text and their frequency of appearance). Christian Philosophy! A function is a block of code that has been assigned a name and can be reused. Functions are defined using the only, def keyword, as in def mult (x, y) ; x and y are parameters of the christian philosophy, function, and act as placeholders for actual data values. A function is called by specifying its name followed by zero or more arguments inside parentheses, like this: texts() , mult(3, 4) , len(text1) . This chapter has introduced new concepts in invention of calculus programming, natural language processing, and linguistics, all mixed in together. Many of them are consolidated in the following chapters. However, you may also want to consult the online materials provided with this chapter (at http://nltk.org/ ), including links to additional background materials, and links to online NLP systems.
You may also like to read up on some linguistics and NLP-related concepts in Wikipedia (e.g., collocations, the Turing Test, the type-token distinction). You should acquaint yourself with the Python documentation available at http://docs.python.org/ , including the many tutorials and comprehensive reference materials linked there. A Beginner's Guide to Python is available at http://wiki.python.org/moin/BeginnersGuide . Miscellaneous questions about Python might be answered in the FAQ at http://python.org/doc/faq/general/ . As you delve into NLTK, you might want to subscribe to the mailing list where new releases of the toolkit are announced. There is christian also an invention of calculus NLTK-Users mailing list, where users help each other as they learn how to use Python and NLTK for language analysis work. Details of these lists are available at http://nltk.org/ . For more information on the topics covered in philosophy 5, and on NLP more generally, you might like to consult one of the following excellent books: Indurkhya, Nitin and Fred Damerau (eds, 2010) Handbook of Natural Language Processing (Second Edition) Chapman Hall/CRC. 2010. (Indurkhya Damerau, 2010)(Dale, Moisl, Somers, 2000) Jurafsky, Daniel and James Martin (2008) Speech and Language Processing (Second Edition). Prentice Hall. Of Eleanor Roosevelt! (Jurafsky Martin, 2008) Mitkov, Ruslan (ed, 2003) The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics . Oxford University Press. (second edition expected in 2010). Philosophy! (Mitkov, 2002) The Association for Computational Linguistics is the international organization that represents the field of NLP.
The ACL website ( http://www.aclweb.org/ ) hosts many useful resources, including: information about why starbucks failed international and christian regional conferences and workshops; the ACL Wiki with links to hundreds of useful resources; and vs comprehensive the ACL Anthology , which contains most of the NLP research literature from the past 50+ years, fully indexed and philosophy freely downloadable. Some excellent introductory Linguistics textbooks are: [Finegan2007]_ , (O'Grady et al, 2004), (OSU, 2007). You might like to pickin, consult LanguageLog , a popular linguistics blog with occasional posts that use the techniques described in this book. #9788; Try using the Python interpreter as a calculator, and typing expressions like 12 / (4 + 1) . #9788; Given an alphabet of 26 letters, there are 26 to the power 10, or 26 ** 10 , ten-letter strings we can form. That works out to 141167095653376 . How many hundred-letter strings are possible? #9788; The Python multiplication operation can be applied to lists. What happens when you type [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] * 20 , or 3 * sent1 ? #9788; Review 1 on computing with language.
How many words are there in text2 ? How many distinct words are there? #9788; Compare the lexical diversity scores for humor and romance fiction in 1.1. Which genre is more lexically diverse? #9788; Produce a dispersion plot of the four main protagonists in Sense and Sensibility : Elinor, Marianne, Edward, and Willoughby. What can you observe about the philosophy, different roles played by the males and females in this novel? Can you identify the couples? #9788; Find the collocations in text5 . #9788; Consider the following Python expression: len(set(text4)) . State the invention of calculus, purpose of this expression. Describe the two steps involved in performing this computation. #9788; Review 2 on lists and strings.
Define a string and assign it to christian philosophy, a variable, e.g., my_string = 'My String' (but put something more interesting in the string). Print the contents of this variable in two ways, first by of calculus simply typing the variable name and pressing enter, then by using the print statement. Try adding the string to itself using my_string + my_string , or multiplying it by a number, e.g., my_string * 3 . Philosophy! Notice that the strings are joined together without any spaces. How could you fix this? #9788; Define a variable my_sent to be a list of only, words, using the syntax my_sent = [ My , sent ] (but with your own words, or a favorite saying). Use ' ' .join(my_sent) to christian, convert this into a string. Use split() to split the string back into the list form you had to start with. #9788; Define several variables containing lists of words, e.g., phrase1 , phrase2 , and so on. Join them together in various combinations (using the roosevelt, plus operator) to form whole sentences.
What is the relationship between len(phrase1 + phrase2) and len(phrase1) + len(phrase2) ? #9788; Consider the following two expressions, which have the same value. Which one will typically be more relevant in NLP? Why? #9788; We have seen how to represent a sentence as a list of words, where each word is a sequence of characters. Christian! What does sent1 do? Why?
Experiment with other index values. #9788; The first sentence of text3 is provided to you in the variable sent3 . The index of scientific methods, the in philosophy sent3 is 1, because sent3 gives us 'the' . What are the indexes of the scientific methods in psychology, two other occurrences of this word in sent3 ? #9788; Review the discussion of conditionals in 4. Find all words in the Chat Corpus ( text5 ) starting with the letter b . Show them in alphabetical order. #9788; Type the expression list(range(10)) at the interpreter prompt. Philosophy! Now try list(range(10, 20)) , list(range(10, 20, 2)) , and list(range(20, 10, -2)) . We will see a variety of uses for this built-in function in in psychology later chapters. #9681; Use text9.index() to find the index of the word sunset . You'll need to insert this word as an argument between the philosophy, parentheses. By a process of railways board, trial and error, find the slice for christian, the complete sentence that contains this word.
#9681; Using list addition, and the set and sorted operations, compute the vocabulary of the sentences sent1 . Only Vs Comprehensive Education! sent8 . #9681; What is the difference between the following two lines? Which one will give a larger value? Will this be the christian philosophy, case for other texts? #9681; What is the difference between the following two tests: w.isupper() and vs comprehensive not w.islower() ? #9681; Write the slice expression that extracts the last two words of text2 . #9681; Find all the four-letter words in the Chat Corpus ( text5 ). With the help of a frequency distribution ( FreqDist ), show these words in decreasing order of frequency. #9681; Review the discussion of looping with conditions in 4. Use a combination of for and if statements to philosophy, loop over the words of the movie script for Monty Python and the Holy Grail ( text6 ) and print all the uppercase words, one per line. #9681; Write expressions for pickin v british board, finding all words in text6 that meet the conditions listed below.
The result should be in the form of a list of words: [ 'word1' , 'word2' , . ] . Ending in philosophy ize Containing the letter z Containing the sequence of letters pt Having all lowercase letters except for an initial capital (i.e., titlecase ) #9681; Define sent to be the list of words [ 'she' , 'sells' , 'sea' , 'shells' , 'by' , 'the' , 'sea' , 'shore' ] . Now write code to perform the following tasks: Print all words beginning with sh Print all words longer than four characters. #9681; What does the following Python code do? sum(len(w) for w in text1) Can you use it to work out the average word length of invention, a text? #9681; Define a function called vocab_size(text) that has a single parameter for christian, the text, and which returns the abstinence, vocabulary size of the text. #9681; Define a function percent(word, text) that calculates how often a given word occurs in a text, and expresses the result as a percentage. #9681; We have been using sets to store vocabularies. Try the following Python expression: set(sent3) set(text1) . Experiment with this using different arguments to set() . What does it do?
Can you think of a practical application for this? About this document. UPDATED FOR NLTK 3.0. This is a chapter from christian Natural Language Processing with Python , by Steven Bird, Ewan Klein and Edward Loper, Copyright © 2014 the authors. Scientific! It is distributed with the Natural Language Toolkit [ http://nltk.org/ ], Version 3.0, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/].
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The Trip Mrs. Quintis Period: 5 Jacob Walby The Trip As I grew up as a kid I never had any dangerous or really . scary encounters. I thought I was invincible and nothing bad would ever happen to me. When I was ten years old my family and I went on a magnificent camping trip , or so I thought it was going to be. The place we were going to christian camp at was by the Cannonball River. It was the located, last one of summer before school started again. Philosophy! We had planned to fish, roast marsh mellows, and have. Bed , Camping , Campsite 1286 Words | 4 Pages. A Camping Trip Gone Wrong It was our first camping trip together as a family, and it was . definitely not the fun filled experience we anticipated. After we got all the stuff loaded into the truck we were on our way to Baker Lake. It’s an hour and a half drive and we were planning on why starbucks in australia a two day stay, our plan was to arrive early, set up our tent and get settled.
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Breakfast , Campfire , Camping 599 Words | 2 Pages. looked at Chase and christian, Tyler Becker and said, Let's go camping . As Chase pushed down the gas pedal, a big cloud of black smoke shot out of the . back of the pickin, truck and philosophy, the smell of vs comprehensive education, burning motor oil filled the cab. It was in July, and we wanted to go camping . I asked my dad if we could go up to our family's cabin in Elk Springs, which is near Montrose. He agreed, so Chase, Tyler and I, all sixteen years old, packed our stuff and were ready to go camping . With excitement, we jumped into philosophy, Chase's truck. 2008 albums , Aerosmith , American films 1428 Words | 4 Pages. ?Benefit of of calculus, camping Most people go on camping trips because they’re tired of the city or ready for an adventure. . Whether you enjoy biking, hunting or any other outdoor activity, camping offers you a way to christian focus completely on scientific in psychology a hobby for philosophy, a few days without external distractions. Abstinence Only Vs Comprehensive! What you might not realize is that camping can help you live a longer, healthier life.10 Health Benefits of christian, Camping If you regularly camp out, you’ll enjoy dozens of significant health benefits from: 1. Autobiography! The Fresh Air When. Camping , Health , Health care 939 Words | 3 Pages. During the philosophy, summer my family and I like to go camping . Methods! For me it is philosophy, a way to get away from everything that is happening in my life. When . camping things are so relaxing and beautiful. When camping with my family I am always woke up by cn tower located, the smell of breakfast cooking over an open fire.
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The Narrator explains how her Brownie troop took a dislike on only vs comprehensive each. African American , Black people , Race 866 Words | 3 Pages. Camping is Fun People who love the wild and adventurous outdoors will totally enjoy camping . Nothing beats taking a short or . long break away from those stressful, hair yanking days back at philosophy, home sweet home than waking up to peace and tranquility. Beautiful ladies, handsome gentlemen, silly boys and girls of all ages are never too young or too old to of calculus go a few hot summer days and cool breezy nights out camping with close friends and supportive families. It does not mean that it is appropriate to.
Backpacking , Camper , Campfire 823 Words | 3 Pages. ? ENG111-001 Compare/Contrast Essay Final Draft 25, June 2012 Camping or . Resort I have always wondered what would be the difference between camping at a state park and a resort vacation. I looked into two different vacations that a family might enjoy, comparing the difference between what it would take to philosophy prepare for, the prices for a week and what is offered with both. Primitive camping consists of a tent, fire ring and a picnic table. Amusement park , Florida , Magic Kingdom 1029 Words | 5 Pages. Personal essay on trip to Florida. Keightley Bertram. I felt so lucky to be included in cn tower located such a trip , adopted for a week by christian, Keightley's family to celebrate her birthday in style. . Such an awesome party it was going to be, with an unlimited amount of space, people, and failed, lack of restrictions.
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My friends and I was so excited and thrilled to christian philosophy wait for the trip to why starbucks start. Before we start our journey, En.Hamdan, who is the trip organizer’s, gave us a. Batu Ferringhi , Cities, towns and villages in Penang , George Town, Penang 1041 Words | 3 Pages. The Trip Hello, my name is Harry Bailey and I have recently went on a trip to christian Canterbury with 29 very unique pilgrims. Cn Tower Located! The . trip was interesting and exciting to say the least. I definitely enjoyed meeting and christian philosophy, interacting with these pilgrims and having the only education, opportunity The weather could not decide between sunny or rainy on most days, but no matter what it was it was always hot.
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Now, Dylan and I liked video games and movies, but this summer we wanted to do something exiting. As the first day of school was getting near, . a senior at my school named Dave said to me, Hey, you and Dylan want to abstinence only vs comprehensive come along on christian philosophy a camping trip with some of my friends. ? I immediately shouted out, Yes, we sure would! ? I knew this was it, so I called Dylan right away and said, Guess where we are going this weekend? ? and he said, where? ? By the sound of his voice, I could tell that. 2006 albums , Backpacking , Camping 446 Words | 2 Pages. Camping Brings Families Together I would like to focus on the camping experience and how that particular . recreation and leisure allows us to of eleanor roosevelt break away from work, tasks, household chores, and most modern conveniences, to encounter a very different kind of activity and play. One that is far removed from television, computers, MP3’s, and texting on philosophy cell phones; this would be the why starbucks in australia, simple process of camping . I propose to convince my audience that camping is philosophy, a recreation. Backpacking , Campfire , Camping 924 Words | 6 Pages. THE TRIP TO CUBA THAT ENDED IN LUNETA by invention, VW Bro. Bernardino L. Saplaco, Jr. Past Grand Pursuivant I simply want, in this article, to . recreate important events that culminated in Dr. Jose Rizal's execution on Bagumbayan field (now the Luneta), the centennial anniversary of christian philosophy, which we commemorated on December 30, last year (1996); to pose at certain points, perhaps for polemical reasons, some pertinent questions which, to me, still clamor for satisfying answers; to reiterate a couple of famous tributes.
Capital punishment , Jose Rizal , Josephine Bracken 2073 Words | 5 Pages. How to Have a Sucesful Camping Trip. have a successful camping trip Are you bored to be at home on holidays? Do you want to travel but you do not have enough . money?. Well, the best option to this horrible problem is taking a camping trip . A camping trip can be wonderful for families and friends to spend time together in a relaxing setting at a relatively low cost.
Now, let me share with you the following three steps, so that you can have a pleasant camping trip . The first step to have a successful camping trip is choosing the located, perfect. A Perfect Place , Backpacking , Camping 537 Words | 2 Pages. Narrative Essay: Once More to the Lake. February 11th, 2010 Once more to the Lake is an essay written by E.B. in which the christian philosophy, author tries to establish the cn tower, links of christian philosophy, his present life . with his past experiences when he was a little boy. Only Vs Comprehensive! The essay starts as a father and philosophy, son go to the lake, which was a favorite place for camping and fishing of the father when he was a child. The father is full of expectations as the lake symbolizes his youth ages and the most careless period of his life.
So the decision to go fishing again on this lake may be. Change , Family , Son 1072 Words | 3 Pages. October 7, 2012 How to prepare to pickin v british railways board go Camping Camping gives an individual an opportunity to christian be outdoors and enjoy nature. . People either love or hate to go camping . I grew up camping every weekend during the summer and loved every minute of it. Camping gives you an opportunity to see places you have never seen before. Experience new things you would not be able to at your own home or in a city. There are a few things that you should do to prepare for camping : plan on where to go, plan how long you. Backpacking , Campfire , Camping 1018 Words | 3 Pages.
destination and where they stay on the way. Tent camping and staying hotel are two of the most common ways of vacationing. Some people prefer . camping over staying at a hotel because it is a good option for cn tower located, a limited budget, it is philosophy, adventurous, and campsites are surrounded by the great outdoors. Camping is failed, a good option for a limited budget. Cost is christian philosophy, often a key consideration. Camping is less expensive than staying at hotel.
The major cost of camping is the equipment such as tents, sleeping bag, camp. Camping , Hotel , Hotels 919 Words | 4 Pages. Section 2357 Camping vs. Resort People like to go on pickin railways board vacations and spend time with ones they enjoy being around. When traveling people focus . most on christian philosophy where they would like to of calculus stay. Although camping in the woods and staying in a resort are the christian philosophy, two most common ways to take a vacation, one should consider camping because it is less expensive, requires simple effort and its rejuvenating. There is a huge different in autobiography roosevelt price range between camping in christian the woods to staying at a resort. When camping deep in invention the. Campfire , Camping , Campsite 869 Words | 4 Pages. Lake Tahoe, CA. this is a descriptive essay about my camping trip to lake tahoe, CA durring the fourth of july cellebration.
lungs. The campground is christian philosophy, packed full of why starbucks, random campers from all across California and philosophy, Nevada. This is defiantly the busiest time of the year for Lake Tahoe . Valley Camping Resort. Railways Board! Being so close to christian philosophy the big blue lake, there is in australia, no way I am going to miss the most incredible display of fire works in all of California. Lake Tahoe Valley Camping Resort is located a few blocks down the street of South Shore Lake Tahoe. Philosophy! When you enter through the located, resorts gateway, one feels as if he is philosophy, visiting a small, remote. Arcade game , Camping , Lake Tahoe 1109 Words | 3 Pages. 1 Being in nature is the best place to be on earth. Cn Tower! If you go or have been camping you know what this means. Being in christian philosophy the . outdoors opens your mind to new things. Their's a lot that can be learned in nature, if people took the time for it.
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How to Survive a Winter Camping Trip. How To Survive A Winter Camping Trip When you are planning a winter camping trip , you need to make . Abstinence! sure that you have all the necessary materials. If you don’t, then your trip may not go as smoothly as you think. First of all, I am going to tell you about philosophy, what outerwear you need to bring. Stay warm, but control how warm you are. Pack clothing that can be easily layered and make sure each layer has good insulation and will dry easily. This means that you should avoid packing cotton. Synthetic. Camping , Campsite , Need to know 674 Words | 2 Pages.
Camping Technology Could something designed to make life easier end up ruining everything we have worked to preserve? Technology can . sometimes be quite controversial. In my major, I have found that it can be almost more of a frustration than a blessing. Of Calculus! In most industries, technological advancements are viewed as a positive step towards efficiency and economic growth. This is not always the case, however. In the christian philosophy, camping industry, for example, the constant “improvements” are often a source of. Camping , Frustration , Michigan 1375 Words | 4 Pages. all people said safety comes first.
SAMPLE ESSAY FROM FORM 2 ENGLISH MID-TERM EXAM 2011 Dear Surya, How are you getting on in . Penang? Did you manage to why starbucks failed adapt yourself in the new environment there? I hope you can get along with all the teachers and philosophy, students. Moreover, it will be as easy as ABC for you to make friends because you are a bubbly and cheerful person in nature. Anyway, I am sorry for writing to you late as I went on a fun trip to an island with some friends for five days and. Andrew Lloyd Webber , Erik , Fishing 1372 Words | 5 Pages. ?My Camping Experience When I was in junior high school, I went on a school camping trip on the 7th grade. Of Calculus! I . loved the outdoors and had always wanted to christian philosophy try camping . So when the in australia, opportunity came my parents encouraged me to go even though I was a bit concerned about philosophy, getting homesick since that was the first time I was going to invention be away from christian philosophy my parents for of eleanor roosevelt, any significant period of time or for 3 days. We were going to camp in the camping area Jambore Cibubur.
It is my first experience to go to that. Campfire , Camping , Campsite 524 Words | 1 Pages. A Hunting Trip and Young Drivers: Two Essays. Sample Narrative Essay A Hunting Trip News of the tiger’s attack on a woman spread like wildfire. This was not the tiger’s . first appearance in the village. Before this attack, the villagers had lost a few goats and poultry but the disappearances remained a mystery as nobody could confirm that they were a tiger’s doing. Then the tiger struck. This time, the victim was a 32-year-old woman who was washing clothes by Tasik Bina. The villagers at once organized a hunting party.
Armed with machetes. Autobahn , Freeway , Road 766 Words | 3 Pages. Camping : Mountains and Desert A few times a year, I like to go camping . Christian! Sometimes I go to cn tower the mountains in Kern County, . California, whereas, other times I go to the desert in christian philosophy Brawley, California. Camping in autobiography the mountains, although similar in atmosphere, terrain and christian, activities, has many more benefits than camping in the desert. There is invention of calculus, nothing like taking a deep breath of philosophy, cool, crisp mountain air, taking that narrow winding road that never seems to abstinence only vs comprehensive end until at last reaching the very spot that.
Campfire , Camping , Campsite 944 Words | 3 Pages. filled out my admission form and the lady on the Admiration told me that I have to take assessment test, after that I can enroll in classes. I was new in the . environment so I didn’t know what assessment test is. At that time my brother was on business trip so my mother told me not to bother him and try to figure out by philosophy, myself. I was very sacred I didn’t know what I am going to pickin railways board do. I decided I am not going to sit here and do nothing. Next morning I went to college and asked the administration lady what.
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Camping , Family , Hunting 1617 Words | 4 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and philosophy, a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of invention of calculus, daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in christian philosophy prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's.
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Gotta keep going.’” In the short story, The Hiking Trip , Jeff has to travel through a canyon alone to seek help for pickin v british railways, his brother, Mark. The author reveals Jeff’s personal characteristics through his actions, revealing him to be caring, determined, and philosophy, brave. Even though Jeff was really scared; he proved that he was very caring. Invention Of Calculus! In the christian, beginning. English-language films , Family , Father 506 Words | 2 Pages. Ashley Hicks Hendren ENG 101 Essay 1 A Trip to Italy Vacation and travel is a phenomenon which strikes a chord with nearly . every human being on abstinence the planet. While true, there are many without the means to engage in such activity, there is christian philosophy, little doubt that the primal urge to escape one's everyday surroundings strikes all but the most reclusive of people. There are many different locales to which one may escape, as well as a large variety of reasons for traveling.
Be it sandy beaches, or. Colosseum , Culture of invention, Italy , History of Italy 1154 Words | 3 Pages. Rhiannon Romero Ellen Maresh The Essay January 23, 2010 Road Trip “Tiiiim! Is the car all packed? Are you ready to christian go?” . I yelled, as I ran up and down the stairs trying to located get everything together.
He answers, but I only half hear him. I check and double check the list in my head, “Food, check; blankets, check; pillows, check; games, check; camera, check; suitcases, check; gas, check; music CD’s, check; family, check…Lets do this!” I went downstairs to the playroom and the kids are watching. Beach , Britney Spears , Dune 1058 Words | 3 Pages. their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to christian give up his humanity, while on the other . hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to protect his family. Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in autobiography your mind. Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of January 2013 You are required to write an . essay supported with reference to christian philosophy the academic literature that answers the following question: • You have recently been appointed to invention your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for christian, managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages.
Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an ideal topic for debate; there have been mixed results for abstinence only education, companies and individuals who have . pursued social responsibility. There is also the question of whether social responsibility should be motivated by christian, a perceived benefit.This type of essay is based on why starbucks failed in australia philosophical theories on the necessity of social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts. For example, an essay could be about how giving support to disaster. Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for free at Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Christian Philosophy! Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and “Declaration of the Rights of Man” Comparison By wis2cool, april. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Send Code Napoleon and “Declaration. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the roosevelt, Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an philosophy, acceptable academic- level essay . . Abstinence Vs Comprehensive! This is not the only way to organize and develop an essay . Christian! It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you.
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