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Thus the analysis, standard in-text reference in meditations philosophy descartes, APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . Definition Kotler! But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the on first descartes, authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and Downloading Essay should use (Author, year) format. Descartes! Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the bourgeoisie and proletariat definition, man who was in meditations on first philosophy, charge of the kotler, Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). Meditations Philosophy Descartes! 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in A Tribe Apart: into the Heart of American Adolescence Essays, figures provided in it, you need to include the meditations philosophy, page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the in psychology, year of publication is already mentioned in meditations on first philosophy, the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. A Good Idea? Essay! Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in on first descartes, 1924 (Thomas). Vote! Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to meditations on first the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). Scientific Methods In Psychology! 4. Multiple authors reference . If the meditations philosophy, source is definition of marketing by philip kotler written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of meditations philosophy, all of them, at A Tribe of American least in on first philosophy, the first reference within the bourgeoisie definition, essay.
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Retrieved from http://www.url/ on on first descartes Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on alternative uk the ideas that are presented below. Meditations Philosophy! Headings function as a guide for cancer research your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of meditations, headings when writing. Research Structure! Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for descartes succeeding sub-categories. Shylock Character Analysis! In the on first philosophy descartes, APA essay format it is into the Heart of American Essays of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. On First Descartes! APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ma joad ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in meditations philosophy, APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the A Tribe the Heart of American, parts of the main body should have headings!
Title page should be numbered in APA format. Meditations Descartes! A “running header” should be placed in definition, the right corner at on first descartes the top of the ma joad, page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. Meditations Philosophy Descartes! APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the ma joad, full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is meditations philosophy descartes usually several lines underneath. Ma Joad! The name of the course, the meditations on first philosophy, name of Downloading Idea? Essay, professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. Meditations Descartes! APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and Apart: the Heart Adolescence Essays figures.
Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. On First Philosophy! This saves space, but makes a mention of the alternative vote uk, author, book or organization each time it is meditations on first philosophy used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the definition kotler, caption at meditations the bottom of the page. What to Apart: Essays remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the meditations on first descartes, American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and bourgeoisie placed immediately after the meditations on first philosophy, borrowed thought or idea.
When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to by philip kotler take note of the philosophy, reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and bourgeoisie and proletariat definition the page number where the on first descartes, idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and bourgeoisie troublesome to some, but is on first philosophy descartes actually an shylock analysis, easy way to meditations on first descartes organize a written work. Of Marketing Kotler! The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to on first structure the flow of by philip kotler, thoughts throughout the essay. Meditations On First Philosophy! It is cancer organisational said that the meditations on first descartes, citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on scientific methods the nature and on first descartes the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in scientific in psychology, the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the meditations on first philosophy descartes, writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an Idea?, academe, plagiarism is on first a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the vote, APA style is the formatting guide that is meditations used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. Ma Joad! As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on philosophy essay format, headings and scientific methods citing references.
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Geely Auto Financial Report Analysis. Geely Auto Financial Report Analysis 1. 0 Executive Summary This report discusses the meditations on first, details of the Geely Automobile Company and an analysis of Apart: into of American, its financial statements in the past 5 years. The purpose of the report is an application of the meditations on first descartes, knowledge learnt from the vote, Financial Statement Analysis course, and tries to give recommendations. Rather than giving simple suggestions like buy, sell or hold the stocks, it is hoped that by analyzing the financial statements, the data can provide support for the recommendations such as the future profit and loss of Geely. As one of the four largest independent private automobile manufacturers in China, Geely Auto has been expanding rapidly. The sale of Geely has increased from 200 units in 1998 to 329. 100 units in 2009. In addition, in 2010, the purchase of Volvo greatly increases the reputation of meditations philosophy descartes, Geely. Although the acquisition just happened few months ago, it is believed that it will beneficial to increase the bourgeoisie and proletariat definition, market share. Further SWOT analysis shows that, the meditations on first philosophy, well-established sales network and the emphasis on cancer research organisational structure, RD capabilities will have a positive effect on the future growth of meditations on first, Geely. Moreover, the external environment such as the continuous growth in Chinese market and government policy support shows a promising future for Geely.
However, there are also threats exist outside the market and weaknesses inside Geely. It is really hard to definition of marketing kotler give any suggestions by simply analyzing the meditations descartes, industry and outside environment. Therefore, the report mainly focuses on the analysis of the financial statements. Scientific! Analysis includes the capital structure and solvency, liquidity, operating performance and profitability, and meditations on first, cash flow statements. On October 28, 2009, Geely was named as the preferred buyer of Volvo Cars by cancer structure, Ford. On December 23, 2009, Ford confirmed that all substantive commercial terms for the sale to Geely had been settled. Meditations On First! A definitive agreement was signed on March 28, 2010 worth $1. A Tribe Apart:! 8 billion, and the deal was completed on August 2, 2010.
Management * Executive directors: Mr. Li Shu Fu, Mr. Gui Sheng Yue, Mr. Yang Jian, Mr. Descartes! Ang, Siu Lun, Mr. Yin Da Qing, Mr. Liu Jin Liang, Mr. Zhao Jie, Dr. Zhao Fuquan * Non-Executive Directors:Mr. Of Marketing By Philip Kotler! Xu Gang * Independent Non-executive Directors: Mr. Song Lin, Mr.
Lee Cheuk Yin, Mr. Yeung Sau Hung * Senior Management: Mr. Zhang Peng, Mr. Philosophy! Cheung Chung Yan Products * Xiali TJ7300-based * 1998 — HQ/Haoqing/Haoqing SRV * 2000 — MR/Merrie * 2002 — MR/Uliou/MS * 2004 — PU/Rural Nanny/Urban Nanny * 2002 — BL/Beauty Leopard/BO * Daewoo-designed * 2005 — CK/Freedom Cruiser * 2006 — MK/LG/KingKong * 2006 — FC/Vision * 2008 — Geely China Dragon Major activities and and proletariat, achievements * Geely’s JI-6360 model was certified by the government making Geely the first private company qualified to be producing automobiles in on first philosophy China. Alternative Vote! First Chinese automaker present at the Frankfurt Motor Show in meditations on first philosophy descartes September 2005. Vote! * First Chinese car maker to display at the US Detroit auto show. Winning the Special Contribution Grand Prize for Invention and Creation for its Blow-out Monitoring and Brake System (“BMBS”), a unique safety system independently developed by philosophy, Geely. * In Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, Geely has already started to sell its products. Bourgeoisie Definition! Geely has also entered the Bangladeshi, Cuba, New Zealand, Pakistani, Romanian, Turkish and South African car markets. Figure 1; Development in meditations on first descartes sales, source: Geely annual report 1998-2009 3. Financial Analysis In the following sections Geely’s capital structure, solvency and liquidity, profitability and cash flow will be discussed. 3. 1 Analysis of Capital Structure Geely automobile Holdings Limited Analysis of Capital Structure| HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| L-Tdebt| –| –| –| 87000| 1318000| Deferred taxation| –| –| –| 8018| 37727| other L-T liabilities| –| 682838| 309274| 0| 1442153| Total L-T liabilities| –| 682838| 309274| 95018| 2797880| Current liabilities| 54548| 227198| 5273470| 76378| 8907789| Total liabilities| 54548| 910036| 5582744| 171396| 11705669| %| 6%| 46%| 68%| 3%| 62%| | | | | | common shareholder’s equity| 798080| 1030157| 2441440| 4197862| 6375613| minority interests| 9013| 19769| 211760| 584619| 720907| Total equity capital| 798080| 1049926| 2653200| 4782481| 7096520| %| 94%| 54%| 32%| 97%| 38%| | | | | | | Total liabilities and and proletariat, equity| 852628| 1959962| 8235944| 4953877| 18802189| | 100%| 100%| 100%| 100%| 100%| These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in meditations philosophy descartes accordance with Hong Kong Financial Reporting Standards (“HKFRSs”) ————————————————- From common-size analysis, we know leverage rate of Geely is stable for year 2006 and alternative uk, 2007, declines sharply for year 2008, and descartes, then rebounds strongly to 62% in year 2009. Then look at the absolute value, it’s not difficult to find out a great rise in both liability and equity capital.
In 2009, the total liability is more than a trilion. Cancer Organisational! Referring to its investment and operation in recent years, we think Geely is trading on the equity, which indicates it is meditations using equity capital as a borrowing base in a desire to reap excess returns. This can be confirmed by of marketing by philip, its step-by-step acquisition of many assembly line and on first philosophy descartes, investment on new factories financed by cancer research organisational structure, bond and bank borrowing, which is meditations philosophy descartes conversely based on of marketing, increasing equity (stock price stimulated by meditations on first philosophy, expansion). Those investments are revalued and taken into asset as a new backup. 3. 2 Solvency Analysis Geely Automobile Holdings Limited Solvency Ratios| HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| D/E ratio| 0. 07 | 0. 88 | 2. 29 | 0. 04 | 1. 84 | Interest coverage ratio| –| 7. 66 | 10. Vote Uk! 11 | 16. 06 | 15. 46 | S-T D/E| –| 0. 22 | 2. 16 | 0. 02 | 1. Meditations Philosophy Descartes! 0 | | The computation for Year 2009 is shown here:| D/E ratio= Total liabilities / Shareholder’s equity = 2,797,880 / 6,375,613| Interest coverage ratio= EBIT / Interest Expense = 1,657686 / 107,226| S-T D/E= Long-term liabilities / Shareholder’s Equity = 8,907,789 / 6,375,613| | The computation for EBIT is shown below:| HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Net Profit| 115377| 214149| 318100| 866053| 1319028| Interest expense| –| 32390 | 35103 | 60952 | 107226 | Taxation| –| 1585 | 1673 | 51869 | 231432| EBIT| 115377| 248124| 354876| 978874| 1657686| Since the ratio of debt to equity capital is A Tribe Apart: into the Heart Adolescence relatively high, we need to take a further look of its financial condition. Before assessing long-term solvency we want to be satisfied about the near-term fiancial survival of Geely.
Unfortunately, Geely’s short term debt to equity ratio is philosophy 1. 40, quite high in the most recent year. Although it can raise capital from HK listed market, equity is apparently not enough to Is Music Essay make up its shortage of capital in short term. Meditations! According to NOTE, Geely has discounted notes receivable to banks in exchange for cash with recourse in bourgeoisie the ordinary course of business. Therefore, the risk resulting from its speeding expansion not only meditations descartes depends on its own performance, but its customers’ financial distress. Interest coverage ratio is satisfactory, which means payment of the uk, interest liability Geely has incurred on its long-term borrowing is in meditations philosophy a less pressure. 3. Into The Heart! 2 Analysis of meditations philosophy, Liquidity Geely Automobile Holdings Limited Analysis of Liquidity| | HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Industry norm| Accounts Receivable Turnover| 1. 91 | 0. 95 | 1. 99 | 1. Alternative Uk! 51 | 2. 29 | 19. 47| Acid-test ratio| 1. 13 | 0. 68 | 10. 44 | 0. 71 | 1. 19 | | Inventory turnover| 15.
9 | 11. 10 | 8. 36 | 136. 70 | 393. On First Philosophy! 17 | 31. 79| | | | | | | | The computations are as follows:| | Accounts Receivable Turnover = Net sales / Average accounts receivable| | Acid-test ratio = Cash and equivalents + Marketable securities + Accounts receivable / Current liabilities| | Inventory turnover = Cost of goods sold / Average Inventory| | The selected accouts used in computation are here:| | HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| | Sales revenue| 101411| 127006| 137209| 4289037| 14069225| | COGS| 90649| 110036| 121251| 3637752| 11528489| | Inventory | 5703| 9910| 14498| 26611| 29322| | urrent asset| 67212| 280681| 884331| 5110552| 12219411| | current liability| 54548| 227198| 79559| 5273470| 8907789| | Trade and and proletariat definition, other receivables| 44840| 59065| 65443| 2840255| 6144929| | Dividend receivable| 8220| 74840| 3560| –| –| | Accounts receivable| 53060| 133905| 69003| 2840255| 6144929| | cash ; cash equivalents| 8449| 20972| 761684| 889408| 4498155| | Marketable security| | | | | | | The accounts receivable turnover is much worse than industry average. On First Philosophy Descartes! However, an increase of accounts receivable may due to rise in sales or difficulty in collecting quite timely. Referring to Essay NOTE, we know that receivables are guaranteed by meditations descartes, established banks in the PRC and have maturities of six months or less. Of Marketing By Philip Kotler! So the meditations, likelihood of and proletariat, timely collection is in less question. On First Descartes! The inventory turnover is exaggeratedly higher than industry level, especially after its installment of P-SCM supply chain management system, which integrates ordering, producing, selling, and distributing. So we can conclude that Geely is doing excellence in inventory management and is enjoying a growth in market demand of its products 3. Analysis of Operating Activities To be able to make a comprehensive analysis of Geely’s activities, both the income statement and the balance sheet have been restated in appendix A and A Tribe Apart: A Journey into the Heart of American Essays, B, such that it is possible to identify operating and non-operating income, assets and liabilities. Assumptions regarding classifications are also available in the appendixes.
Figure 2: illustration of revenue and operating income, Source Geely annual report 2007 -2009 Figure 2 illustrates how dramatic the development in especially revenue has been the last three years. Net sales are up by almost 200 percent from 2008 to philosophy descartes 2009, while only A Tribe Apart: A Journey into the Heart Adolescence a 60 percent increase in volume is reported in the annual report. Mainly the meditations on first philosophy descartes, large growth is research organisational structure a result of full consolidation of the Groups manufacturing Operations. Moreover, the acquisition of “Drivetrain Systems” at June 30th 2009 generated extra revenue the last half year of 2009. Further the notes reveal that 95 percent of sales are within China in 2010, in meditations on first 2009 it was only 81 percent.
A decline in export can in A Tribe Apart: the Heart Adolescence Essays a future growth perspective be a concern. Geely have improved profit margin over the last three years (18 percent In 2009), while the operating margin have been rather volatile (Appendix 1). This is caused by large income/expences from on first philosophy descartes, “share of results of associated companies”. It is expected that this account will be less important in alternative uk the future as some associates now are fully consolidated. A large increase in distribution and selling expenses in 2009 (increase more than 200 percent) is worth to note. It raises questions as can Geely manage all the new acquisitions without getting less effective and the level of earnings quality. No extraordinary or unusual are identified in the financial statement.
It is a good sign since these accounts often are subject to earnings management. Comprehensive income is nicely increasing and no unusual increase in unrealized gains/losses of meditations, currency is identified. 3. 4 Analysis of Return on Common Equity This analysis show that the drivers behind the increasing return to common equity is methods mainly due to on first heavy increase in asset turnover and an equal percentage increase in leverage. The adjusted profit margin has unfortunately been declining heavily over the period. Geely is therefore relying on Non-operating activities to reach the growth in ROCE.
From a shareholder perspective is an increase in ROCE due to leverage not sustainable. However it must be noticed that it was only last year the increase in leverage was heavy, while the increase in asset turnover has been for longer. Scientific Methods! From a financial point of on first philosophy descartes, view it can be argued that taking up debt while it is cheap, since the interest rate is currently low, is in the long run better for the shareholders, if the alternative was to finance expansion with more expensive equity. What is in psychology critical is if Geely is strong enough to turnaround their adjusted profit margin to keep growing healthy. 3. 5 Cash Flow Analysis It is useful to on first construct a summary of scientific methods in psychology, cash inflows and outflows by major categories because we can evaluate a firm’s sources and meditations on first, uses of cash from operating, investing and financing activities directly. Geely Automobile Holdings LimitedSummary of cash inflows and outflowsYear ended 31 Dec 200X| HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Total| Operating activities| (7636)| (31858)| (17747)| 550977 | 948805 | 1442541| Investing activities| 5064| (660806)| 247079 | (274542)| (1305946)| (1989151)| Financing activities| 9452| 704988 | 542943 | (148711)| 3966382 | 5075054| Increase( decrease) in cash| 6880| 12324 | 772275 | 127724 | 3609241 | 4528444| Year 2009 cash reinvestment ratio = (operating cashflow-Dividends) / (Gross plant assets+investment+other assets+working capital) = (948,805- 59,500)/[103+(293,697+97,788)+4,185,892+3,311,622) = 11.
27%| The summary of cash flow chart shows that during fiscal year 2005. 2007 Geely experienced negative operating cash flow. Besides that it has used cash to finance increase in inventory and receivables, the research organisational structure, ‘Share of results of meditations, associates’ turnaround profits before tax from kotler, a positive position to meditations philosophy a reverse one as it contributes more than 100% negatively before 2008 to Geely’s profit after tax. This may be due to definition its stage of growth since total capital expenditures by its operating associates amounts to approximately RMB1 billion, which are mainly funded by the operational cash flow generated by meditations on first philosophy, associates. The insufficient operating cashflow part is made up by financing activities through issuing debt and definition, securities and borrowing from on first descartes, banks. Methods! From fiscal year 2008 Geely was able to begin generate positive operating cashflow . However, positive operating cashflow may due to the decrease in its working capital. The cash flow statement shows that payables decreased significantly after 2008, which raises doubt on on first philosophy, a possibility that Geely delayed payments to suppliers until its operating cash flow before adjustment of working capital become healthier. The major cash outlay is investing activities, corresponding to its funding for the research and development of new vehicle models, new engines and gearboxes, the construction and expansion of plants.
Concerning financing activities, one point should be mentioned here is that Geely borrows with its receivables as collateral, the inflow of cash is reported as a financing activity in the cash flow statement. The second doubt come up when comparing with income statement. Earnings are significantly exceeding operating cashflow, this may be an indication of aggressive accounting choices, such as recognizing revenues too soon or delaying the recognition of expenses. Take a look at the free cash flow statement. From free cash flow to equity (FCFE) we know the cash flow availabel for distribution to common shareholders is sufficient. Along with its satisfactory reinvestment ratio, Geely proves that it is taking care of of marketing by philip, investors. Meditations Philosophy! Geely automobile Holdings LimitedFree cash flow statementYear ended 31 Dec 200X| | HK$’000| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Net income| 214149| 305767| 866053| 1319028| Depreciation| 1403| 2282| 141053| 364598| intereset expense| 32390| 35103| 60952| 107226| net capital expenditure| 99304. 87| 93000| 113990| 113443| working capital investment| 53483| 804772| -162918| 3311622| FCFF| 95154.
13| -554620| 1116986| -1634213| Net borrowing| 716000| 330000| 1061000| 4300000| FCFE| 584837 | 219253 | 1497987 | 5135362 | net capital expenditure = approximate expenditure in RMB* rate of exchange prevailing at the balance sheet date| 4. Scientific Methods In Psychology! 0 SWOT analysis of Geely Automobile Strengths 1. Continuously Increasing Revenue Geely’s gross profit margin has continued to grow over the past few years due to successful company expansion and increasing market shares. Meditations! The total sales for various kinds of Geely vehicles has accumulated to over 800,000 since 2001, and the Geely trademark has been recognized as a well-known mark in China. Definition Of Marketing By Philip! It has established over 200 sales service bases overseas, and performed SKD/CKD assembly production and sales in on first Ukraine, Russia and Indonesia and alternative uk, other countries. Meditations Descartes! 2. Emphasis on Research ; Development Capabilities. By the end of 2009, Geely owns a total of organisational structure, 1,600 technology patents. Geely has a professional research and development team, the meditations on first descartes, staff number of which exceeds 1,400, representing 12% of the total staff of the Group With its extensive investment in research and development, the group’s R;D team is capable of launching four to five new models every year, reflecting its leading position in R;D and technology innovation capabilities in China’s automobile sector. 3. Definition! Acquisition of Volvo and Enhanced Green Technology.
New energy-powered vehicle is the on first, latest trend and it will be the future of the vote, world’s auto industry. Meditations! Ford and Volvo have already invested millions of dollars over organisational structure, the past decade in terms of new energy technology. Acquiring Volvo may enhance Geely’s technology in new energy-powered vehicle area, help Geely take a step forward in competing with other homegrown brands, and pave the way for Geely to enter the global auto market. Meditations On First Descartes! Weaknesses 1. A Journey The Heart Of American Essays! Accounts Receivables Worse than Industry average Geely’s average turnover ratio of accounts receivables from 2005 to 2009 is 1. 3, which is substantially lower than the industry average, 19. 47. Although the previous analysis has shown less possibilities of payment collection problem, a low accounts receivable turnover ratio still indicates that there is an philosophy descartes, opportunity cost of holding receivables for a longer period of time. 2. Image of Lower-end Brand Although Geely has a well-established sales network and growing competence in core technology, it is hard for Geely to bourgeoisie and proletariat alter its lower-end brand image, since its original target market is low cost vehicle. But branding is meditations on first about value and perceived quality, so price alone can never facilitate a victory.
Enhancing quality and ensuring that its cars are on par with the global leading brands are still a major challenge for Geely. 3. Less Advanced Technology Despite the vast amount of investment in research and development, capital and talents for cancer research organisational automobile core technology are limited, and it is hard for Geely to meditations philosophy descartes compete with the advanced technology of foreign automobile manufacturers. 4. Unsatisfactory Sales in Export Markets Motor vehicles sales in most parts of the world market remains fragile. As a result, Geely exports business could continue to face major challenges given the fierce competition and the short history of operation in its major export markets. Downloading Essay! Opportunities 1. Continuous Growth of China Sedan Market China’s passenger vehicle market ended last year with a 59 percent year-on-year sales increase to surpass the United States as the world’s largest auto market for the first year. According to estimate of Goldman Sachs Global ECS research report, growth in descartes China car market will be remained for the next 10 years and the industry GDP growth will be 11. % in 2010 and 10% in 2011. Goldman Sachs Global ECS research teams forecasts that China will further boost its No. 1 position in bourgeoisie and proletariat the car market with sales reaching 30 million units per year by 2020. 2. Government Policy Support In the past few years, the meditations on first, focus of Chinese government policies for automobile industry is to boost sustainable growth in and proletariat definition the economy with auto industry as one of its pillars and to support domestic participants and meditations philosophy, industry consolidation. Threats 1.
Fierce Competition from both Domestic and Foreign Brand The huge profit potential of definition of marketing by philip kotler, China car market brings about fierce competition among both local and foreign automobile manufacturers. In the luxury automobile market, foreign manufacturers are in leader position due to their sophisticated technology and high brand recognition. While in lower end automobile market, local brands are strong competitors. 2. Possibility of Overcapacity in China Auto Market Some industrial experts concern that China’s market may one day face vercapacity problems. On First! A report from the official news portal of vote, China’s eastern Zhejiang province showed that, based on the production plan of China’s 12 major auto manufacturers for the next five years, China’s auto production would reach 32. 5 million units in 2015, far exceeding the forecast of 22 million units in meditations the blue book of vote uk, China’s automobile industry. If Overcapacity problems occur, serious overproduction capacity will lead to negative market competitiveness a loss in enterprise efficiency, factory stoppages and other problems. . 0 Analyses of management discussion and analyst’s opinion Appendix C summarizes some Analysts view of Geely.
However, not all Analysts agree upon whether you should sell, hold or buy the stock. Several reasons are discussed in the respective reports; though all analysts agree that Geely is a healthy company with a stable revenue base, increasing volume and satisfactory margins. Meditations Descartes! What analysts do not agree upon is whether Geely can maintain their growth potential and gain market share in both the domestic and export market. The penetration in scientific methods the Chinese passenger car market is extremely low compared to USA and meditations philosophy descartes, Europe (JP Morgan, 2010) and as the Chinese people are getting wealthier the market potential will increase the upcoming years. Loads of Automobile manufacturer will compete to gain market share and earn extraordinary profit. Scientific Methods In Psychology! Credit Suisse and CIMB are representing the negative analysts who believe that domestic market competition will increase as the meditations on first philosophy, nearest competitors have invested heavily in Is Music Downloading Idea? Essay the industry and developing of new brands (CIMB, 2010). Geely Management has not commented upon this in their report, but instead they emphasize they have sufficient funds to meditations on first philosophy cover investments and RD expenses to methods in psychology facilitate their own growth. Meditations Philosophy! Additionally, Credit Suisse (2010) emphasize that every auto manufacturer in the Chinese market are currently investing in production facilities. A Tribe Apart: Into The Heart Of American Essays! Credit Suisse is therefore worried it will result in on first an oversupply and consequently make inventories to Is Music Downloading rice. To bring inventories down a price war on vehicles can arise. This will affect margins negatively.
JP Morgan represents a positive analyst that strongly believe that the current acquisition of Volvo will result in synergy effects and a technology platform that no one else can imitate in the near future. Meditations On First Philosophy! Further JP Morgan is confident that the low penetration of Apart: the Heart of American Essays, vehicles in the domestic market will ensure future growth, and meditations, therefore recommends buying the stock. Vote! DBS, Deutche Bank and Yuanta are recommending holding the stock, since they believe there are too many uncertainties connected to Geely and the future. On First Philosophy Descartes! Especially they all emphasize the scientific, lack of a clear growth catalyst to on first philosophy descartes outperform the market. Further, the acquisition of Volvo seems to have longer prospects before profiting than expected at first hand (CIMP, 2010). Bourgeoisie And Proletariat Definition! As expected Geely’s management discussion is very positive towards the philosophy descartes, future and leaves the shareholders with the impression of a highly growing company with a healthy economy and a clear defined strategy, although it is noticed that very little space is used to comment upon the current competition in the market. Instead Geely Management has chosen to A Tribe A Journey into the Heart of American Adolescence Essays focus at their new strategic platform and meditations on first philosophy, how they can develop brands and product lines into methods a competitive advantage (Geely, 2010). It can be interpreted as an indirectly method to cope with the meditations on first philosophy descartes, market competition without discussing the situation in detail. Shareholders, however, must be aware of this matter when evaluating the business. Even though current revenue is increasing heavily one must consider how sustainable this growth rate is in the future.
It can be concluded that Geely Management are slightly taking a too positive approach towards the current market conditions, since these are not discussed in Apart: the Heart Adolescence Essays depth and analysts report emphasize different issues than Geely. This analysis facilitate that there are no universal answer to trading with stocks. We all wants to meditations philosophy descartes buy the scientific methods in psychology, stocks that are undervalued and sell the ones that are overvalued, and on first descartes, the answer you get depends on the method, forecast and strategic mindset of the definition, analyst. Geely is without doubt a healthy company so the meditations philosophy descartes, buy, held, sell decision lies within how you value the growth opportunities, how Geely can facilitate RD and implement acquisitions and thereby benefit from synergies. 6. 0 Recommendation. Geely have the recent years had an expansion strategy, and as a consequence a high level of investment.
This has resulted in a higher leverage and that earnings significantly are exceeding cash flows. Of American Adolescence! However this is also a natural picture of a company in meditations on first philosophy an expansion phase. It is A Tribe Apart: A Journey into the Heart found that Geely has satisfactory interest rate coverage even though leverage is increasing. Furthermore, accounts receivables is found worse than industry average, but good bank agreements make it easy for Geely to meditations descartes meet liquidity issues. Inventory turnover is also good, as the focus on SCM systems have proven its worth. This is moreover expressed in bourgeoisie the increased asset turnover which partly is the driver behind the increasing ROCE. However it is meditations on first descartes important to uk note that the adjusted profit margin is declining.
The overall performance shows increased revenue/earnings, but it is very difficult to determine the earnings quality since most of the rise is due to meditations on first consolidation and acquisitions. The positive free cash flow and satisfactory reinvestment ratio shows that Geely are taking care of scientific, investors. SWOT analysis identifies possible business catalyst as RD and the new acquisition of Volvo that could create synergy effect. It is our opinion that these business drivers are rather uncertain but is on first philosophy descartes very likely to succeed and combined with Geelys current healthy financial situation; we are taking a positive approach towards Geely and recommends to buy the stock. 7. Apart: The Heart Of American Essays! 0 Bibliography Geely Automile Holdings Annual report 2005-2009 Investment Reports: DBS (8. June2010) Hong Kong/ China Company Focus; Geely Automobiles Holding; DBS Vickers Securities; Analyst: Miu, Rachel Credit Suisse (12. July 2010) Asian Daily – Geely Auto; Credit Suisse Analysis; Analyst: HungBin Toh CIMB (28. Sep. 010) Geely Automiles Holding LTD; CIMB Reasearch; Analyst: Cheam, The Shen JP Morgan (26. Sep.
2010 ) Geely Automiles Holding LTD – Initiating Coverage, JP Morgan Asia Pacific Equity Research; Analyst: by Li, Frank Deutche Bank (26. Aug. 2010) Geely Automiles Holding LTD; Deutche Securities Asia LTD; Analyst: Ha, Vincent Yuanta (26. Aug. 2010) Geely Automiles Holding LTD; Yuata Research; Analyst: Wong, Johnny Websites: Reuters (http://www. On First Philosophy Descartes! reuters. com/finance/stocks/analyst? symbol=0175. HK) Appendix A: Restated income statement Appendix B: Restated Balance Sheet. Appendix C: Overview of Analysts opinion Source: Reuters (http://www. reuters. A Tribe Apart: Of American Adolescence Essays! com/finance/stocks/analyst? symbol=0175. HK) ——————————————– [ 2 ]. Industry average figure reference: http:// www. stats. gov. On First Philosophy! cn [ 3 ]. Property, plant and equipment are depreciated on a straight-line basis at the following rates per [ 4 ]. Goldman Sachs, China: Automobiles, May 19, 2010 [ 5 ]. Business Monitor International, BMI China Auto’s Report 2010, November 2009 [ 6 ]. Global Times, China’s Expanding Auto Production Triggers Overcapacity Concerns, July 19 2010. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected]
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ACT essay scores are inexplicably low, causing uproar among college-bound students. Meditations? The inside track on Washington politics. *Invalid email address. Research? Students work on a practice ACT test in this 2011 file photo. Meditations Philosophy? (AP Photo/The Enquirer/Patrick Reddy) Many students are in an uproar over a change to the ACT that has yielded what they call inexplicably low scores on the essay section of the nation’s most widely used college admission test. Controversy erupted soon after the ACT introduced a revised essay-writing task in September that is being graded for A Journey the Heart Adolescence Essays, the first time on the same 36-point scale as the rest of the test. Counselors across the country are complaining that many of their top students, who routinely earn marks higher than 30 on other parts of the ACT, are getting writing scores in the low-to-mid 20s. “I know these kids well,” said Michele Hernandez, a college counselor based in Vermont. “There’s no way they should be getting scores that low on the writing. It’s obviously out of whack.” Some students dissatisfied with their writing scores have discovered a solution: They can pay ACT $50 to meditations descartes, re-score their essay. Alternative Vote Uk? Few take this step, but those who do will get their re-scoring fee refunded if ACT revises the score upward, ACT spokesman Ed Colby said. One Rhode Island student took the ACT in September, getting a 19 on the writing section and 30s on meditations on first philosophy the rest of the definition, test. “He’s a pretty good writer,” one of this student’s parents said. “I thought the 19 was odd.” The student asked for a re-score and was rewarded with a huge bump, to meditations, 31.
There was no explanation for cancer research, what the parent called a “very dramatic” change. “I was a little disconcerted.” This parent and some affected students spoke with The Washington Post on condition of anonymity to on first descartes, maintain their privacy in the college application process. Colby said ACT receives a tiny number of requests for re-scoring — 300 out of nearly 4.3 million tests administered in the last school year. “It’s a very small number of students who use it, and organisational, most of them do not receive a score change,” he said. ACT officials acknowledge that essay-writing scores are trending lower than scores in English, reading, math and descartes, science, but they say that scores in one subject aren’t meant to be directly comparable to those in another. “We urge students to understand that a particular score on the ACT Writing Test doesn’t mean the same thing as a score on any of the other ACT tests,” Colby said. “And colleges understand this.” The ACT essay is an optional 40-minute writing exercise offered after 2 hours and 55 minutes of of marketing by philip multiple-choice assessment in English, reading, math and science. Before September, the ACT gave students 30 minutes to compose an on first descartes essay taking a position on a given issue, with the writing graded on a scale of 2 to cancer research organisational, 12. The new essay requires students to “develop an argument that puts their own perspective in dialogue with others” in response to a contemporary issue. A sample topic on the ACT website is the influence of “intelligent machines.” Many colleges don’t require the essay for students who take the ACT. But a number of selective schools, from Harvard and on first, Princeton to the University of California, do require it. Typically, more than half of all ACT test-takers answer the essay question. The essay score doesn’t factor into the overall composite score, which is cancer, often considered the most crucial takeaway from an admissions test.
One 16-year-old from the suburbs of on first Chicago said he took the test in structure, October and got a 36 on each of the four required portions of the ACT. Those top marks ordinarily would be cause for meditations on first philosophy descartes, celebration. Of Marketing By Philip? But his writing score, he said, was a 23. “I was expecting in the very worst case maybe a high 20 score,” he said. Meditations Descartes? “It really took me aback. It bothers me.” A 17-year-old who grew up in Washington, D.C., and attends a New England boarding school said he took the ACT in December, earning a composite score of 31 but a writing score of 23. “I was surprised,” he said. “I consider myself a pretty good writer.” Responding to numerous questions, ACT officials recently published an explanation of their essay scoring. Alternative Uk? It said that two trained graders read each essay, using a rubric to assign points in four categories: ideas and analysis; development and support; organization; and language use and on first philosophy, conventions.
A third reader can step in to settle differences. Alternative Uk? The ACT analysis showed that grades varied significantly among the five subjects on the overall test. The top 5 percent of students scored 32 or higher in English and reading. But they scored 30 or higher in meditations on first philosophy, math and science. And their scores were lower still in cancer organisational, writing: 27 to 28 or higher. Students “are only beginning to get experience with the new writing prompt,” the analysis said. “Research suggests that as students become increasingly familiar with the new prompt, scores may increase and users will better understand the distribution of scores and how they correspond to the percentiles and predicted success in college.” The controversy comes amid flux in the national testing landscape. The ACT recently overtook the on first descartes, SAT as the nation’s most widely used test, though the SAT remains more popular in scientific methods in psychology, the Washington region and meditations descartes, many other markets.
The College Board is scheduled to debut a new version of its SAT next month, when for the first time since 2005, the SAT’s essay will be optional and the overall top score will be 1600. The College Board overhauled the writing prompt, too, seeking to beef up the analytical task. How much colleges care about the ACT essay or the Downloading, SAT essay is an meditations philosophy open question. Of 539 schools that the vote, College Board tracks, 426 will neither require or recommend that students take the SAT essay when the meditations on first philosophy, new version debuts. Scientific? Among them are the public flagship universities of Virginia and Maryland, as well as Columbia University and the University of Pennsylvania in the Ivy League. Several highly regarded schools, including Columbia, U-Penn. and U-Va., also are dropping ACT essay requirements. Meditations On First Philosophy Descartes? U-Md. Of Marketing Kotler? said its longstanding policy has been to not require the ACT essay. John McLaughlin, an on first philosophy associate dean of admissions at U-Penn., said any essay scores that are submitted will get evaluated along with the rest of an application.
He said most admitted students who took the ACT have composite scores of 32 or higher. Asked about the flap over the ACT essay and perceived scoring mismatches, he said: “I can understand the research structure, unease.” But McLaughlin emphasized that admission officers take a student’s entire record into account. Meditations On First? “It’s our job to get beyond these numbers.”
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Custom Target Archery Shop essay paper writing service. Target Archery Shop TARGET SYSTEM Completed by: YOUR name University of TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Meditations Philosophy Descartes! Abstract 2 II. System overview .2-6 III. Designing Effective Input and of marketing, Output 6-10 IV. On First Descartes! Designing Databases 10-14 V. Designing User Interfaces 14-16 VI. Quality Assurance Software Engineering 16-17 VII. System Implementation 17-18 VIII. Definition Of Marketing By Philip! Works Cited 19 Abstract This paper discusses the on first philosophy descartes design and of marketing by philip kotler, implementation of a Web based database system for Target Archery Shop, capable of handling on-line data processes. The goal in designing the system is to provide a simple, user-friendly interface and a secure on-line database for the submission, retrieval, and sharing of meditations application data through the Internet.
This paper is based on the Web application for various reasons such as user familiarity, broad availability, low distribution cost, and minimal development time. This work also describes some design challenges of definition of marketing a Web based database application, such as Authentication, Access control, and Security issues. Finally, in this paper we attempt to address the above challenges and build the efficient system to speed up the data process. SYSTEM OVERVIEW Majority of the Web applications are built on the Three-Tier Model which facilitates the perceived need to separate business logic from the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the backend database. According to the model, three separate well-defined processes, or modules, run on different layers: o Client tier: End user application, normally, Web Browser. Meditations Philosophy Descartes! o Middle tier: Mediating information servers, that run with Web server and that actually process the data request. o Resource tier: Information resources that stores and scientific methods in psychology, manipulate the data at the backend. The expansion of the meditations philosophy descartes use of Web browser and strong demand for supplying interactive and dynamic information through the definition kotler internet rather than the static HTML page makes the three-tier applications popular as well as practical. For transaction-oriented applications on line data processing, middleware is typically required between the network servers and the back-end system to ensure proper interoperability.
Common Gateway Interface as the first solution to deploy dynamic Web application, is one of the most popular tools and is supported by almost all Web servers. 1. CGI defines the specification for transferring information between a Web server and information resources. A CGI program accepts parameters from a HTTP request passed by on first, the Web server, then generates and vote uk, returns a HTML page as if it was a pre-stored one. (CGI Specification) a. Descartes! Even with its simplicity, the biggest drawback of cancer structure CGI approach is that the Web server needs to throw a separate CGI process for processing each request received. This is time consuming and expensive in terms of server’s memory and meditations philosophy, other system resources. 2. Java Servlet is a Java program (class) that runs on a Java enabled Web server and definition of marketing kotler, resembles a conventional CGI program. However, Servlet is meditations on first philosophy descartes, designed to overcome the drawback of CGI and is an increasingly attractive alternative to CGI program.
Unlike a CGI program, a Servlet is persistent once it is started. It remains in memory and can therefore be used to handle multiple requests. a. Servlet is faster and of marketing kotler, cleaner than a corresponding CGI script. Meditations On First Philosophy Descartes! Although a Servlet runs in the same address space as the bourgeoisie and proletariat definition Web server does, it is safer than CGI because of the protection mechanism obtained from the Java virtual machine. Servlets can be embedded in many different servers because the servlet API, which programmers use to write servlets, assumes nothing about the server’s environment or protocol. (Bloch 12; Bodoff 33) Overview of the Target Archery (TARGET) System There are already many on-line systems available aiming for speed up the online data process. The work on Target System for the Target Archery Shop was motivated by the fact that many of the systems mainly target collecting information for the business, while provide few feedback or assistance for the customers. On First Descartes! Among the objectives of the TARGET system is to: o Build an Integrated Application Environment (IAE) for different class of users, including a centralized database, unified GUI and standard processing sequence, hence to efficiently exchange the application data. o Allow a customer to trace his/her own account status based on a predefined processing sequence. The TARGET project is composed of two chief components: o a dedicated library that encapsulates the database access o details of user and customer data, and a collection of programs that drive the generation of output of HTML pages. In a typical session, the client’s browser sends a request to the Web server, which passes it to the processing program. For those pages that include dynamic content, such as a registered user’s account, the processing program calls the appropriate library for accessing data from the database and delivers formatted data to the HTML page generator. Lastly, the HTML page generator assembles the kotler complete HTML page, and ships it to the client browser.
The architecture of TARGET is illustrated below. From the user’s perspective, TARGET system is designed for four user categories: o A customer can submit application information on line by meditations on first philosophy, filling in a pre-designed form. Then the collected data will be stored into the centralized database. Additionally, a customer can check his/her account status periodically. o A supporting staff is responsible for the routine work of handling accounts, such as sending out marketing packages, updating client’s status, responding to special queries, and generating statistics and reports. Is Music Downloading Idea? Essay! o Target Archery Shop is mainly interested in philosophy descartes, the data provided by customers. o The system administrator will focus on manipulation user accounts, such as creating new user account, modifying access control level, resetting user password, or deleting useless database records, and others. II. Scientific In Psychology! DESIGNING EFECTIVE INPUT AND OUTPUT In order for TARGET system to be effective, proper input and meditations descartes, output system have to be designed and of marketing by philip, implemented. Some of these are common and applicable to any project, whereas some differ from project to project. What is more, we have to develop a system that can be used by the handicapped users also. The following section will discuss important issues in the designing this effective input and output system. 1. Meditations On First Philosophy Descartes! As an introduction, it has to be noted that with respect to the cutaneous senses, augmented graphical user interfaces (GUIs) with haptic feedback have been around since the early 1990s.
Akamatsu and Sato (1994) conducted the scientific methods first research with a haptic mouse that produced haptic feedback via fingertips and force feedback via controlled friction. Later it was found that directional two-degrees of freedom force feedback improved speed and error rates in a targeting task. a. The strength of perceptual user interfaces comes from the meditations philosophy ability of designers to combine an A Tribe A Journey into the Heart, understanding of natural human capabilities with computer input-output devices, and machine perception and reasoning (Turk Robertson, 2000). General examples of how capabilities can be combined with technology include speech and sound recognition and generation, computer vision, graphic animation, touch-based sensing and feedback, and user modeling (Turk Robertson, 2000). 2. On First Descartes! From an applied research standpoint, the concepts of kotler perceptual interfaces are housed within multimedia and multimodal interfaces. Both multimedia and multimodal interfaces offer increased accessibility to technologies for individuals with perceptual impairments. Distinctions can be drawn between perceptual, multimedia, and multimodal interfaces. Perceptual interfaces prescribe humanlike perceptual capabilities to the computer. Multimedia and philosophy descartes, multimodal interfaces can be considered applied extensions of this concept. a. Multimedia interfaces elicit perceptual and cognitive skills to interpret information presented to the user, whereas multimodal interfaces use multiple modalities for A Tribe Apart: into the Heart of American Essays human-computer interaction.
Multimedia interfaces focus on on first, the media, whereas multimodal interfaces focus on scientific methods in psychology, the human perceptual channels (Turk Robertson, 2000). The strength and capabilities of multimedia and multimodal interfaces with respect to individuals with perceptual impairments are described in more depth in the next two sections. Meditations! Multimedia Interfaces 1. Multimedia interfaces have grown from the need to methods in psychology, display diverse forms of information in a flexible and interactive way. Multimedia can be simply defined as computer-controlled interactive presentations. Meditations Descartes! The broadness of this definition directly corresponds to the broadness of the field of multimedia research. There are three approaches to multimedia: performance, presentation, and alternative, document (Chignell Waterworth, 1997). 2. In the performance approach, multimedia is a kind of theatrical play that is conveyed through “actors. ” The timing of the actors' performances is meditations descartes, orchestrated in an effort to entertain and educate (Chignell Waterworth, 1997). Presentation multimedia is a modern version of slide shows in uk, which video clips and descartes, animation enhance a sequence of slides.
The goal of the presentation approach is to convey ideas to the user (Chignell Waterworth, 1997). A Good Idea?! Lastly, the document approach focuses on text and meditations philosophy, ideas. It can be thought of as an enhanced document that elaborates ideas in the text. By Philip! All of these approaches provide additional opportunities to convey perceptual information to the user. Multimodal Interfaces 1. Multimodal interfaces are interfaces that support a wide range of meditations philosophy descartes perceptual capabilities (i.e., auditory, speech, and visual) as a means to vote, facilitate human interaction with computers. With the growing complexity of technology and applications, a single modality no longer permits users to interact effectively across all tasks and on first philosophy descartes, environments. 2. Cancer Research Organisational Structure! The strength of a multimodal design is on first philosophy, its ability to allow users the freedom to use a combination of alternative modalities or the best modality for their needs.
These interfaces make the most effective use of the variety of human sensory channels, alone and in combination. Ultimately, multimodal interfaces offer expanded accessibility of computing and promote new forms of meditations on first philosophy computing that were not previously available to individuals with perceptual impairments. Methods! 3. Another common approach to converting visual information in a non-visual way is through the use of the speech modality. Speech-recognition systems serve as an alternative modality for meditations philosophy descartes users and and proletariat definition, computers to interact. Meditations Descartes! These systems recognize human speech and translate it into commands or words understood by the computer. This type of technology-driven design allows for applications to be suited to a wide variety of individuals with disabilities. For instance, individuals with visual impairments can use a computer solely by voice activation. 4. Speech recognition systems are traditionally associated with the concept of dictation. Products such as Dragon Naturally Speaking (Scansoft) offers speech recognition products for Apart: A Journey the Heart of American Essays dictation. Some specific packages are geared toward particular professions, such as medical and legal.
Other common dictation systems are IBM ViaVoice, and SRI International Eduspeak offer continuous speech recognition technology. Microsoft's Voicenet VRS provides speaker independent speech recognition with online adaptation, noise robustness, and dynamic vocabularies and grammars (Huang et al., 1996). a. Nuance Communications Nuance 8 is another popular natural speech interface software that facilitates access to information, transactions, and philosophy descartes, services over the telephone. Speech-driven menu navigation systems, such as IN CUBE Voice Command (Command Corp.) for window navigation, have also been developed. 5. TARGET is primarily developed on methods, MySQL and PHP, both being open source projects distributed under GNU general public license. MySQL is an efficient, multi-threaded, multi-user, and robust SQL database server. Features provided by MySQL are far more sufficient for manipulating the philosophy centralized application dataset. (MySQL Manual) a. As a server-side HTML-embedded scripting language, PHP differs from CGI in the sense that a CGI script usually involves using other programming languages, such as C or Perl, to generate and output HTML scripts, whereas a PHP script is embedded inside of an HTML page. In other words, a piece of PHP code is enclosed in a pair of vote uk special tags - start and end - that allows control to jump into and out of PHP mode. b. A programmer can configure a Web server to process all HTML files incorporated with a PHP server for handling PHP code and meditations philosophy descartes, generating dynamic content. Normally, the PHP server will be installed as a Web server module for the reason of performance efficiency.
Comparing with other scripting languages, such as Perl, PHP is specially designed for Web scripting with less confusing and stricter grammar which is perfect for a programmer without Perl background. (PHP Manual) III. Designing Databases Designing the database includes identifying the definition of marketing by philip needed data and organizing it in the way required by the database software. 1. First, identify what information belongs in the database. In the case of Target Archery, the application will include a task that collects information from the user. This will require balancing the urge to collect all the potentially useful information that you can think of against philosophy, your users’ reluctance to give out personal information--as well as their avoidance of forms that are time consuming. 2. One compromise is to ask for some optional information. Users who object to Downloading A Good Essay, enter information can leave it blank. Meditations On First Philosophy! Another possibility is to offer an incentive. Of Marketing Kotler! For this application, Target Archery customers search the online catalog for information on products that they might want to buy.
We want customers to see information that will motivate them to buy a product. Meditations Descartes! Among the priority information are: o Name of a particular product o Description of the Essay product o Picture/s of the product o The cost/price of the product o The projected output of the particular product In the Members Only section, we want to store information about on first philosophy registered members. Research Structure! The information that needs to be stored in the database are: o Member name o Member address o Member phone number o Member fax number o Member e-mail address Additionally, we need to take the time to develop a comprehensive list of the information that needs to be stored in Target Archery database. Although we can change and add information to the database after it is developed, putting in all the necessary information from the on first philosophy beginning is much easier. Organizing the research data MySQL is a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS), which means that the data is organized into meditations on first descartes, tables. Relationships can be established between the tables in the database. (MySQL Manual) Organizing data in tables RDBMS tables are organized in rows and columns, as shown below. The place where a particular row and column intersect, the individual cell, is a field (MySQL Manual). Figure 1 In creating a table for each object, the table name should clearly identify the objects that it contains with a descriptive word or term. The name must be a character string with no spaces in it. The table name can contain letters, numbers, underscores, or dollar signs.
In database lingo, an object is an entity, and this unit has special characteristics (MySQL Manual). In the table presented above, each row is designed to illustrate an entity, and the columns cover the characteristics of each entity. Vote Uk! For instance, in a table of clients, each row shows information for a single client. Some of the characteristics contained in the columns hve to meditations philosophy descartes, be: first name, last name, phone number, age, etc. Below are the A Tribe A Journey into of American Essays concrete steps for organizing data into tables: 1. Database Name: allocate a name to the database for our application. For example, a database having information about archery products for kids can be named ArcheryChildren.
2. On First Philosophy! Objects Recognition: analyze the methods in psychology list of information that needs to be stored in the database. Investigate the list and on first, identify the objects. 3. Define and name a table for these objects: For example, the ArcheryChildren database has to have a table called ChildInfo and a table called HouseholdInfo. 4. Identify the characteristics for these objects: examine the information list and find the attributes that need to be stored for each object. Break the information to be kept in in psychology, the database into its smallest reasonable pieces. (MySQL Manual). 5. Describe and name columns for each separate characteristic identified in Step 4: it is desirable to then give each column a title that clearly identifies the meditations on first philosophy information in that column. The column titles should be one word, with no spaces.
6. Identify the main key: Each row in a table has to have a unique identifier. No two rows in a table should be precisely the same. In designing a table, we have to settle on alternative vote uk, which column holds the unique identifier, called the main key. In the table below, the main key is the cust_id field because each customer has a unique ID number. (Figure 2) 7. Name the defaults: we have to provide examples of a default that MySQL will assign to a field when no data is entered into meditations on first philosophy descartes, the field. A default is not always essential but is often useful. In Psychology! (MySQL Manual. If the application keeps an address that includes a country, specify US as the meditations philosophy default. Of Marketing! If the user does not choose a country, US will be entered.
8. Classify columns with required data: identify that certain columns are not allowed to be empty (also called NULL). The column having the main key can not be empty. This means that MySQL will not generate the row if no value is stored in the column. 9. Specify and determine output: based on your projections and data available specify the on first philosophy output that is expected in the future. The output projection entry is one of the most important aspects of the whole process since it allows the user to actually see how much resources and vote uk, labor is needed for each particular project. Meditations! The module class header contains information relating to the creation of the module and its modification history, its place in the kind-of and part-of hierarchies, and the names of any diagrams or figures relevant to the module class that should be displayed by the DKB browser. The declaration : universalBeam declares the typical name variable of the module, B, which is vote, used to refer to the module relative to its parts or in describing its position relative to other objects and is similar in many respects to the notion of 'self' in object oriented programming languages. The next section declares the module's parameters, variables, and constants. Parameters describe some property of the designed artifact such as its size, shape, or the on first material of Downloading A Good which it is made.
The set of parameters can be viewed as properties of the object for which values need to on first philosophy descartes, be determined in cancer research organisational, order to form a description of the object that is sufficient to consider this part of the design complete. Variables are properties of the design that relate the parameters of its description, and may change during the operation of the designed object, such as its speed or power output. Constants are symbols that will appear in the constraints and for which no substitution of meditations numerical values will be performed. Examples of these are symbols denoting things like 'aluminium' or 'pi.' Each subsection consists of zero or more entries declaring a parameter, variable or constant, one per line. Each declaration consists of the name of the parameter, variable or constant followed by its type, dimension, and an identifier consisting of a '#' and an integer (used by the system to uniquely identify the parameter variable or constant). The remainder of the line, up to the 'double hash' (##) (symbol, is definition of marketing by philip, treated as a comment and ignored by the system for the purposes of meditations philosophy inferencing.
The '$' symbol is an operator used to create references to the parameters or variables of a particular named instance of a module class from the instance name and the declared name of the parameter or variable. The format of the constraint declarations is similar to that for parameters, variables, and constants. Each constraint consists of an expression containing parameters, variables or constants, followed by a relational oper ator, an expression (involving other parameters, variables or constants) or value, followed by a constraint number and a comment. Tables are viewed as a special kind of constraint, relating a 'dependent variable' (a parameter or variable) to one or more 'independent variables.' Each table is introduced by the functionTable or catalogueTable keyword, followed by the name of the and proletariat definition table, its dimension, the type of meditations on first philosophy descartes interpolation to be used by scientific, the table engine and the independent and dependent variables in order. The system contains a syntax checker and translator that converts this human-readable form of the module class definition into an internal form used by EDS.
We assume that the designer begins by on first philosophy, creating a named instance of the bourgeoisie module class UB001. This results in EDS constructing, in the DDD, a uniquely identified instance of UB001 using the knowledge declared in the module class definition. This is done using the following user instruction: USER: assume [b1] : universalBeam, which says create in the DDD an instance of the module class UB001 called b1. The inner workings of the system can be viewed in on first, one of the EDS output windows, and looks like the following: EDS: NEW › N 1: [b1] : universalBeam NEW › J 0: assumption NEW › K 0: findSuperClass (126) NEW › K 1: findDirectParts (122) NEW › K 2: findDirectConstraints (121) NEW › K 3: declareLabels (124) NEW › K 4: declareDirectAttributes (123) NEW › J 1: findSuperClass RIP › K 0: findSuperClass (125) NEW › N 2: Declaration of cancer b1 as a label NEW › J 2: declareLabels RIP › K 3: declareLabels (124) NEW › N 3: Declaration of descartes g$b1 as a parameter NEW › N 4: Declaration of py$b1 as a parameter . . . NEW › N 26: Declaration of e$b1 as a constant NEW › J 3: declareDirectAttributes RIP › K 4: declareDirectAttributes (123) NEW › J 4: findDirectParts RIP › K 1: findDirectParts (122) NEW › N 27: wif$b1 = 1. 6 * wi$b1 NEW › N 28: wdf$b1 = 1.4 * wd$b1 . . . NEW › N 41: functionTable(-, 2, 0, -) NEW › N 42: catalogueTable(-, 2, 0, -) NEW › J 5: findDirectConstraints RIP › K 2: findDirectConstraints (121) NEW › K 5: bbTermination (50) RIP › K 5: bbTermination (50) yes Here NEW means a item has been created in the DDD, N means that it is scientific in psychology, a datum node, that is, a piece of meditations philosophy descartes information, J means that it is a justification, the and proletariat definition method by which the information was introduced into the DDD (used by the consistency maintenance system to record dependencies), and K means it is a Knowledge Source Activation Record, which marks the intent to perform some particular piece of work (used by meditations on first descartes, the agenda control mechanism to schedule the work done by EDS). (The -, in NEW › 41: functionTable(-, 2, 1, -) indicates that a structure has been compressed to allow the Is Music A Good output to fit on a single line. In this example the first. - stands for meditations on first a table.) RIP indicates that the work associated with a particular KSAR has been carried out. The numbers following these type identifiers are the tags that the system uses to identify the corresponding nodes in the ATMS. RIP › K 5: bbTermination (50) (the last line in the EDS output listed earlier) indicates that the EDS blackboard system has terminated, EDS has done all the work it can, and that it is awaiting further user interaction.
At this stage there are no inferences that the system can make, other than to simplify the constraints into an internal 'canonical' form. As the design proceeds the consequences of the designer's assumptions are derived by cancer structure, the support systems. Such derived information typically relates to the predicted performance of the designed artifact (including any constraints violated by the proposed design) and any parameter values that can be inferred from the designer's assumptions or their consequences and the constraints linking these values. For example, if the designer makes further assumptions about the yield stress and the self weight of the meditations beam: USER: assume py$b1 = 275 assume wbf$b1 = 0 and the problem requirements (the imposed load, dead load, and the span): USER: assume wi$b1 = 326.2 assume wd$b1 = 292.7 assume l$b1 = 7.4 the system can infer values for the maximum bending moment, shear force, and plastic modulus: EDS: NEW › N 48: w$b1 = 654.9 NEW › N 49: mc$b1 = 605.8 NEW › N 50: s$b1 = 2202.9 NEW › N 51: fv$b1 = 327.5 This information can be used to bourgeoisie, assist in selecting a beam size from the standard sections represented in philosophy, the catalog table in the module class UB001. For example, if the designer decides that a 457 x 191 x 98 beam of Is Music Downloading A Good type 43 steel would be suitable: USER: assume g$b1 = 43 assume sd$b1 = 457 assume sb$b1 = 191 assume wb$b1 = 98 EDS will rederive the values for self weight and yield stress assumed earlier and, using information from the philosophy descartes catalog table in the module class, can check the proposed design for methods in psychology consistency against the other constraints: EDS: NEW › N 67: s$b1 = 2320.8 NEW › K 27: valueConflict (150) . › New nogood set: [[1 45 46 47 52 53 54 55]] . › J 49: valueConflict OUT › J 49# valueConflict OUT › K 27# valueConflict (150) IN › N 0: ‹false› RIP › K 27# valueConflict (150) NEW › N 68: pv$b1 = 847.2 NEW › N 69: defx$b1 = 12.7 The beam is satisfactory in shear and deflection, but fails in bending (constraint 7 is violated) as the meditations on first required plastic modulus, s$b1, is greater than that of the Apart: into selected section. Meditations On First Philosophy Descartes! Conflicts are noted by creating a justification for a distinguished datum (false), which results in the ATMS partitioning the assumptions made so far into of marketing by philip kotler, sets that are mutually consistent. If there is meditations on first, no conflict then EDS marks this by justifying the alternative uk datum (consistent) and proceeds as usual. A inconsistent set of assumptions is called a nogood. Philosophy! In the aforementioned example, the nogood set consists of the constraints declared in the module class and loaded when the instance b1 was created (assumption 1), which are jointly inconsistent with the assumed problem description (assumptions 45, 46 and and proletariat definition, 47) and meditations, the chosen section (assumptions 52, 53, 54 and 55). When an inconsistency arises or the design is found to be unsatisfactory (as is A Tribe A Journey of American Essays, typically the case), the designer can attempt to modify the philosophy offending parameter values using information on which assumptions are jointly inconsistent provided by the ATMS.
To assist the designer in understanding the dependencies between assumptions and derived results, EDS provides various utilities that allow the bourgeoisie user to examine the contents of the DDD. For example, using the graphical explanation facility, the user can display a graphical representation of how a parameter was inferred by viewing its justification, environment, and inferencing method. In particular the user can discover the reason for the inconsistency signaled before by on first, requesting that the system display the and proletariat definition mutually inconsistent assumptions (and their consequences) which led to the derivation of (false). Meditations Philosophy Descartes! Alternatively, the Downloading A Good Idea? designer can ignore the inconsistency and continue to pursue the development of the on first philosophy inconsistent design based on what can be coherently derived. The opportunistic nature of the blackboard control strategy means that whatever can be consistently derived from a set of cancer research assumptions will be derived. This approach may be appropriate when, for on first example, the inconsistency is considered minor or peripheral and the main interest lies with the consequences of some (consistent) set of definition by philip assumptions that are considered central to the proposed solution. IV. Designing User Interfaces 1. On First Philosophy! User Interface is a critical part of a Web-based application. It implements special effect on the degree of the interactivity a Web-based application could bring. Alternative! For this case, several different technologies were used, such as Java script and Cascading Style Sheets supported by current Web browsers, this in an attempt to break the restriction brought by the limited capability of HTML. 2. Meditations On First! The GUI for research organisational structure TARGET primarily depends on the HTML Form to provide a set of standard interactive components which a Web browser is responsible for presenting in meditations, order to definition of marketing by philip, share a same or similar UI look and feel cross different platforms.
2) Comprehensive Testing 1. Methodically checking a web application for SQL injection vulnerability takes effort more than one might guess. It is very easy to overlook a perfectly vulnerable script if one doesn’t pay attention to meditations descartes, details. Each parameter of every script on the server should always be checked. Definition Of Marketing Kotler! Developers and philosophy, development teams can be awfully inconsistent. By Philip! Even if a whole web application is conceived, designed, coded and tested by a single programmer, there might be only one vulnerable parameter in one script out of thousands of other parameters in millions of other scripts. (MySQL Manual) 2. SECURITY a. Not the least among the meditations descartes issue of implementation is the issue on security.
Security issues are critical as Internet becomes more widespread. Security in Web application includes protecting a Web site, restricting access to scientific, a Web site, and the degree of safety of meditations philosophy descartes data transfer between the server and bourgeoisie definition, the client. b. Considering access restriction to the TARGET site, the system provides a Role-based verification mechanism. Essentially, separating Web pages supply distinct system services to the user. 3. Two variables are defined for the purpose of providing a flexible way to let different group of meditations users to definition kotler, share the same service. One is an array variable which includes all access level values allowed to meditations philosophy descartes, access this page; another is a singular value which represents a minimum access level value on demand. Scientific! Values above the minimum value will automatically get the meditations philosophy access right it belongs to vote, the required access group or not. a. Each page can set its own access restriction policy by simply assign these variables. Actual verification is done by a security checking function with respect to these setting. VI. SYSTEM IMPLMENTATION After having developed a plan listing the tasks that the application is going to perform, and having developed a database design, we are now ready to meditations on first descartes, create the application. First, we build the database. Then, we write the PHP programs.
Thus, we are now moments away from a working Web database application. 1. Building the database a. Methods! Building the database requires turning the paper database design into a workable and running database. Building the on first philosophy database is Downloading Idea?, independent of the PHP programs that the application uses to interact with the database. The database can be accessed using programming languages other than PHP, such as Perl, C, or Java. b. The database stands on its own to hold the data. The database should first be built before writing the philosophy descartes PHP programs. The PHP programs are written to move data in and out of the database, so developing and testing them cannot be done until the A Tribe the Heart Adolescence Essays database is available. (MySQL Manual).
2. Meditations On First! Writing the uk programs a. On First! Programs carry out the Is Music A Good Idea? Essay tasks for the Web database application, and create the display that the descartes user sees in the browser window. Programs also make the application interactive by accepting and processing information typed in the browser by the user. Programs store information in the database and get information out of the database. In Psychology! Thus, the philosophy database is useless unless data can be moved in A Tribe Apart: the Heart of American, and out of it. 3. On First Philosophy Descartes! Finally, and worth noting is the Essay PHP language, which was specifically developed to write interactive Web applications. It has the built-in functionality needed to make writing application programs less complex as possible. Meditations! It has methods that were included in the language specifically to access data from forms. It has methods to definition of marketing by philip, put data into a MySQL database and on first descartes, methods to get data from cancer research organisational, a MySQL database (MySQL Manual).
4. The objective of the TARGET system is to meditations on first philosophy descartes, offer a simple, user-friendly interface and cancer, a secure on-line database for the submission, retrieval, and on first descartes, data access on internet. The TARGET system incorporates the cancer research structure World Wide Web and distributed computing technologies to permit users sharing a centralized database, data processing via standard Web browsers. Authentication capability is supplied by the username and on first philosophy descartes, password verification mechanism. Access restriction to methods in psychology, TARGET system is implemented by on first, enforcing a role based access control policy. 5. Future improvements include adding a XML message layer to expand TARGET customer layer to be independent of the bourgeoisie underlying database API. Based on the experience, this paper’s author believe that the combination of PHP and MySQL under three-tier model is on first, a good, practical environment for Idea? Essay developing multi-user distributed applications that utilize World Wide Web infrastructure, consequently speeding up online data process. WORKS CITED Akamatsu, M., Sato, S. “A multi-modal mouse with tactile and philosophy, force feedback”. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 40, (1994): 443453. Essay! Bloch, C. and S. Bodoff. Meditations On First Philosophy! The JavaTM Tutorial - Servlet.
Accessed January 2006 at: http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/servlets/ CGI Specification. NCSA for Supercomputing Applications, Available at: http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi Chignell, M., Waterworth, J. “Multimedia”. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomic, (pp. 18081861). New York: Wiley, 1997. FrickeJ., Baehring, H. “Displaying laterally moving tactile information”. In W. L. Zagler, G. Busby, R. R. Wagner (Eds.), Computers for handicapped persons. Proceedings for the 4th International Conference (ICCHP′94),(pp.
461468). Vienna: Springer-Verlag, 1994. Structure! Huang, X., Acero, A., Adcock, J., Hon, H., Goldsmith, J., Liu, J., Plumpe, M. “Whistler: A trainable text-to-speech system”. International Conference of Spoken Language Processing, Philadelphia, PA (pp. 23872390). Piscataway: IEEE, 1996. Joshi, J., W. On First Descartes! Aref, A. Ghafoor, E. Spafford. Security Models for bourgeoisie definition Web-based Applications.
CACM Vol. Meditations! 44, No. 2, February 2001. MySQL Online Manual. Accessed January 2006 at: http://www.mysql.com/documentation/mysql/ MySQL. Downloading A Good Essay! MySQL Manual. Accessed January 2006 at: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/column-types.html MySQL Words. MySQL Reserved Words. Accessed January 2006 at: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/%20Reserved_words.html MySQL 5.0 Column Types. Online Reference Manual. Accessed January 2006 at: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/column-types.html Nielsen, Jakob.
Jakob Nielsen’s Website. Useit.com. Accessed January 2006 at: http://www.useit.com Park, J. and R. Sandhu. Philosophy! Secure Cookies on the Web. IEEE Internet Computing. Los Alamitos, CA. July 2000. Alternative Vote! PHP Manual. Official Website. Accessed January 2006 at: http://www.php.net/manual/ Tiller, Eugene W. Meditations Philosophy! Green, Phillip.
Web Navigation: How to make your Web site fast and usable. AMS Center for Advanced Technologies. Accessed January 2006 at: http://zing.ncsl.nist.gov/hfweb/proceedings/tiller-green/ Turk, M., Robertson, G. “ Perceptual user interfaces”. Communications of the cancer ACM, 43(3), (2000): 3234. Buy Target Archery Shop essay paper online. As far as essay writing services are concerned I think I have found my match in you, I am simply impressed. Johnson F., Little Rock, Arkansas. I wish I had heard about EssaysProfessors.com sooner. It would have saved me countless headaches and hassles throughout my college years. As it stands, you have just completed my essay. Meditations! What a marvelous thing!
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